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JOSE ELMER OFICIAR, Ph.

D
WHAT IS QUALITATIVE?
Qualitative research begins with an assumption, a
worldview, the possible use of a theoretical lens, and the study
of research problems inquiring into the meaning individuals or
groups ascribe to a social or human problem.

“Qualitative research is a situated activity that locates the


observer in the world.”
CHARACTERISTICS OF A QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
• Nature Setting- qualitative researchers tend to collect data in the field at the site where
participants’ experience the issue or problem under study.

• Researcher as Key Instrument- qualitative researchers collect data through themselves


through examining documents, observing behavior, and interviewing participants.

• Multiple Sources of Data- researchers typically gather multiple forms of data, such as
interviews, observations, and documents, rather than rely on a single data source.

• Inductive Data Analysis- researchers build their patterns, involves researchers working back
and forth between the themes and the database until they establish a comprehensive set of
themes.
• Participant's Meanings- researchers keep a focus on learning the meaning that the
participants hold about the problem or issue, not the meaning that the researchers bring to
the research or writers from the literatures.

• Emergent Design- means that the initial plan for research cannot be tightly prescribed, and
that all phases of the process may change or shift.

• Theoretical Lens- researchers often use lens to view their studies, such as the concept of
culture. Sometimes, the study may be organized around identifying the social, political, or
historical context of the problem under study.

• Interpretive Inquiry- a form of inquiry in which researchers make an interpretation of what


they see, hear, and understand.

• Holistic Account- this involves reporting multiple perspectives, identifying the many factors
involved in a situation, and generally sketching the larger picture that emerges.
QUALITATIVE STUDY APPROACHES
• Biographical Narrative- Exploring the life of an individual
• Phenomenology- Understanding the essence of the experience
• Grounded Theory- Developing a theory grounded in data from the
field
• Ethnography- Describing and interpreting a culture-sharing group
• Case Study- Developing an in-depth description and analysis of a
case or multiple cases
CONTENTS
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
Purpose of the Study

Research Question

Theoretical Lens

Significance of the Study

Definition of Terms

Limitations and Delimitations

Organization of the Study

Chapter 2 RELATED LITERATURE


Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY

Research Design
Role of the Researcher
Research Participants
Data Collection
Data Analysis

Trustworthiness

Ethical Consideration

Chapter 4 RESULTS

Chapter 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

Implication for Practice

Implication for Further Research

Concluding Remarks
REFERENCES
APPENDICES
CHAPTER 1

Introduction
RATIONALE
• Should be two to three pages
• Discussing problems and researches done by various authorities
around the world related to the present study .
• The last paragraph should also contain the “Research Gap” – a
personal statement that would signify that the research has not
come across any study dealing with the present research topic.
“The researcher (I,We) has/have not come across a study that
specifically discuss the _________________. Furthermore, this
study will provide relevant concepts that would possibly
create_____________ in the academic community.”
SAMPLE
There are various factors that cause the increasing number of non- readers in the
Philippines most specifically in public schools. Few to mention are the less attention of
parent involvement in child’s learning, intense poverty, lack of funds for learning facilities
and materials, inappropriate teaching techniques employed by teachers, uneven teacher-
pupil ratio inside the classroom, and the students who are not prepared to learn (Eballe,
2012). To some point of view, these problems are also the basic and common problems that
the teachers in far-flung schools of Banaybanay District in elementary level might be
experiencing. And these problems were talked daily by the teachers exchanging their ideas
and opinions. As such, these teachers “carry out” problems on non-readers, “breathe”
problems on non-readers, and “speak” about problems on non-readers every day.
Past studies mentioned mainly on reading interventions, causes of non-readers
and how to diagnose non-readers. However, I have not come across any study that looked
into the social meanings that the teachers teaching non- readers in remote schools have
constructed themselves and this kind of understandings have become part of their daily life.
I am interested how these groups of teachers socially understand handling non-readers
using a social representations approach.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
• Identify the approach applied in qualitative research
• Phenomenology
• Ethnographic
• Case Study
• Biographical Narrative
• Grounded Theory
• Establish the purpose why the study should be conducted
• Present the Informants and Participants
• A paragraph should contain a personal account on how the study
will benefit the discipline
SAMPLE (PURPOSE OF THE STUDY)
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to capture the socially elaborated knowledge of the
teachers handling non- readers in remote schools of Banaybanay District in elementary level. It also aimed to find out
the processes through which these shared knowledge were created.
At this stage in the research, handling non- readers in remote schools is a social issue and a
phenomenon that actually exists in the field of education. Teachers handling these non- readers encountered many
experiences that sometimes put them into risks, threatens them, or making them unhappy and ineffective. With these
daily undertakings, they may create a common knowledge through their communication, allowing them to come up
with different themes. These themes will become part of their daily lives thus; they socially elaborate these themes in
their conversations.
This phenomenological study would add to the growing body of knowledge about the usefulness of the
theory of Social Representation in investigating social issues such as of handling non-readers in far-flung schools.
Through this study, I would be able to acquire salient information that would help us understand how human beings
create meanings about a social phenomenon such as handling non-readers in far-flung schools. It also aims to
capture the unheard voices of teachers handling non-readers in remote schools; and how these teachers cope with
the common problems they encountered in helping the non-readers to read at the end of the school year. It also
seeks future directions for teachers how to facilitate learning inside the classroom with non- readers even if they put
themselves into risks or hardships.
This study also visualizes documenting the different experiences of the ten teachers in in-depth
interviews and seven teachers in the focus group discussion both the positive and negative one from their own
workplaces, the remote schools of Banaybanay District, Division of Mati City. Moreover, the intent of this study is to
seek, listen, and understand the unheard stories of the participants as they willingly share their experiences during
the interview. In addition, this study aims to gain additional knowledge in the field of research concerning teachers
handling non-readers in far-flung schools.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
• General questions
• What and How questions….
• Minimum of Two maximum of Three

