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ABSTRACT

India with its rapid economic development, huge population and a 7,500 km long coastl ine is regarded as a market with immense potential for
more number of tourists and new destinations. Presently, Mum bai and Kochi are the favoured ports of call in India for international cruise ships. It
is expected that the cruise tourism industry in the country would witness rapid growth once required infrastructure is in place. This would lead to
the development of three major regional cruise corridors -Mumbai-Lakshadwe ep-Mumbai; Goa-Lakshadweep-Kochi-Goa ; Kochi-Maldives
Colombo-Kochi. In the first two corridors, Goa is expected to have at least one port of call. Therefore, a cruise terminal in the state is a necessity.

"Cruise terminal is a project with a long gestation period and revenue from term inal operation, when compared to the investment, may not be
attractive. Consider ing this fact, we propose a mix of com.mercial activities together with the main business."

The feasibility report and business plan for the proposed international cruise terminal and public plaza at Mormugao (Goa) has suggested setting
up the world-class facilities on the tested public-private partnership model under the build, operate and transfer (BOT) structure. This study
focuses on designing a Cruise terminal. Thus it is important to study other International Cruise Terminal so as to compare and provide solutions
to meet the terminal requirements on an International level.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE NO.


1. CHAPTER - I SYNOPSIS _
i) INTODUCTION TO THE PROJECT
(1) WHAT IS CRUISE TOURISM?
(2) CRUISE TERMINAL
(3) ROLE OF PORTS
(4) INDIAN SCENARIO

ii) AIM OF THE PROJECT


iii) MAJOR AND MINOR OBJECTIVES
iv) SCOPE OF WORK
v) LIMITATIONS
vi) DESIGN APPROAACH AND METHODOLOGY

2) CHAPTER - 2 LITERATURE REVIEW


3) CHAPTER - 3 CASE STUDIES
(a) KAI TAK CRUISE TERMINAL
(b) YOKOHAMA CRUISE TERMINAL
(c) COCHIN CRUISE TEMINAL
4) CHAPTER -4 SITE ANALYSIS
5) CHAPTER -5 DESIGN CRITERIA

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SYNOPSIS

CHAPTER 1- SYNOPSIS
INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT
1. WHAT IS CRUISE TOURISM?
Tourism has, since the 1950' s, became an extremely popular , global activ ity.
A Cruise is generally a defined package that includes a cruise itinerary spanning a
defined period of time. Cruises, which were at one time considered as the prerogative of
the rich, is today a fast reaching option for the wider leisure market Representing one of

the fastest growing sectors worldwide , Cruise market trends indicate a


qualitative as well as quantitative consolidation in the industry, with
cruising gaining greater significance in the global 'Tourism Pie ' .

There are 4 dominant factors that make up cruising:


1. Attractions - include interesting destinations and itineraries,
2. Facilities on board - include a total holiday and entertainment
package,

3. Transportation - having the ability to move from one place to


another without the need of packing and unpacking at each destination,
4. Hospitality - having professional staff looking after you in luxury.
I
SYNOPSIS

2. CRUISE TERMINAL
Term inal buildi ng is the main building where passengers embark and disembark
watercrafts . The term inals are the ' front door 'to the ports and serve as the publ ic interface
between the waterside and landside elements.

3. ROLE OF PORTS
Ports play an important role in the economics of the coast and are generally centres of
trade and commerce. The seaports of India have played a historical role in the development
of mar itime trade and economy in India.

1.4 INDIAN SCENARIO


Lndia is considered as a preferred cruise destination and has around 7,500 km of natural
peni nsular coastl ine strategically located on the crucial East-West trade route, which IN D IA
links Europe and Far East. The coastline has 13 major ports and about 187 other minor -
and intermed iate ports. While the central government has developed port infrastructure
across the country, and in many cases through private participation, states too now have
become active in developing their coastl ines. Since most major ports on the western coast
in India meet the requisites of a port of call, a nascent trend of cruise ships calling at Indian
ports at regular intervals has started recently in the cruise industry. This has led to the
ports of western coast of India figuring on the itineraries of International Cruise
Ships.

