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Zaid Mansuri 9824662116 1


1. Doberenier’s Triads
2. Newland’s Law of Octaves
3. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
4. Long form of Periodic Table Mansuri 9824662116

Doberenier’s Triads

 Certain similar elements exist in group of three elements

which he named as triads.
 The At. Wt. of middle member was the arithmetic mean
of the other two members of the triad.
 Properties of the middle element was intermediate of
the other two. Mansuri 9824662116

Newland’s Law of Octaves

 Elements were arranged in increasing order of atomic

 Eight element, starting from a given one is a kind of
repetition of the first. – like musical notes Mansuri 9824662116

Mendeleev’s Periodic Table

 “The properties of elements are a periodic function of

their atomic weights”.
 Main criterion of the judgment of similarities in the
properties was valency of the elements. Mansuri 9824662116

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Modern Periodic Law

 The physical & chemical properties of the elements are

the periodic function of their atomic numbers.
Cause of Periodicity:
 The periodic repetition is due to the recurrence of

similar valence shell configurations after certain regular

intervals. Mansuri 9824662116

Long form of Periodic Table
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About Periodic table

No. of periods: 7
No. of Groups: 18
No. of periods represents the highest principal quantum number (n) of the elements
present in it.
First Period: n=1…..(1s) two elements (h & He)
Second Period n=2….(2s & 2p) eight elements (Li to Ne)
Third Period n=3 …(3s & 3p) eight elements (Na to Ar)
Fourth Period n=4 …(4s, 3d & 4p) eighteen elements (K to Kr)
Fifth Period n=5…(5s, 4d & 5p) eighteen elements (Rb to Xe)
Sixth Period n=6…(6s, 4f, 5d & 6p) thirty two elements (Cs to Rn)
(Lanthanoids …Ce to Lu)….14 elements (4f)
Seventh Period n=7…(7s, 5f, 6d, 7p)
(Actinoids…Th to Lr) Mansuri 9824662116

About Periodic table

Period no. 2 & 3 are called ………..Short Periods

Period no. 4 & 5 are called ………..Long Periods
Period no. 6 is called ………………Longest Period Mansuri 9824662116

s-block elements 1-2
(ns )

Also known as representative elements or main group

“When last electron enters s-subshell, it is an s-block

 Gr. 1: Alkali metals, Gr. 2: Alkaline earth metals

Properties of s-block elements:
1. Low IE, High e-+ve character.
2. Very reactive & hence do not occur in native state.
3. Good reducing agents
4. Compounds are predominantly ionic
Mansuri 9824662116
p-Block elements 2 1-6
(ns np )

Also known as representative elements or main group

“The elements in which the last electron enters the p-
subshell of their outermost energy level are called p-
block elements”
1. Exhibit variable oxidation states
2. They form ionic as well as covalent compounds
3. They have relatively high values of IE
4. Most of them are non-metals, highly electronegative,
acidic oxides. Mansuri 9824662116
d-Block elements 1-10
[(n-1) ns ]2

“The elements in which the last electron enters the d-subshell of

their outermost energy level are called d-block elements”
1. Are Hard, high Melting metals,
2. Have Variable oxidation states
3. Form coloured complexes
4. Form ionic as well as covalent compounds
5. Most of them exhibit paramagnetism, possess catalytic
6. Form alloys,
7. Are good conductors of heat & electricity Mansuri 9824662116
f-Block elements [(n-2)f1-14(n-1)d0-10ns2]

Also known as inner transition elements or f-transition

elements (Lanthanoids & Actinoids)

“The elements in which the last electron enters the f-

subshell of their outermost energy level are called f-
block elements”
1. Show variable oxidation states
2. Have high MP, high densities
3. Form complexes, most of which are coloured
4. Most
of the actinoid series are
Mansuri radioactive.
Atomic Radius

“The distance from the centre of nucleus of the atom to the

outermost shell of electrons.”
1. Covalent Radius: One-half of the distance between the
centres of the nuclei of two similar atoms bonded by a
single covalent bond.
2. Metallic Radius: One-half of the internuclear distance
between two adjacent atoms in the metallic lattice.