1. What are the experiences of students engaged in child labor?


2. How did students cope with the situation of being engaged in
child labor?
3. What are the insights of students engaged in child labor?
THEORETICAL LENS
• Theory, Proposition, Concept, Result of a Study….that served as
the basis in conducting the qualitative study.
• Note: it is only a working theory, this may change as results of the
study will come in and deviates with the course of the research
• Give your justification why the theory was chosen
• Should be two to three pages
• The older the year the better…
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
• Two paragraphs only!

• The first Paragraph should contain an introductory statement on


“how relevant is the study to the discipline”

• It should be personalized

• Second paragraph will contain Macro to micro presentation of the


beneficiaries
SAMPLE (SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY)
I am confident that this phenomenological study would add to the
importance and significance of educating nonreaders especially in far-flung schools.
It is through this study that I was able to obtain information about the teachers’ daily
communications in handling nonreaders, their emotions, hardships, achievements,
dedication and commitment, as well as the different problems they met while
teaching non-readers and to how they cope with these unfavorable experiences.
Moreover, this knowledge would be helpful in attaining the quality
education goal by the Department of Education. Thus, this study is a premeditated
and strategic way of promoting quality education in our country. It is not only that the
non- readers who will be benefitted in this study. Moreover, to the teachers in
general who willingly share their experiences in handling non- readers; on the sense
that they can pour their deepest and sincerest sentiments in teaching non-readers.
In such a way, these experiences might be a significant factor of having a paradigm
shift in the aspect of achieving quality education. Lastly, this study would somehow
assist other researchers in the future who are interested to conduct a study related
to teaching non-readers in far-flung schools. It will lend them a hand on identifying
areas of teaching non-readers in public schools that needs further study and
investigation.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
• Define the important terms used in the study
• Base the terms on the title
• Operational definition is preferred, but a combination of conceptual
and operational definition can be done
• May be one to two pages
SAMPLE (DEFINITION OF TERMS)
Non- readers. These are pupils who cannot read any printed material and they
belong to frustrated reading level. These are schoolchildren with inability to read properly.
They have the behavior of withdrawing from reading situations (Luz, 2007).
Far-flung schools. These are schools at a considerable distance or largely in
space or time. These are remote schools as to what extent they can be reached by any
means of transportation.
Social representation. As a product, it is the shared knowledge about a
phenomenon that is co- constructed by the members of a social group. It is also defined as
“common sense knowledge” or “lay knowledge” (Jodelet, 1991). It is an organized and
structured whole of information, beliefs, opinions, and attitudes. It is conceived as a cognitive
and a social process constructed from everyday experience and communications (Abric,
1993). As a process, it is a means of communication created and elaborated by a group about
a social object (Moscovici, 1993).
Objectification- transforming what is abstract into something that is concrete
(Abric, 1993) by using icon, metaphor or trope that will represent the new phenomenon
(Wagner, et al., 1999).
DELIMITATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
• Half of the Page
• Identify the setting of the Study
• Establish why the study is limited to a certain point
• Discuss the perceived weakness of the study
• Establish that the data to be gathered doesn’t represent the
general view (Generalizability)
SAMPLE (DELIMITATIONS AND LIMITATIONS)
This multiple case study is delimited and aimed only at exploring the
experiences of psychologically distressed public secondary school teachers,
their coping strategies, and insights they can share to their peers and to the
academe in general. I selected five teacher-participants who are all female, and
teaching in big schools in the province of Davao del Norte of Davao region,
Philippines. Moreover, this qualitative research inquiry was conducted from
November 2015 to March 2016.
However, I acknowledge the weaknesses which may not allow this
research to achieve the expected generalizability of this study. Due to the small
sample who participated in the study, results may not be generalized and cannot
adequately support claims of having achieved valid conclusions. In addition, I
cannot guarantee the perfect recollection of all the experiences of the
participants due to the fact that the real stories shared are past events and are
subject for human error in terms of memory.
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
• An overview of the contents of each chapter

