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ADJECTIVES

Definition: Adjective is a word used with a Noun to add


something to its meaning.
(Kata keadaan adalah kata yang digunakan dengan
kata benda untuk menambahkan sesuatu terhadap arti
kata benda tersebut/kata yang menerangkan kata
benda.)

Nasori Efendi-Parts of Speech


TYPES OF ADJECTIVES
• Limiting Adjective/determiners:
1. Articles/kata sandang: a, an, the
2. Demonstrative Adjectives/kata sifat penunjuk: this,
these, that, those
3. Possessive Adjectives/kata sifat kepunyaan: my, your, his, her, our, their, its,
Arman’s, the the girl’s etc.
4. Numeral Adjective/kata sifat bilangan:
a) Cadinal/bilangan biasa: five, twenty, thousand, etc.
b) Ordinal/Bilangan bertingkat: first, second, fifth, etc.
5. Adjective of indefinite quantity/kata sifat jumlah tak tentu: some, few, all,
many, several, lots of, etc.
6. Relative and Interrogative adjectives: which, what, whose.

Nasori Efendi-Parts of Speech


Descriptive Adjectives

• Size/ukuran: big, small, little, etc.


• Shape/bentuk: round, flat, square,etc.
• Tastes/Rasa: bitter, sweet, delicious, sour, etc.
• Color/Warna: white, green, black, brown, red,
etc.
• Quality/Mutu: beautiful, lazy, diligent, clever, etc.
• States/keadaan: young, old, dry, wet, cold, hot,
cool, etc

Nasori Efendi-Parts of Speech


Descriptive Adjective
• Poper Adjectives/kata sifat nama diri:
-Indonesian People, English book, Jakarta fair, etc
• Present Participle Adjective/kata sifat dari kata kerja+ing:
-an interesting story, a thrilling experience, an exciting tip, a dining room, etc
• Past Participle Adjective/Kata sifat dari kata kerja bentuk III:
-a broken glass, a stolen car, a spoken language, a spoiled girl, a written test, a
damaged car, etc.
• Compound Adjectives/kata sifat majemuk:
-absent-minded professor, a kind-hearted woman, an ill-tempered man, a
new-born baby, a dark-eyed girl, a wall-to-wall carpet, a life-and-death
struggle, a six-yea-old child, bare-footed farmer, a broken-home family, etc.

Nasori Efendi-Parts of Speech


FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVES
• Adejctive menerangkan ‘noun’:
That diligent student. That boy is lazy.
The pretty girl. The girl is pretty.

• Adjective menerangkan ‘pronoun’:


The missing one. The one is missing.
She is diligent. He is very smart.

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• Adjective clause: the girl who is staying in a house next-door.
• Participial Phrase: the girl staying in a house next-door.
• Prepositional Phrase: the girl in a house next-door.
• Adverb: the girl next-door.
• Infinitive Phrase: the girl to send a message.

Nasori Efendi-Parts of Speech


• Adjective digunakan sebagai noun
(didahului denan kata sandang the)
the rich (the rich people) the poor (the poor people)
the brave (the brave boy) the white (the white part of egg)
the interior (the inside part of house)

Nasori Efendi-Parts of Speech


• Adjective digunakan sebagai Adverb
a) menerangkan verb:
You make me feel upset. He drives me crazy.
My deam will come true
b) menerangkan adverb:
Your progress goes far ahead.
He was left far behind.
c) menerangkan adjectives lain:
The lady puts on her dark blue trousers.
Please, put the noodle on boiling hot water.
d) menerangkan prepositional phrase:
Deep in my heart, I still love you.
He returns home late in the evening.

Nasori Efendi-Parts of Speech


POSITION OF ADJECTIVES
• With Nouns:
before noun: beautiful girl, lazy boys, smart answer.

after noun: the account payable, the extra room available, a tree two meter high, a
door one meter wide, paragraph seven, chapter one, a village nearby, the sky above,
the girl suffering, etc

Nasori Efendi-Parts of Speech


• With Verbs:
after linking verb: Surti is lazy, she feel tired, you look happy.
after verb and Object: She makes me angry.
after verb (verb-adjectyive):
I don’t want to die hungry. Stand still there!
Hold tight the handle! Please, keep silent.

• With Pronoun
after pronouns: He wants you alive! She makes him happy.
before pronouns (only with ‘one’): Give me the red one!

Nasori Efendi-Parts of Speech


FOMS OF ADJECTIVE
• Degree of Comparison:
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

I. Adjective dengan satu atau dua suku kata


Small Smaller Smallest

Easy Easier Easiest

Big Bigger Biggest

II. Adjective dengan lebih dari dua suku kata


Beautiful More Beautiful Most Beautiful

attractive More attractive Most attractive

diligent More diligent Most diligent


Nasori Efendi-Parts of Speech
FORMS OF ADJECTIVES
• Degree of Comparison:
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

III. Adjective pendek dengan ‘more’ dan ‘most’


famous More famous Most famous

honest More honest Most honest

tired More tired Most tired

IV. Adjective dengan ‘-er/more’ dan –est/most


clever Cleverer/More clever Cleverest/Most clever

narrow Narrower/More narrow Narrowest/Most narrow

handsome Handsomer/More handsome Handsomest/Most handsome


Nasori Efendi-Parts of Speech
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

V. Adjective dengan tingkat perbandingan tak beraturan


Good, well better best

bad worse worst

little less least

much more most

many more most

late Later/latter Latest/last

Far Father/further Farthest/furthest

old Older/elder Oldest/eldest

Nasori Efendi-Parts of Speech


EXERCISES
• Salah satu dari pasien-pasien itu nampak sedih.
• Kami kecewa Anda tidak datang ke pesta pekawinan
kami.
• Gugun kelihatan ceria sekali hari ini.
• Anda benar. Progam ini tidak sempurna.
• Parto memiliki mobil mewah yang baru.
• Perawat itu merawat pasien dengan penuh kesabaran.
• Saya memiliki seorang anak laki-laki yang bermata biru.
• Ayah membelikan saya sepatu bertumit tinggi.
• Gadis itu nampak lucu dan manja.
• Maafkan setiap kesalahannya, baik besar maupun kecil
Nasori Efendi-Parts of Speech