***The metallic radius is always larger than its covalent

radius. Mansuri 9824662116
Variation of atomic radius

 Increases down the group

 Decreases across the period. Mansuri 9824662116

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Ionic radius

“Ionic radius is defined as the effective distance from the

nucleus fo the ion to the point up to which it has an
influence in the ionic bond”
(a) The size of cation is smaller than parent atom becoz of
increase in the effective nuclear charge per electron.
(b) The size of anion is greater than parent atom becoz of
decrease in effective nuclear charge per electron. Mansuri 9824662116

Ionization Enthalpies

“The amount of energy required to remove the most

loosely bound electron from its isolated gaseous atom in
the ground state” Mansuri 9824662116

Ionization Enthalpy depends on…
1. Size of atom
 Decreases with the increasing size of atom as the electrons are less tightly held with increasing distance
2. Magnitude of nuclear charge
 Higher the nuclear charge, higher the IE.
3. Screening effect of the inner electrons
 (Outermost electrons are shielded or screened by the inner electrons. This is screening effect.)
 IE decreases with increase in screening effect.
 More the no. of inner electrons, greater is the screening and lower is the IE.
4. Penetration effect of the electrons:
 Penetration effect for a given ‘n’ s>p>d>f.
 Greater the penetration, lower the shielding by other electrons, higher the IE.
5. Electronic configuration:
 Atom having more stable (half filled, fully filled subshells) config. has less tendency to lose e-, hence
higher the IE.
 noble gases (ns2np6)
 elements like N: [He] 2s22px12py12pz1 & P: [Ne] 3s23px13py13pz1 have half-filled stable
 elements like Be: 1s22s2, Mg:[Ne]3s2 have electrons paired Mansuri 9824662116
Variation of IE across the period

IE across the period increases due to..

1. Increase in Nuclear charge
2. Addition of e-s in the same energy level
3. Decrease in atomic size.
1. Decrease from Be to B:
(a) penetration of 2s>2p
(b) more shielding faced of 2p by inner
(c) more stable config of Be.
2. Decrease from N to O:
Relatively stable half-filled configuration of N:
[He] 2s22px12py12pz1.
3. Large increase from F to Ne:
Fully-filled energy level of Ne. Mansuri 9824662116
Variation of IE down the group

IE decreases in general down the group due to..

1. addition of new energy levels
2. increase in screening effect. Mansuri 9824662116

Electrongain enthalpies

“The enthalpy change taking place when an isolated gaseous

atom of the element accepts an electron to form a
monovalent gaseous anion”
X(g) + e- → X-(g)
 Larger the negative EGE, greater the tendency to

accept electron. Mansuri 9824662116

Factors affecting EGE

1. Nuclear charge:
Greater the NC, more attraction, large –ve is the EGE
2. Atomic size:
Smaller the size, higher the attraction, large –ve is the
3. Electron configuration:
More stable e- configuration, less tendency to accept the
e-, less –ve EGE.
For example: Noble gases have high +ve EGE. Mansuri 9824662116
Variation of EGE across the period

 Across the period, atomic size decreases & nuclear

increases, therefore electron gain enthalpies tend to be
more –ve.
 Some irregularities…

1. in group 2 → filled ns subshells

2. in group 15 → half-filled np subshells
3. in group 18 → fully filled subshells
These elec config are relatively stable & hence these have
+ve or very low –ve EGEs. Mansuri 9824662116
Variation of EGE down the group

 Down the group, the atomic size & nuclear charge both
increase. But increase in atomic size is more pronounced.
Therefore, EGE becomes less –ve down the group.
 Some irregularities…
1. F(-328) < Cl(-349). Reverse expected. Becoz, when
an electron is added to F, it goes to relatively
compact n=2 energy level. As a result it
experiences significant e-e repulsion.
2. Same is the case with O(-141) < S(-200). Mansuri 9824662116