• Chapter 1
• Chapter 2
• Chapter 3
• Chapter 4
• Chapter 5
SAMPLE
Chapter 1 presents the very nature of gay lingo that is unique in the Philippines and particularly in
schools in Tagum City. It also presents the factor of gay lingo conversations. It is here were some simple
questions on its origin was answered and will be the basis for a more elaborate discussion in the outcome of the
qualitative research. Moreover, bringing about all these essential facts on gay lingo would give way to why such
study is necessary.

Chapter 2 discusses varied studies and readings on gay lingo, sexuality, factors of gender, sexuality
indexing and the findings of other related studies specifically on how indexing contributes on the linguistic
features of gay lingo.

Chapter 3 deals with the design of the study, the role of the researcher and the participants involved.
Data Collection and analysis is included. Trustworthiness and Credibility of the study is explained together with
its ethical consideration.

Chapter 4 discusses the results of the study based from research questions conducted to the
participants, which would shed light on reasons underlying the phenomenological aspects of views. These are
the views gathered from the participants involved.

Chapter 5 shows the basis of findings and its divergence of the theories presented by sociolinguistic
authors. It also discusses the explanation of its implication in the practice, sociolinguistics and further research
to be conducted together with its concluding remarks.
CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
• Cluster the readings base on the important keywords and concepts of the
study
• Should be five years back
• Paraphrase the readings presented
• Use transition markers
• Avoid one sentence paragraphs
• Avoid Inset citation “….Robins (2013)…” should be at the last part of the
paragraph “…(Robins, 2013).”
• Use inventory “….(Chakraborty and Daz, 2005; Doepke, 2006; Lopez-Calva,
2001; Zimmerman, 2007)..” Note: should be alphabetical
• Provide synthesis
SAMPLE (RRL)
Distress as a personal experience by any individual needs to be
understood better and clearer by studying very closely its origin and the theories
that formed the phenomenon because oftentimes, it is used interchangeably with
stress without difference. Psychological distress is a cognitive, emotional, and
behavioral response to a severe form of stressor (also called chronic stress)
characterized by extreme anxiety, anger, sorrow, pain, unhappiness and
suffering that affects the mind, emotion and the physical body including the level
of functioning (Maier & Watskin, 2010; Moberg, 2011; Montgomery & McCrone,
2010; Potter, 2012).
On the other hand, distress can be used to describe a state in which
an organism, has difficulty to adapt to one or more stressors, and is no longer
coping with its environment, where its well-being is compromised. It is widely
used term to describe unpleasant feelings or emotions that impact the level of
functioning and it is a subjective experience. That is, the severity of
psychological distress is dependent upon the situation and how we perceive it.
In addition, it is the difficulty or even the inability to cope with stressful condition
that is both painful physically and mentally (Anderson, 2011).
SAMPLE (SYNTHESIS)
The above-mentioned articles discuss the provisions of the
government in its program to reduce the risk of drop-out if not, to eliminate
the problem. It also presents readings on the relevance of the topics
concerning drop-outs since they have become the bases of the researcher in
the formulation of the support to the problem presented, conclusions and
recommendations. The readings also elaborated the importance of the
programs initiated by the school in order reduce the drop-out rate of the
enrolment. This, has become the springboard in the formulation of the
enhancement program.
CHAPTER 3

