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ENERGY DAN

CARDIAC CONTRACTION

dr. HUSNIL KADRI , M.Kes


Biochemistry Departement
Medical Faculty Of Andalas University
Padang
3 TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE
 Cardiac muscle
 striated in appearance
 involuntary control
 autorhythmic because of built in pacemaker
 Extracell fluid calsium important for contraction
 External control of cardiac muscle is involuntary,
via hormones and by the autonomic nervous
system
2
3 TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE
 Skeletal muscle
 attaches to bone, skin or fascia
 striated with light & dark bands visible
 voluntary control of contraction & relaxation
 Extracell fluid calsium not important for
contraction

3
3 TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE
 Smooth muscle
 attached to hair follicles in skin
 in walls of hollow organs -- blood vessels & GI
 nonstriated in appearance
 Involuntary
 Extracell fluid calsium important for contraction
 Control of smooth muscle is involuntary, via
paracrine control, hormones, and the autonomic
nervous system
4
MUSCLE FIBER OR MYOFIBERS

 Muscle cells are long, cylindrical & multinucleated


 Sarcolemma = muscle cell membrane

 Sarcoplasm filled with tiny threads called myofibrils


& myoglobin (red-colored, oxygen-binding protein)
CARDIAC MUSCLE
CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE
CARDIAC MUSCLE

20-8
CARDIAC MUSCLE

 Elongated, branching cells containing 1-2 centrally

20-9
located nuclei
 Contains actin and myosin myofilaments

 Intercalated disks: Specialized cell-cell contacts

 Desmosomes hold cells together and gap junctions


allow action potentials
 Electrically, cardiac muscle behaves as single unit
GAP JUNCTIONS

 low resistance connections


 small pores in the center of each gap
junction
 allows ions and small peptides to flow from
one cell to another
 action potential is propagated to adjacent
muscle cells
Heart behaves as a single motor unit
THEORETICALLY,

AN ION INSIDE AN SA NODAL CELL


COULD TRAVEL THROUGHOUT THE HEART
VIA THE GAP JUNCTIONS

Sperelakis N, Kurachi Y, Terzic A, Cohen MV.


Heart Physiology and Pathophysiology
Academic Press, 2001
MITOCHONDRIA
 generate the energy in the form of adenosine
triphosphate (ATP)
 maintain the heart’s contractile function and
the associated ion gradients
TRANSVERSE TUBULES

T (transverse) tubules are invaginations of the


sarcolemma into the center of the cell
 filled with extracellular fluid
 carry muscle action potentials down into cell
 Mitochondria lie in rows throughout the cell
 near the muscle proteins that use ATP during contraction
MYOFIBRILS & MYOFILAMENTS

 Muscle fibers are filled with threads called


myofibrils separated by SR (sarcoplasmic
reticulum)
 Myofilaments (thick & thin filaments) are
the contractile proteins of muscle
SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM (SR)

 System of tubular sacs similar to smooth ER in


nonmuscle cells
 Stores Ca+2 in a relaxed muscle

 Release of Ca+2 triggers muscle contraction


INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF A MUSCLE FIBER

 Muscle
fibers are full of myofibrils, but also contain
a number of notable chemicals and structures:
 sarcolemma = plasma membane
 transverse tubules = tunnel-like extensions of the
sacrolemma
 sarcoplasm = cytoplasm
 sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) = a network of
membranous sacs around the myofibrils. The SR
stores calcium ions.
THICK & THIN MYOFILAMENTS
THE PROTEINS OF MUSCLE

 Myofibrils are built of 3 kinds of protein:


 contractile proteins
myosin and actin

 regulatory proteins which turn contraction on &


off
troponin and tropomyosin

 structural proteins which provide proper


alignment, elasticity and extensibility
titin, myomesin, nebulin and dystrophin
MYOSIN

