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Pressure; Pascal’s Principle

PRESSURE OF A FLUID

air pressure pressure = height of mercury


column

Barometer
Gauge pressure – pressure
above the atmospheric pressure.

absolute (total) pressure =


gauge pressure + atmospheric press.
Pressure is produced by the
weight of the fluid above the
surface.
force weight of fluid
pressure = ------ = ----------------
area area
mg density · volume · g
= ----- = -------------------------
area area
density · (area · height) · g
= --------------------------------
area
pressure = density · height · g
P = ρhg gauge pressure
P = ρhg + P0 absolute pressure

SI units:
2
pressure: N/m = Pascals (Pa)
density: kg/m 3

height (depth): m
Standard atmospheric pressure
760 mm Hg ≈ 30 in Hg
Calculate 1 atm in Pascals
P = ρgh
ρHg = 13.6 x10 3 kg/m3

g = 9.8 N/kg h = 0.760 m


5
P = 1.013 x 10 Pa
Why does a barometer use mercury
and not water?
If p = 1 atmosphere = 1.013 x 10 5 Pa
ρ = 1.00 g/cm3 = 1.00 x 103 kg/m3

Find height.

10.3 m
Pressure of fluid depends on depth.
Pressure does not depend on volume,
only on height (depth).

“Water seeks its own level”


More pressure at greater depth
Measure blood pressure at upper arm
same height as heart
Pascal’s Principle – The pressure
in an enclosed fluid is constant
throughout the fluid.

p1 = p2
F1 F2
--- = ---
A1 A2
1N ?

A = 1 cm2 A = 50 cm2

p1 = p2
1N F2 50 N
------- = ------
1 cm 2 50 cm 2
If piston on left moves 10 cm,
what distance does piston on right
move?

work1 = work2
F1 d1 = F2 d2
(1) (10) = (50) d2
0.2 cm
Hydraulic lift
Area of brake cylinder > area of brake line
force of brake cylinder > force of brake pedal
hydrostatic pressure