Methodology
RESEARCH DESIGN
• Identify the Approach applied in qualitative research
• Phenomenology
• Ethnographic
• Case Study
• Biographical Narrative
• Grounded Theory
• Should be with authors (preferably the works of Creswell)
• Give justification why the approach was used
• Three pages minimum
SAMPLE (RESEARCH DESIGN)
In order to have a better understanding and in-depth analysis of the
distressful experiences, coping strategies and insights of the teacher-
informants, I utilize a multiple case study research. Case study research is a
qualitative approach in which the investigator explores a real-life, either single
case or multiple cases over time, through detailed, in-depth data collection
involving multiple sources of information such as interviews, observations, audio-
visual material, documents, and reports, and generate a case description and
case themes (Creswell, 2013).
This phenomenological study described the lived experiences (Creswell,
2009) of teachers handling non- readers in remote schools. It focused into what
common experiences the participants had encountered in teaching non-readers,
the phenomenon under investigation. I used phenomenology because a group of
individuals such as teachers from far- flung schools personally experienced the
same phenomenon which is handling non- readers. They were able to explore
such single idea (Creswell, 2012) about teaching non- readers into more
composite descriptions based on “what and how” they experienced the
phenomenon (Moustakas, 1994; Creswell, 2012).
ROLE OF THE RESEARCHER
• Establish the roles played in the research
• Give statements with authority
• Should be personalized
• One page
SAMPLE (ROLE OF THE RESEARCHER)
The role of the researcher in qualitative research is an important matter to be considered in the
successful pursuit of investigation of any social phenomena. In this study, I am highly inclined and qualified to pursue
this investigation because I am also a teacher by profession, and has encountered distressful experience, pain, and
frustration when I was not promoted, despite of my best qualifications, of which I can also relate the feelings of my
informants. Besides, I possess some abilities and aptitude in writing, keen observation, great interest in psychology,
and deep concern to help my fellow mentors to also overcome distress and maintain a healthy living for good.
Although, I have some biases, especially that I can feel what my subjects are feeling, but I see to it that theories and
related studies are respected and considered.
With regards to my basic roles, I followed the principles which states that qualitative inquiry is for the
researchers who are willing to commit extensive time to collect data, engage in data analysis, does reflexivity, and
write long passages by themselves. Hence, I played many roles as a researcher such as interviewer, transcriber,
translator, analyst, and encoder. As an interviewer, I established first rapport and friendship with my participant. I
called all the informants through the help of my gatekeepers for some introductions, and asked them if they are
willing to participate in my study. As an interviewer, I used personal emphaty to make the participants feel more
willing to tell their stories. During the interview and observation, I applied some techniques like: asking probing
questions, then listening and thinking, then asking more probing question to get to deeper levels of the conversation.
As a transcriber and encoder, I transcribed all the recorded interviews, and translated correctly and organized them
into a standard English statements. Lastly, as an analyst, I employed suitable analysis methods and procedures fitted
for a qualitative research, such as thematic analysis, numeration, and cross- case analysis. Based on the concepts of
Corbin and Strauss, it is the duty of the researcher to interprete the meaning of hidden in data because he is a
primary instrument for data collection and analysis (Creswell, 2013; Corbin & Strauss, 2014; Miller, et al., 2012).
RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS
• Identify the informants and participants of the study
• Give supporting statements with author
• Informants are for in-depth interview while participants are for
focus group discussion
• Purp osive sampling will be used as technique to get the sample
• Establish the inclusion and exclusion criteria
• One page
• Biographical Narrative- One Unique Story
• Phenomenology- 10 to 25 participants/informants
• Grounded Theory- 20-60 participants/informants
• Ethnography- 20-60 participants/informants
• Case Study- 1 to 5 cases

(Creswell, 2013)
SAMPLE (RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS)
This section describes the participants and stipulates the criteria for selection and number of
participants, type of sampling, and the recruitment strategy. One of the most important tasks in the study
design phase is to identify appropriate participants because informants are the very people who can best
provide information on their lived experiences, culture, awareness, knowledge, and expertise regarding the
phenomenon under inquiry. Decision about selection was based on the research questions and theoretical
perspectives. Moreover, my informants were chosen through purposive sampling technique. Creswell
explains, purposive sampling considers a particular group of people or when the desired population for the
study is rare or very difficult to locate, it may be the only option (Creswell, 2007; Creswell, 2013; Lingard,
Albert & Levinson, 2008).
I followed some criteria for selection of participants like the type or nature of the phenomenon,
suitable characteristics of the subjects, and theoretical perspective. The informants of this study are five public
secondary female teachers, teaching more than 15 years in big schools in Davao del Norte division of Davao
Region, Philippines, and who had undergone distressful experiences in school and personal life, but were able
to cope successfully. I intentionally preferred female teachers because women are reported as more
emotional, have higher levels of negative affect and depression, and have more intense experience of
emotions and expressiveness than men. Moreover, I chose five informants because this number of cases is
ideal for a multiple case study, and already sufficient to provide information with regards to the opportunity to
identify and generate the themes of the cases, as well as for the cross-case analysis. It is recommended that
in case study research, it should not be more than four or five cases in a single study. Moreover, it has been
emphasized that excessive number of cases will just dilute the level of details that a researcher can provide
(Creswell, 2013; Denzin, et al., 2008; Larsen & Diener, 1987; Wolcott, 2008).
DATA COLLECTION
• Personalized the discussion for the data collection
• Use authors to support some statements
• Identify the steps done using transition markers
(first…then…and…second…third…finally)
• Establish the statement how “Triangulation of data” was done
• One and a half page
SAMPLE (DATA COLLECTION)
The following steps were employed in gathering the data:

First, through purposive sampling technique, the participants were identified. They

were requested to sign a consent form and agree to the condition stipulated that their participation

is voluntary and that they were willing to impart their knowledge as needed in the study.