2
SYNOPSIS

AIM OF THE PROJECT


l . The main aim of the design is to provide a cruise terminal which will serve as an intermediate port for international cruises and a
destination for the domestic cruises as the government seeks to give importance to Goa as an overall tourist destination.
2. The terminal should be an initiative to boost Cruise Tourism within the country as well.

MAJOR OBJECTIVES
l . Understanding the ideology of the Cruise Terminal and translati ng it into the built form.
2. Old traditions/art forms which are seen in different parts of the place wi ll yet again be known to the world .
3. Increasing the frequency of cruise liners and thereby generating revenue to the port.
4. Studying site and climate responsive design methods to find context specific solutions.
5. Integrating infrastructure and technology with the building.
6. Make cruise terminals into destinations by themselves.
7. To identify gaps in the infrastructure in the ports for promoti ng cruise passenger lines
8. To assess infrastructure facilities available and required at designation seaports as per the International standard.
9. Identify asset utilization strategies that will optimize benefits to the Port and the County through financial return, market
opportunities, competitive advantage, and econom ic benefit.

MINOR OBJECTIVES
l . Studying the role of Space Conditioni ng in architectural environments. The keywords being Healthy, Safe, Clean and with
thermal, visual and auditory comfort.

3
SYNOPSIS

2. Assessment of the existing status of ecological (terrestrial and marine) and socio-economic aspects of environment.
3. Understanding the design process and role of architecture in the design of cruise term inal.
4. Focus on home porti ng in the long term.
5. Studying the scope of interactivity in Architecture through contemporary materials and techniques and translating the sensory
experiences- warmth, excitement, repose into recognizable building aspects that promote real user response.
6. This new technological achievement is changing in the mere definition of experience and perception. Thereby, sending
conventional architectural definitions of space and sensory experience for a spin. The objectives will be to study the
consequences of this paradigm shift.

SCOPE OF WORK
l . The facilities provided at the present cruise terminals are fall ing short of passenger hand.Jing and services.
2. A berth layout for anchoring cruise vessels and boats.
3. A Club with recreation facil ities such as food courts, restaurants, bars, shopping Area and clubhouse with water related activities.
4. Since the terminal is a public building, it will be open to all kinds of passengers with a diverse range of backgrounds.
5. The design would serve to be as an important structure and gateway to Goa.
6. The scope of work will include:
a. Site planning
b. Term inal building -
../ Arrival Spaces
../ Departure Spaces
../ Offices

4
SYNOPSIS

./ Administration
. / Recreational
Facilities
. / A ccounts department
. / Maintenance
c. Parking spaces - for buses, taxis, auto' s etc.

LIMITATIONS
l . Live case study of international standards for the cruise terminal is limited .
2. Statistically, the international terminal wil l be used 4 times a month.
3. Thus areas are to be provided which will keep the term inal equipped during other times as wel l.
4. Since Goa is an intermediate point, there is no embarkation and disembarkation of luggage's. Thus baggage handling and such
services area are to be looked upon.
5. As far as the domestic cruises are concerned, the development is at a slower pace. Statistics show that the development of
domestic cruises will boost after 10 years.
6. Thus an area would be dedicated as future development but there would be no design for domestic terminal as such.

5
SYNOPSIS

DESIGN APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY


The approach and methodology adopted for the project study is as outlined in the figure below.
1. To carry out live case studies of the cruise terminals for acquaintance
of the topic.
I DATACOLLECTION I
.1,
I
: TALK TO CLIENTSAND USERS I 2. To study and analyze book case studies for a comparati ve analysis.
IREINFORCE VALIDITY I 3. To carry out various interviews for practical input
,
4. To study the information available through various sources for
IDETERlvIINE CONTEX2._j pursuing content of the research topic.
: LITERATURE STUDY I
STAGE I: INPUT
IFINDPROTOTYPES I
UNDERSTAND SITE &
CLIMATE RESPONSIVE
The first stage involved the study of the project site to understand its
STRATEGIES
; UNDERSTAND lNTER..-\CTIVITY
suitabil ity for the defined activity.
I
STAGE II: ANALYSIS
I CONDUCT CASE STUDIES STAGE III: OUTPUT
SITEANALYSIS + - - - CLIMATICSTUDY CONCLUSION
• From the research gathered & documented , a better
understanding of the requirement of such a building shall emerge.
This will positivel y inform the design programme and produce a
DESIGN CONCEPT
well integrated building.
Fig I.I Methodology

