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# Pressure; Pascal’s Principle

PRESSURE OF A FLUID

## air pressure pressure = height of mercury

column

Barometer
Gauge pressure – pressure
above the atmospheric pressure.

## absolute (total) pressure =

gauge pressure + atmospheric press.
Pressure is produced by the
weight of the fluid above the
surface.
force weight of fluid
pressure = ------ = ----------------
area area
mg density · volume · g
= ----- = -------------------------
area area
density · (area · height) · g
= --------------------------------
area
pressure = density · height · g
P = ρhg gauge pressure
P = ρhg + P0 absolute pressure

SI units:
2
pressure: N/m = Pascals (Pa)
density: kg/m 3

height (depth): m
Standard atmospheric pressure
760 mm Hg ≈ 30 in Hg
Calculate 1 atm in Pascals
P = ρgh
ρHg = 13.6 x10 3 kg/m3

## g = 9.8 N/kg h = 0.760 m

5
P = 1.013 x 10 Pa
Why does a barometer use mercury
and not water?
If p = 1 atmosphere = 1.013 x 10 5 Pa
ρ = 1.00 g/cm3 = 1.00 x 103 kg/m3

Find height.

10.3 m
Pressure of fluid depends on depth.
Pressure does not depend on volume,
only on height (depth).

## “Water seeks its own level”

More pressure at greater depth
Measure blood pressure at upper arm
same height as heart
Pascal’s Principle – The pressure
in an enclosed fluid is constant
throughout the fluid.

p1 = p2
F1 F2
--- = ---
A1 A2
1N ?

A = 1 cm2 A = 50 cm2

p1 = p2
1N F2 50 N
------- = ------
1 cm 2 50 cm 2
If piston on left moves 10 cm,
what distance does piston on right
move?

work1 = work2
F1 d1 = F2 d2
(1) (10) = (50) d2
0.2 cm
Hydraulic lift
Area of brake cylinder > area of brake line
force of brake cylinder > force of brake pedal
hydrostatic pressure