Second, the participants were given an orientation about the study and were asked to

participate through a focus group interview as a means of data collection. The process started

with an introductory phase, in which the moderator welcomes the participants, outlines the

purpose of the discussion and sets the parameters of the interview in terms of length and

confidentiality. Researcher also spent some time explaining why they recorded the interview and

what sort of technical issues this raises in a group discussion (particularly talking one at a time).

Finally, it is important to emphasize that the discussion is about personal views and experiences

and therefore there are no right or wrong answers (Dornyei, 2007).


DATA ANALYSIS
• Personalized the discussion for the data analysis
• Use authors to support some statements
• Identify the steps done using transition markers
(first…then…and…second…third…finally)
• highlight how transcribing was done
• One and a half page
SAMPLE (DATA ANALYSIS)
The answer of the participants were analyzed using thematic analysis. Thematic
analysis is a method of analyzing and reporting pattern or themes with a data (Boyatzis,
1998; Roulston, 2001). Using thematic analysis on this study is very helpful because it is
flexible and a useful research tool that can probably grant a substantial, complex, and rich
account of the data. As suggested by Boyatzis (1998), I performed the following steps in
analyzing the data as to mention: familiarize data, generate initial codes, search for themes,
review the themes, define and name themes, and construct the report.
Data reduction was used in analyzing the data, which means deleting
unnecessary data and modifying them into a useful material for the study so that many
readers can easily understand it (Namey et al, 2007; Atkinsol and Delamont, 2006; Suter,
2012). In this method, I asked the help of an expert, a data analyst particularly in handling,
sorting, and organizing voluminous qualitative data for me to merge, manage, sort, and
categorize data in easier way.
TRUSTWORTHINESS
• Personalize discussion
• Divide sections of discussion using the four elements
• Credibility
• Dependability
• Conformability
• Transferability
• After discussing how each element was addressed (personalized statements) cite authors
to support the claim
SAMPLE (TRUSTWORTHINESS)
When I conducted the qualitative research, I put into account the responses of my
informants. I also meticulously consider all the details of the data. I checked and rechecked all the
transcriptions and the importance of the data that relate to each other on their themes.

To establish trustworthiness and credibility in the study, Creswell and Miller (2000)
suggested the choice of legitimacy of the procedures. The discussions about trustworthiness are
governed by the research lens and its paradigm assumptions that can help the procedures in the
study. I contend that in this study, the plausibility was determined by the response of the informants.
Silverman (2007) posed the questions on “Does it matter?” and “How is the credibility be sustained
and recognized?”

Credibility is an evaluation of whether or not the research findings represent a “credible”


conceptual interpretation of the data drawn from the participants’ original data according to Lincoln
& Guba (1985). To address credibility, I used three techniques. First, I presented the credibility of
the experiences as an intent of truthfully illustrating and knowing the facts which are phenomenon
in which my participants are included. Second, in designing the research procedure, I conducted a
focus group discussion which extracted ideas on the evolution of gay lingo in schools and also its
process and systems how it is being used. Third, I deliberately asked the informants to lists gay
words they used during conversations and compared them with the gay words used in the
simulation. My intention here was to create layers of data from each participant.
Transferability is the degree to which the findings of this inquiry can apply or
transfer beyond the bounds of the project according to Lincoln & Guba, (1985). To
address transferability in this study, I have included in the Appendix about several
of the data analysis documents used to give answer to the research question in
order to gain access to the possible inquiry. This will give other researchers the
facility to transfer the conclusions or recommendation as bases for further study.

