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CORPUSCLES TO CHEMICAL ATOMIC

THEORY
( The development of Atomic Theory )

 The learners shall be able to make a creative


representation of the historical development
of the atom or the chemical element in a
timeline
ATOMIC THEORY
JHON DALTON
 ( 1766-1844)

 DALTON’S ATOMIC THEORY

CHEMICAL ATOMIC THEORY


CHEMICAL ATOMIC THEORY

• Gases, and all chemically inseparable elements, are


made of atoms.
• The atoms of an element are identical in their
masses.
• Atoms of different elements have different masses.
• Atoms combine in small, whole number ratios.
Dalton’s Chemical Atomic Theory

 elements were made of the same


atoms and had properties unique to
the element, while chemical
compounds were made of different
combined or compounded atoms,
and exhibited different sets of
properties.
 one could compute the
weights of elements (and
their atoms) by looking at
comparable amounts of the
compounds they formed.
Joseph Gay-Lussac
 French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-
Lussac proposed two fundamental laws
of gases in the early 19th century. While
one is generally attributed to a fellow
countryman, the other is well known as
Gay-Lussac’s law. His daring ascents in
hydrogen-filled balloons were key to his
investigations.
 determined that oxygen
gas was made of 2 atoms
of oxygen and took the
form of a molecule instead
of an atom.
Amedeo Avogadro
 (the man who conceptualized
the mole)

 he figured out a reliable


way of weighing atoms
and molecules
 (the man who conceptualized the
mole) determined that equivalent
volumes of two gases under
similar conditions contained equal
numbers of particles, and that
differences in their masses was a
result of a difference in their
molecular mass.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Periodic table of Elements
Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Mendeleev, Russian


in full
Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev
Dmitri Mendeleev
 Russian chemist who
developed the periodic
classification of the
elements.
 when all the known chemical
elements were arranged in order
of increasing atomic weight, the
resulting table displayed a
recurring pattern, or periodicity, of
properties within groups of
elements.
In his version of
the periodic table of
1871, he left gaps in places
where he believed unknown
elements would find their
place.
The Periodic table of Elements

CHEMISTRY

“PERIODIC LAW”
PERIODIC LAW
MENDELEEV’S LAW

similar properties recur periodically


when elements are arranged
according to increasing atomic
number
The Periodic table of Elements

19th Century

Lothar Meyer
Dmitri Mendeleev
Arrangement of the Periodic Table

PERIOD
The horizontal rows on the periodic table

Atomic numbers increase in order from left


to right.
Groups
Vertical columns on the periodic table that have
special names,
FAMILIES IN THE PERIODIC TABLE

Members of the families


(vertical columns) in the
periodic table have similar
properties. The families are
labeled at the top of the
columns in one of two ways:
 The older method uses Roman
numerals and letters. Many chemists
prefer and still use this method.

 The newer method uses the numbers 1


through 18.
MAIN GROUP OF ELEMENTS

These groups contain the most


naturally abundant elements.

8O% of the earth’s crust and


most important for life.
MAIN GROUP OF ELEMENTS

 GROUP I - Alkali Metals


 GROUP II – Alkaline Earth Metals
 GROUP XIII – Boron Group
 GROUP XIV – Carbon Group
 GROUP XV – Nitrogen Group
 GROUP XVI – Chalcogens
 GROUP XVII - Halogens
 GROUP XVIII - Noble Gases
GROUP I

ALKALI METALS

 The alkali metals are silver-colored


(caesium has a golden tinge)

 The alkali metals are all shiny, soft,


highly reactive metals

 Very reactive and they are the most


active metals
GROUP II
Alkaline Earth Metals

The alkaline earth metals are silvery colored, soft,
low-density metals, though are a bit harder than the
alkali metals.

 These metals are less active than the alkali metals,


but are still fairly active.
GROUP XIII
BORON GROUP
(formerly group III) in the periodic table

Boron is a metalloid, it has


characteristics intermediate between
metals and non-metals, and the rest of
the group are metals.
BORON GROUP
 Boron is most commonly found as borax and boric
acid

 Aluminum is the third most common element in the


earth's crust. It is used as a coating agent, to prevent
oxidation.
GROUP XIV

CARBON GROUP

This group has a mix types of element with


the non-metal carbon, two metalloids, and
two metals.
CARBON GROUP

The carbon family elements are


important in daily life and in
industry. Carbon is the basis for
organic life. Its allotrope graphite is
used in pencils and rockets
Carbon Family
GROUP XV
NITROGEN GROUP
(formerly Group V)

Nitrogen and Phosphorous are non-


metals.

They are very important elements.


NITROGEN GROUP
Nitrogen - essential for life.

Nitrogen comprises about 3 percent of


the weight of the human body

Phosphorous about 1.2 percent.

Commercially, these elements are


important for fertilizers.
GROUP XVI

CHALCOGENS
(formerly Group VIb or VIa)

It is sometimes known as the oxygen family.

Oxygen and sulfur are non-metals


Oxygen is by far the most abundant
element in the earth's crust (49.5
percent), and is present in almost
everything.
GROUP XVII
HALOGENS

Consist of entirely non-metals

Highly reactive, and as such can be harmful


or lethal to biological organisms in sufficient
quantities.
GROUP XVIII
(formerly group VIII)

NOBLE GASES
NOBLE GASES

Inert gases or Rare gases.

VERY UNREACTIVE
NOBLE GASES
 The noble gasses are all non-metals and are
characterized by having completely filled shells of
electrons.

 The noble gasses are commonly encountered in


helium balloons (safer than flammable hydrogen)
and lighting.

 Some of the noble gases glow distinctive colors


when used inside discharge tubes (neon lights),
and Argon is often used inside filament light bulbs.