 Many different types


 Myosin V  vesicle transport
 Myosin II  skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction
ACTIN FILAMENTS:
 Polymer of G-actin (43 kDa globular
protein)
 In most cells, found at the periphery,
underlying the cell surface
 ‘thin filaments’ in muscle

 Also in microvilli

 Also involved in cell shape changes


SLIDING FILAMENT MECHANISM

 When muscles contract, thick and thin filaments


move relative to each other
 Asthe Z discs move closer together, the sarcomere
shortens
 Contraction is stimulated by calcium ions
SLIDING FILAMENT MECHANISM
CARDIAC MUSCLE: TWO CA2+ SOURCES
CARDIAC VERSUS SKELETAL MUSCLE

 More sarcoplasm and mitochondria


 Larger transverse tubules located at Z discs, rather
than at A-l band junctions
 Less well-developed SR

 Limited intracellular Ca+2 reserves

 more Ca+2 enters cell from extracellular fluid


during contraction
 Prolonged delivery of Ca+2 to sarcoplasm, produces
a contraction that last 10 -15 times longer than in
skeletal muscle
PHYSIOLOGY OF CARDIAC MUSCLE

 Autorhythmic cells
 contract without stimulation
 Contracts 75 times per min & needs lots O2

 Larger mitochondria generate ATP aerobically

 Sustained contraction possible due to slow Ca+2


delivery
 Ca+2 channels to the extracellular fluid stay open
EXCITATION-CONTRACTION COUPLING

A muscle action potential stimulates release of Ca2+


ions from the SR

 Ca2+ions bind to troponin, which causes


tropomyosin to move off of the myosin-binding sites
on actin

 Theexposed binding sites bind to myosin, and


contraction begins
EXCITATION-CONTRACTION COUPLING
CONTRACTION AND RELAXATION OF SKELETAL
MUSCLE

1 Myosin heads
Key: hydrolyze ATP and
= Ca2+ become reoriented
and energized ADP
P
2 Myosin heads

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


bind to actin,
forming
crossbridges
P

ATP
Contraction cycle continues if
ATP is available and Ca2+ level in ADP
the sarcoplasm is high

ATP
ADP
4 As myosin heads
bind ATP, the
crossbridges detach 3 Myosin crossbridges
from actin rotate toward center of the
Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. sarcomere (power stroke)
MUSCLE METABOLISM:
ENERGY FOR CONTRACTION

 Muscle cells need to generate large amounts of


available energy during contractions

 Muscle cells have three ways to produce ATP:


 Aerobic cellular respiration
 Anaerobic cellular respiration
 Creatine phosphate
CARDIAC MUSCLE METABOLISM:
AEROBIC CELLULAR RESPIRATION
CREATINE PHOSPHATE

 Creatine phosphate serves as an energy reservoir


for muscle cells:
 Resting muscle cells store excess energy in
creatine phosphate
 During exercise cells can quickly replenish
their ATP supply using creatine-phosphate
 This supply of energy is only large enough for
short bursts of activity (about 15 seconds)
ANAEROBIC METABOLISM
 Forshort time periods muscle cells can make ATP
by glycolysis alone
 Thepyruvate is converted into lactic acid and enters
the blood if there is no oksigen (anaerobic)
 This
source of ATP can only power muscle cells for
about 30-40 seconds
REFERENCES
 Akar AR. Cardiac Physiology (IV). Ankara University
School of Medicine. Desember 2003. download 2011
 Jenkins, Kemnitz, Tortora. Chapter 10 Muscle Tissue.
Anatomy and Physiology. John Wiley & Son, inc.
download 2011
 Cardiovascular System: Heart. download 2011

 Chapter 6 Histology. download 2011

 Structure and Function of Skeletal Muscle. download


2011
 Khan R. Year I Tutorial: Musculoskeletal System.
download 2011.
 Murray RK. Muscle & the cytoskeleton. In:Harper’s
Illustrated Biochemistry. 27th ed. pp 565-587