• The research will focus on port as one of the key points of entry and will examine the many roles and influences the terminal will
have on the city.
6
SYNOPSIS

THESIS VALIDITY
Thrust area- CRUISE TOURISM

• India ' s reputation as an enchanting, exotic, historic and beautiful destination would enable the country to make an instant
international cruise positioni ng and move into the ' cruise destination 'market.

• Cruise operators and liners are more than ever searching for new destinations and itineraries.

• India 's long coast line and strong port positioning imparts a natural advantage to the country to attract international cruise lines.
• India 's positioning in South East Asia and its proxi mity to already popular cn1isedestinations would enable strong cruise circuits
to be created over a period of time.

• The cruise ports selected for development are also strong tourism states, especiall y Kerala, Goa and Chennai. This could provide
an important platform for cruise tourism to takeoff.

• The government of India has recognized C ruise Tourism as a T h rust Area and initiated a number of positive measures to
promote the cruise industry and position India as a global cruise destination.

• India today is poised for making a significant mark in the international tour ism scenario. WTTC projected India ' s travel and
tourism industry to grow at CAGR of 7.5% up to 2014 much above the expected growth in South East Asia and the world
aggregate level. The WTO projects as annual average growth rate of 6.2% in South Asia over a larger timeframe till 2020.

• To realize this growth target, it would be essential for India to explore all avenues escalating tourism activity in the country
including the extremely attractive area of cruise tourism in which the country has much to offer.

7
LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Cruise tourism made its small beginnings in 1839 as part of the fortnightly crossing mail service between Liverpool and Boston.
In 1907 Cunard introduced a new 30,000-ton class of liner, the Lusitania and Mauretania, mark ing the beginning of leisure passenger travels on
the seas. The twentieth century witnessed other European countries compete for progressively larger and faster passenger ships. These ships
provided three classes of service; first, second and steerage. The first catered to the elite and rich, the second to the white-collar working people
and the steerage to the relatively poor.

PASSENGERS BECOME TOURISTS & SHIPS BECOME FLOATING RESORTS


The increasi ng travel demand through the l 950's and into the 60's kept the liners busy crossing with tourists from both continents . Graduall y the
concept of 'tourist ship passengers, was enhanced with value additions to the accommodations and activities. When the majority of the trans
Atlantic passengers became tourists, the crossings became more festive for the enjoyment and entertainment of passengers. Ships became more l
ike floating resort hotels than mere containers. The object still remai ned to cross, but the theme was to enjoy it.

CRUISE TOURISM
Cruises have grown in popularity amongst tourists in the last few decades. Asia Pacific especially has become a key growth market for the global
cruise category. Today, the cruise industry in India is mainly driven by international tourists, with most of the domestic tourists flying to Singapore
or Hong Kong to embark on cruises. International cruise tourist arrivals in the country have increased five-fold in the past 15 years.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Air has continued to be the predom inant mode of travel for tourist arrivals in India. Arrivals by sea have been negl igible when compared to the
total arrivals in India; however the same have increased by nearly 28 l% from a level of O.O I million tourists in 2002 to about 0.04 million in
2006, registering an impressive increase of 54.44% when compared to the previous year. Over the period 2002-2006, international arrivals to
India by sea grew at a CAGR of 30.70% registering an average YoY growth of 42.9 l %.

India, despite of having 7,500-km-long coastline, 12 major and l 85 minor ports, is yet to make its mark in the global cruise industry. With its
vast and beautiful coastl ine, virgin forests and undisturbed idyllic islands, long historical and cultural tradition of architecture, theatre and
performi ng arts, India can be a destination of choice for cruise tourists.