Successive EGE

 X(g) + e- → X-(g) ∆egH1

 X-(g) + e- → X-2(g) ∆egH2
 Always, ∆egH2 is +ve . This is becoz, when e- is added
to uninegative ion, it experiences significant repulsion.
Hence energy has to be supplied to overcome the
repulsive force to add electron.
 Hence values of successive EGEs are positive.
 For example:
O(g) + e- → O-(g) ∆egH1 =-141kJ
-(g) + e- → O-2(g) Mansuri∆ egH2 =+780kJ

“The tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract the

shared pair of electron towards itself ”
Factors affecting electronegativity are…
1. Effective nuclear charge
Greater the Nuclear charge, greater is the EN
2. Atomic radius
smaller the Atomic radius, greater the EN
***EN for any given element is not constant but varies
depending on the element to which it is bound. Mansuri 9824662116
Variation of EN

Increases across the period…

becoz of increasing nuclear charge and decreasing
atomic size.
Decreases down the group…
becoz of increasing atomic size.
*** non-metallic character is directly related to EN. Mansuri 9824662116

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Electropositivity or metallic character

“ Tendency of atoms of an element to lose electrons and

form +ve ions is known as Electropositivity”
 A more electro+ve element has more metallic character.

Variation of Electropositive character…

Decreases across the period
due to increase in IE
Increases down the group
due to decrease in IE Mansuri 9824662116

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“ The valence of an element may be defined as the

combining capacity of element ”
 Valence= no. of H or Cl or double the no. of O atoms
that combine with an atom of an element.
 Electrons present in the outermost shell are called valence

 Down the group, the valency remains the same.

 Across the period, increases from 1to 4 & then decreases

from 4 to 0. Mansuri 9824662116
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Nature of oxides

1. Oxides of elements at the extreme left of periodic

table are BASIC in nature. (metallic oxides)
2. Extreme right, ACIDIC. (non-metallic oxides)
3. A Basic oxide is one which when dissolves in water gives
a base.
Na2O + H2O → 2NaOH
Basic oxide Base
4. An Acidic oxide is one which when dissolved in water
gives an acid
Cl2O7 + H2O → 2HClO4.
Acidic oxide Acid9824662116

5. An Amphoteric oxide exhibits acidic behaviour in

presence of base and basic behaviour in presence of
Al2O3 + 6HCl → 2AlCl3 + 3H2O
Al2O3 + 2NaOH → 2Na[Al(OH)4]
6. A Neutral oxide exhibits neither acidic nor basic
* Since metallic character increases down the group, the
basic character of oxides also increases. Mansuri 9824662116
Anomalous properties of second period
“ First member of each group (from Li to F) is different from rest members of the same group”
For example:
Li → covalent compounds while
other members of group 1 → ionic compounds
1. Small size of the first element
2. Large charge/radius ratio
3. High EN
4. Absence of d-orbitals in the valence shell of the first element:
1st element → n=2, no d-orbitals in this energy level
∴ no d- orbitals available
∴ maximum covalency =4
On the other hand, n=3 onwards d-orbitals are available.
∴ covalency can be expanded beyond 4.
5. Ability to form pπ-pπ multiple bonds:
1st member due to its small size, forms pπ-pπ multiple bonds with itself & other members of 2nd period.
eg: C=C, C≡C, C=O, C ≡N.
Other members do no form pπ-pπ bonds due toMansuri 9824662116
their larger sizes.
Diagonal Relationship

“ An element of the 2nd period exhibits certain similarities

with the 2nd element of the following group ”
For example:
1 2 13 14
Li Be B C
Na Mg Al Si
“ Diagonal relationship is the similarity between a pair of
elements in different groups and different periods and
located diagonally in the periodic table” Mansuri 9824662116
End of chapter
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