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 Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale

rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related
effects.[1][2] Multiple lines of scientific evidence show that the climate system is
warming.[3][4][5] Many of the observed changes since the 1950s are
unprecedented in the instrumental temperature record which extends back to
the mid-19th century, and in paleoclimate proxy records covering thousands of
 In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment
Report concluded that "It is extremely likely that human influence has been the
dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century."[7] The
largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases such as
carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Climate model projections
summarized in the report indicated that during the 21st century, the global
surface temperature is likely to rise a further 0.3 to 1.7 °C (0.5 to 3.1 °F) in the
lowest emissions scenario, and 2.6 to 4.8 °C (4.7 to 8.6 °F) in the highest
emissions scenario.[8] These findings have been recognized by the national
science academies of the major industrialized nations[9][a] and are not disputed
by any scientific body of national or international standing.[11][1
 A greenhouse gas (abbrev. GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation
within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse
effect.[1] The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide,
methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of
Earth's surface would be about −18 °C (0 °F),[2] rather than the present average of 15 °C
(59 °F).[3][4][5] In the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain gases
that cause a greenhouse effect.
 Human activities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (taken as sometime between
the years 1740 and 1754) have produced a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of
carbon dioxide, from 280 ppm in 1750 to 406 ppm in early 2017.[6] This increase has occurred
despite the uptake of a large portion of the emissions by various natural "sinks" involved in the
carbon cycle.[7][8] The vast majority of Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (i.e.,
emissions produced by human activities) come from combustion of fossil fuels, principally coal,
oil, and natural gas, with comparatively modest additional contributions coming from
deforestation, changes in land use, soil erosion, and agriculture (including animal agriculture),
though some of the emissions of this sector are offset by carbon sequestration.[9][10]
 It has been estimated that if greenhouse gas emissions continue at the present rate, Earth's
surface temperature could exceed historical values as early as 2047, with potentially harmful
effects on ecosystems, biodiversity and the livelihoods of people worldwide.[11] Recent estimates
suggest that on the current emissions trajectory the Earth could pass a threshold of 2 °C global
warming, which the United Nations' IPCC designated as the upper limit to avoid "dangerous"
global warming,
Contribution of clouds to Earth's greenhouse effect
The major non-gas contributor to Earth's greenhouse effect, clouds, also absorb and emit
infrared radiation and thus have an effect on radiative properties of the greenhouse gases.
Clouds are water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere.[18][19]
Impacts on the overall greenhouse effect
Schmidt et al. (2010)[20] analysed how individual components of the atmosphere contribute to
the total greenhouse effect. They estimated that water vapor accounts for about 50% of Earth's
greenhouse effect, with clouds contributing 25%, carbon dioxide 20%, and the minor
greenhouse gases and aerosols accounting for the remaining 5%. In the study, the reference
model atmosphere is for 1980 conditions. Image credit: NASA.[21]
The contribution of each gas to the greenhouse effect is determined by the characteristics of
that gas, its abundance, and any indirect effects it may cause. For example, the direct radiative
effect of a mass of methane is about 84 times stronger than the same mass of carbon dioxide
over a 20-year time frame[22] but it is present in much smaller concentrations so that its total
direct radiative effect is smaller, in part due to its shorter atmospheric lifetime. On the other
hand, in addition to its direct radiative impact, methane has a large, indirect radiative effect
because it contributes to ozone formation. Shindell et al. (2005)[23] argue that the contribution to
climate change from methane is at least double previous estimates as a result of this effect. [24]
When ranked by their direct contribution to the greenhouse effect, the most important are: [18][not
in citation given]
 Greener land makes a cooler planet
 Vegetation is the air conditioning of our planet
 What if we told you we can re-green twice the size of Europe and provide water, food, biodiversity and a better life for
millions of people and species?
 Justdiggit makes dry land green again by capturing rainwater and introducing sustainable agriculture to create healthy
ecosystems. Because healthy economies require healthy ecosystems. Now and in the future. Can you dig it?
 02
 Landscape restoration
 Water, soil and climate: the Hydrologic Corridor
 Our approach to restore land is called the Hydrologic Corridor. It starts with the principle that our earth can be restored
with a little kickstart from human interventions on land. Our programs influence the regional climate by capturing CO2,
reducing local temperature and creating local rains.
 Global warming refers to an increase in the average temperature of the Earth as a result of the greenhouse effect, in which
gases in the upper atmosphere trap solar radiation close to the planet's surface instead of allowing it to dissipate into
space. Both natural and human-made conditions can contribute to global warming, but human beings can do several
things to reduce the effects. (See References 1)
 Reduce Fossil Fuel Use
 Burning fossil fuels increases the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. There are two ways to reduce fossil fuel
use: Use less energy, or use alternative, nonpolluting energy sources like solar and wind power. (See References 1) At
home, this translates to saving electricity by using energy-efficient appliances and compact fluorescent light bulbs, as well
as reducing gasoline use and buying green power from your electricity provider, if available. (See References 2)
 Plant Trees
 Because carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas, planting trees and other plants can slow or stop global
warming. Plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen. They use carbon to build their own tissues and return some of
it to the soil in a process called sequestration. Deforestation of rain forests is a large contributor to global warming and
CO2 emissions, but planting new trees, even in your own backyard, can help to offset this. (See References 3)