Dependability is an assessment of the quality of the integrated processes of


data collection, data analysis, and phenomenal explanation. Confirmability is a
measure of how well the inquiry’s findings are supported by the data collected
according to Lincoln & Guba (1985) To address the issues of dependability and
confirmability in this study, I banked on an audit trail of the participants responses
wherein their identity were treated with confidentially. After the video and audion
tape was transcribed, the text were given back to the respondents for authentication
and were asked to sign a verification form. For confirmability, I asked the audit of a
competent peer who is a language teacher and a Master in Applied Linguistics in
Australia. After the completion of my data analysis, the results in Chapter Four, and
the discussions in Chapter Five, my auditor had assessed carefully my audit trail
with original transcripts from the interview, data analysis documents. The auditor
had assessed the dependability and confirmability of the study by signing the
verification letter.
ETHICAL CONSIDERATION
• Personalized statements with authors to support in
addressing ethical consideration in the conduct of the
research
• Establish the use of the “Informed Consent”
• Discuss the how “Confidentiality” was addressed
• Emphasize how benefits outweigh the risks
SAMPLE (ETHICAL CONSIDERATION)
The main concerns of my study were individuals who are custody on the code of
ethics, they are teachers and in general, they are professionals. Therefore, I have to ensure
their safety, give full protection so that they will not lose their trust to me. I followed ethical
standards in conducting this study as pointed by (Boyatzis, 1998; Mack et al, 2005), these
are the following: respect for persons, beneficence, justice, consent and confidentiality.
Respect for persons needs an obligation of the researcher not to exploit the
weaknesses of the research participants. Self-sufficiency was avoided in order to maintain
friendship, trust, and confidence among the participants and the researcher. Before hand, I
asked permission from the Schools Division Superintendent in elementary where data
collection belongs to. Next, I also sought permission from the different school heads of the
research participants before conducting the research (Creswell, 2012). This was done to pay
respect for the individuals concerned in the study.
Consent is another most important way of showing respect to persons during
research (Creswell, 2012). This is to let all participants became aware on the purpose and
objectives of the research study that they are going to involve. Written consent was provided
for them to get their approval. After getting their nod, they have actively participated the in-
depth interviews and focus group discussions. Of course, they were informed on the results
and findings of the study.
SAMPLE (ETHICAL CONSIDERATION)
Beneficence requires a commitment of minimizing risks to the research participants rather
maximizing the profits that are due to them. Anonymity of the interviewee was kept in order not to put
each participant into risks. At all times, participants were protected, so every files of information were
not left unattended or unprotected (Bricki and Green, 2007).
Confidentiality towards the results and findings including the safeguard of the participants,
coding system were used. Meaning, the participants’ identities were hidden (Maree and Van Der
Westhuizen, 2007). As recommended by Maree and Van Der Westhuizen (2007), all materials including
videotapes, encoded transcripts, notes, and others should be destroyed after the data were being
analyzed. Some of the informants were hesitant to be interviewed at first because they were afraid what
to say but because of my reassurance to them in regards to the confidentiality of their responses, they
later gave me the chance and showed comfort in answering the interview questions. I was extra careful
with my questions and due respect was given importance to this study.
Justice requires a reasonable allocation of the risks and benefits as results of the research.
It is very important to acknowledge the contributions of all the participants as they generally part of the
success of the research. They must be given due credits in all their endeavors (Bloom and Crabtree,
2006). They were not able to spend any amount during the interview. Sensible tokens were given to
them as a sign of recognition to their efforts on the study. I am hoping that through this study, they will
be set free into whatever negative experiences they had as they teach non-readers and maintain a good
name into what positive contributions they could offer in this study.
CHAPTER 4

Results
RESULTS
• Present the results base on the arrangements of the research questions.
• First part, preliminary discussions on how the data was gathered, the sample
of the study, process
• Discuss the Categorization of Data
• Present results by themes
• Provide sample quotations of the theme with the file name
• Note: Purely presentation of results no discussion
• Should be comprehensive
• Provide Table for themes generated
SAMPLE (RESULTS) OPENING STATEMENT
This chapter is segregated into four parts. The first part is all about the data of the participants from
which the qualitative data were assembled. The second part discusses the data analysis dealings and the steps in the
classifications of the emergent themes collected from the in- depth interviews and focus group discussion of the
participants. The third part deals with the answers to the in- depth interviews and the focus group discussion
questions under each research problem. Lastly, part four includes the outline of responses from the different
informants.
Participants
Key informants. There were ten key informants in this study, all of them were women who are all
teaching public elementary non- readers in far- flung schools of Mati City Division. They have different teaching
experiences of which six months are the youngest while nineteen years is the oldest in the service. They were
selected based on the location of the school where they are assigned. These schools are said to be far- flung, far
away from the central office, mountainous, and the means of transportation is at- risk. The social experiences of
these informants being assigned in far- flung schools would be a lens in resolving issues and concerns about
teaching non- readers. The participants were given pseudonyms in order to preserve confidentiality and privacy as
presented in Table 1.
Focus Group. A focus group discussion was conducted with seven participants, all of them were female
teachers handling non- readers. All of them were from the same school but most of them were living in the Poblacion
commuting everyday back and forth. The teaching experiences of these participants in the focus group discusion
ranged from one year to nineteen years. The discussion was conducted to achieve more insights and to develop
social constructions among the participants on the issue of handling non- readers in a far- flung school. The original
names of the participants were not mentioned vividly instead, pseudonyms were used to make their identity obscure.
They were presented on Table 1 according to their number.
SAMPLE (RESULTS)
Categorization of Data
Upon accomplishing the in- depth interviews and the focus group discussion, data
from the audio- tape recordings were directly transcribed and for those answers in
vernacular were carefully translated into English. Following the steps suggested by Boyatzis
(1998), I first watched the videos and listened cautiously to the sound recordings. This was
to transform the data into texts and so that it would be easier for me to code my data later.
Three steps were being taken during the data analysis that consists of data reduction, data
display, drawing conclusion and verification. These were done in order to identify core and
essential themes about the phenomenon under investigation (Burns and Grove, 2007).
To delete unnecessary data from the transcription, data reduction was employed
to convert those data into essential and logical material, simply understood by many
(Moustakas, 1994; Creswell, 2012). Thematic analysis was the approach used in pairing and
separating data, a way of sorting and categorizing. Through data reduction, the lengthy and
large volumes of qualitative data gathered came out consolidated and manageable, easier
to control and understood. I also asked for assistance from a professional who was expert
on analyzing data.
SAMPLE (RESULTS)
Sex Talk. The reasons why gays use gay lingo would identify not only the

