Sie sind auf Seite 1von 62

A substance that cannot be

broken down into simpler


substance by simple means

Element
Hydrogen
H
Lithium
Li
Aluminum
Al
Magnesium
Mg
Potassium
K
Potassium
K
Bromine
Br
Nitrogen
N
Fluorine
F
Gold
Au
Silver
Ag
Helium
He
Silicon
Si
Neon
Ne
Is a group of two atoms that are
chemically combined

Molecule
Monoatomic Diatomic
Molecules Molecules
Triatomic Polyatomic
Molecule Molecule
Is formed when two or more
elements combine chemically in
a fixed ratio

Compound
FIXED RATIO?
H2O -2 atoms hydrogen, 1 atom
oxygen
H: O
2:1
FIXED RATIO?
(NH4)2SO4 ammonium sulfate

*the number outside the


parenthesis is a multiplier of what it
proceded
Exercise..
Use of compounds
Components can be mixed in any
ratio or proportion

Mixture
Components are combined in a
fixed ratio or proportion

Compound
A chemical reaction takes place
when it is formed

Compound
No chemical reaction takes place
when a it is formed

Mixture
Components can be separated by
physical methods like decantation,
filtration, evaporation, etc.

Mixture
The components can be
separated by heat or electricity ,
or other chemical means

Compound
Heterogeneous Types of
Mixtures
mixtures
Homogeneous
Mixtures
Heterogeneous Types of
Mixtures
mixtures
Heterogeneous
Mixtures
Homogeneous mixtures can also
be a combination of solids,
liquids, and gases
Heterogeneous
Mixtures

gas in gas
gas in liquid
Coarse Mixture
Heterogenous
Suspensions mixtures
Colloids
Tyndall Effect
Heterogenous
mixtures
The Atom
Atomic Theories

- Theory vs Law
-proposed that matter was a
combination of four
fundamental elements- air,
earth, fire and water.

Empedocles
Is formed when two or more
elements combine chemically in
a fixed ratio

Compound
Democritus and his
“Atom”

Early Atomic Theory


1.Matter is composed of tiny,
indivisible spheres called atoms.

Dalton’s Atomic Theory


2. Atoms of the same elements are
identical,
atoms of one element are
different from all those of all other
elements

Dalton’s Atomic Theory


3. Atoms cannot be created or
destroyed during a chemical
change

Dalton’s Atomic Theory


4. Atoms of different elements
combine o simple whole number
ratios to form compounds

Dalton’s Atomic Theory


First two, untrue
But theory was used for explaining
the 2 fundamental laws of nature

Dalton’s Atomic Theory


Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808)
* Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms.
* All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass
and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from
the atoms of all other elements.
* Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. In any
compound, the ratio of the numbers of atoms of any two of the elements
present is either an integer or a simple fraction.
* A chemical reaction involves only the separation, combination, or
rearrangement of atoms; it does not result in their creation or
destruction.
Atoms of element x
Atoms of element y
Mixture of of atoms x and y
Compound or molecule made up of
elements x and y
Laws of Chemical Combination
1. Law of
conservation of
mass
16 X + 8Y 8 X2Y

Law of Conservation of Mass


2. Law of Definite
Composition
3. Law of
Multiple
Proportion
Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Law of Multiple Proportions


Calculate the mass
fraction and percent by
mass composition of
AgCl