evolution of gay lingo in schools but also the frequency of its influence. Its influence and

addictive qualities made a mark not only among the gay community but also in pop culture.

Gays use gay lingo to have a sense of confidentiality when they discuss topics about sex.

The informants mentioned that:

Gay 1: Yes…we talk about people…or when we talk about


sex…hahahah
Gay 5: Specially that…
Gay 6: Agree….binayot jud na…(FGD4)
Gay 1: To make it confidential…
Interviewer: To make it confidential…What was the thing that make it
confidential?
Gay 1: Kanang kuan…sex affair…kanang all about boys…yeah
Interviewer: Sex?
Gay 4: Most of the time…(FGD1)
SAMPLE TABLE
CHAPTER 5

Discussion and Conclusion


DISCUSSIONS OF THE RESULTS

• First Paragraph should contain scope of the study and general


objective of the study
• Second paragraph should contain justification of the qualitative
design used with reference to authors
• Personal statements
• Present discussion based on the declarative form of the
research questions.
• Discussions should be supported with authors
• Themes generated should be highlighted within the discussion
SAMPLE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH
This chapter deals with the discussions and conclusion of the major themes and analysis, which were

drawn from the research questions.


This phenomenological study was able to capture the social meanings of the participants on handling
non- readers from far- flung public elementary schools. Phenomological study is very much concern on the human
perception of events or phenomena created from the concrete proceedings in the real world (Creswell, 2007). These
concrete proceedings are given “breath” based from the experiences of the participants involved in this study through
lengthy discussions for phenomological study describes the common meaning of the “lived experiences” for several
individuals about a concept or phenomenon (Creswell, 2012)
This study supports the theory of social representation concerning its potency in understanding human
beings’ meaning- making. Using the theory as a lens also helps give a clearer picture of the understanding of various
groups about a social phenomenon. The results have added to the growing knowledge concerning the value of
handling non- readers in far- flung schools. Knowing how those teachers handling non- readers in their day- to- day
activities socially understand the framework is a valuable feedback to the Department of Education.
Phenomenological qualitative approach is perfect in explaining sensitive issues such as handling non-
readers in public elementary classes from far- flung scools. Bracketing is taken into consideration to look into the
things to discover (Ariola, 2006). It is in this structure of situation that 17 participants, 10 from the in - depth interviews
and seven for the focus group discussion were asked to contribute and share their experiences with handling non -
readers, as well as their insights and views to what had happened to them. All of them are currently teaching from
the far- flung schools of Banaybanay District, Mati City Division. The participants are teachers handling non- readers
in different grade levels in the elementary.
SAMPLE DISCUSSION WITH THEMES
Experiences of Psychologically Distressed Public Secondary School Teachers. The
strongest theme in the first research question pointed by all informants, which means that students’
misbehavior is the most common cause of teachers-participants distress. Based on this study, it is
displayed through the different acts of students such as: being hooked in computer games, cellphones,
and other gadgets; bullying; too much noisy inside the classroom; not cleaning the room; chatting while
teacher is explaining; never listening or paying attention to teacher’s discussion; fighting back the
teacher; and always late or absent from the class. This is supported by the several studies, that
students’ misbehavior are disturbing behaviors in the classroom are intolerable; stress provoking; and
maintaining discipline in the classroom is a main source of teacher’s stress. It is also called discipline
problem or misconduct, which refers to externalizing behaviors that violate rules and regulations, disturb
the classroom order, and disrupt teaching and learning process (Johnson & Fullwood, 2006; Kyriacou,
2001; Vazsonyi & Huang, 2010).
Students’ misbehavior causes psychological distress among teachers because upon
engagement, they pass the states of frustration and anger towards their students. Based on Sternberg’s
theory of anger, that it is feeling mad in response to frustration which is also the feeling we get when we
do not get what we expect, and these negative feelings are quick conditioned responses which our brain
does not check for accuracy (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2008; Halperin, et al., 2011).
IMPLICATIONS
• Discuss how the study would benefit the discipline
• It should be based on the following elements:

• Implication for Practice


• Implication for Future Researchaccouhould be
discussed
SAMPLE
Implications in Language Teaching

The result of the analyses in the linguistic features (phonology, morphology, semantics and

syntax) could be used for teaching on the influence of language in social context. It could also be

helpful in explaining how subgroups in society could develop their own language to communicate

with each other. This will also be helpful on explaining how language is affected by situations and

how words could be associated to form new words.

The results would also concretize the structure of gay lingo. This will also motivate other

learning institutions in the country to study the gay lingo that developed in their locality. They could

use the classifications made on each linguistic feature as reference in conducting their own study.
SAMPLE
Implication for Future Research

The result in the focus group discussion gave an overview on how gay lingo evolves in the academic

community. Its evolution was traced back on the stream of influence it has to the community where it is

being used. Gay lingo defines being gay. It gives a sense of identity for a homosexual who longs for respect

from a society where he belongs. The evolution of gay lingo is much deeper and should be given credit by

conducting further studies.

A larger community as the setting for further research would be relevant to give wider perspective as

to how it evolves in the society. The informants could be upgraded to gays belonging to the working class.

Finding out the difference of how gays used gay lingo from those who were working in salons,

establishments, companies and high esteemed professions. It would also be beneficial to find out how gays

are treated in communities to find whether this affected on their usage of gay lingo. Another study could be

attributed on the linguistic features of gay lingo in different areas whether they are distinctive or similar.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
• Final Statement
• Personalized
• Discuss the experience as you conducted the research
Concluding Remarks

When I first conceptualized my qualitative research, I hesitated. I


contemplated that this research would raise controversy and would do me harm
than good. I originally considered of having a simple dissertation title so that I
could finish early. I spent countless hours and sleepless nights just to come up
with a simple title for my dissertation. But a segment in a television show made
me change my perception. The segment featured gays, their lives, their passion
for beauty pageants and their sparkling personalities. I was not actually satisfied
watching the segment. I felt sad that the only topic they could discuss is on how
desperate gays wanted to be like women.
Beyond every feminine dress they wear, beyond every makeup they put on,
beyond every sway of the hips when they walk is an incredible story. A story that
was screaming so loud in a voiceless tone. A story that breaks boundaries yet no
one cared to pay attention. This story can be told on their own tongue, on their
own words, and on their own language. And this e story is what I want to share in
my study. I felt so passionate in doing this scholarly work. It became my calling.
In sociolinguistics, language is culture and I could say that gay lingo is
definitely gay culture which is unique and distinctive. Gay lingo has always been
an expression of a gay’s blissful feelings, erotic emotions, and even his poignant
defeat. It is a specialize language that truly defined a gays culture: A culture full of
color and life.
DOCUMENTS NEEDED
• Permission to Conduct the Study
• Letter to the Participants of the Study
• Informed Consent/ Consent Form
• Interview Guide (IDI and FGD)
• Participants’ Verification Certificate/Form
• Archival Log
• Archival Data Sheet
• Note Taker Form and Field Note
MAKING THE TITLE
Be Creative….

Sample Titles:
Morpho-Semantic Analysis of Gay Lingo: A PHENOMENOLOGY

“I Am Not Afraid”: A phenomenological Study on Krashen’s Affective Filter Hypothesis

Broken But Not Shattered: Voices of Single Mothers

“I Want To be Heard”: A Phenomenological Study on Rights of Gays


DATA ANALYSIS
Researchers’ Task
• Group the transcribed data per Research Questions
• Group the similar quotations (statements) taken from the interview
• Use an envelop to keep the similar quotations per research question
Note: Always keep a file of the data collected (soft and hard copy), should be in a filer

Data Analyst’s Task


• Interpret the quotations grouped in the envelop per research questions
• Interview the researchers on the process of the interview and note the important details in data
collection
• Ask for observations, notations and journals if needed
• After analyzing the data, determine the themes per research question
• Explain the theme generated to the researchers and provide sample on how to make the tables
Note: The data analyst could make multiple meetings depending on the saturation of the analysis
SAMPLE OF COMPUTER PROGRAMS
• Atlas ti
• QSR Nvivo
• HyperRESEARCH
• MAXqda

Note: Computer Programs could help save time but is limited on arranging codes
of transcribed data with similar coding features of quotations (themes)