Cruise tourism has huge potential in India because of the rising disposable income of people. I t may be an expensive branch of tourism
entertainment but cruises are becoming more and more affordable to vacationers and tour ists in India. India today presents a largely unexplored
cruise tourism market with almost I00% of its potential waiting to be explored.

India, with its diverse landscape, offers huge scope for various theme-based travels like Medical Tourism, Adventure tourism, Heritage tourism,
Well ness tourism , Pilgrimage tourism, Golf tourism, MICE, Eco-tourism , Wildl ife tourism.

INDIA NEEDS TO GEAR UP FOR THE CHALLENGE


Ports constitute the core infrastructure requirement of the cruise sector. If india wishes to integrate her position in this market Indian ports would
have to meet internationall y accepted standards of port infrastructure, passenger services, linkages, other conveniences and amenities.
Internationally, cruise terminals are similar in facil ities and services offered to tourist at airports. Whereas the major airports in India are designed

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LITERATURE REVIEW

to international standards, most of the Indian ports lack dedicated facil ities for cruise tourism and do not offer the basic standards or the amenities
expected. Cruise terminals represent the entry point of the cruise tourists into various tourism locations and offer important opportunity to market
the country 's brand, its culture, heritage, cuisine and other offerings. Cruise tourism development would be impossible without all strategies
being preceded by an integrated and sustained development of the identified cruise ports.

POTENTIAL FOR CRUISE TOURISM


Demand for Indian Cruise tourism would arise from 4 segments
• The Foreign Tourists who represent the International Arrivals into India would offer the greatest potential representing tourists who are
already interested in India as a destination and for whom the Cruise would be another mode of seeing the country.
• The Indian Outbound Tourists who travel out of India also offer a high potential because of their interest in foreign travel and would be
very open to the idea of taking a cruise from India that visits foreign destinations.
• The Indian Domestic Leisure Tourists represent active high value domestic leisure travellers who are active travellers inside the country
and can be effectively targeted to take a cruise.
• The current Cruise Tourists, both International and Indian, would be good targets. I t is know that cruise tourists are repeat travellers and
therefore offer a great potential. Current cruise tourists, who form part of the existing & future cruise tourism market, can be attracted by
creating new itineraries and destinations in India.

Assessing the potential from each of these segments based on current trends and forecasts it is estimated that by the year 2030-31 a market size
of 1.2 million cruise tourists. These are conservative estimates and the actual potential may be much higher depending on the infrastructure
developed and the marketi ng efforts undertaken .

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LITERATURE REVIEW

' Cruise Tourism ' represents one such avenue where far reaching developments have been witnessed worldwide with India having no claim to
even a marginal positioning.

I. I n 2002 North America, which forms around 71% of the international cruise demand, had 7.64 mill ion cruise travellers while the same
period saw only 0.0 12 million cruise tourists in India, representing less than 0. 16%.

It is thus clear that, despite its position on the south pacific international sea-route, an impressive 7516 km coastline, several natural ports and
breathtaking destinations; India has continued to miss out on the cruise tourism potential.

CRUISE TOURISM - GLOBAL SCENARIO

Region No. of Tourists (in millions) Percentage Share


Europe 337.2 59.4 At global level, Tourism has emerged as one of the major
USA 1 1 1.9 19.7 economic activities today . In 1995, the World Tourist
East Asia & Pacific 84.0 14.8
arrival was about 567.4 mill ion of which Europe' s share
Africa 18.8 3.3
Middle East 1 1.1 2.0 way by USA with 20%. The share of South Asia region
South Asia 4.4 0.8
was as low as 0.8%
World Total 567.4 100.0
Share of India 2.1 0.4

Accordi ng to WTO estimates, Europe will continue to remain the most popular tourist destination with about 717 million tourist estimated for the
year 2020. International tourist's arrival in South Asia is expected at 19 mill ion in 202, which is almost 5 times that of 1995, but still it is quite low
as compared to other destinations .

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LITERATURE REVIEW
India is expected to fuel 4.5 times

growth in International tourist arrivals, more than half of the total arrivals in South Asia.

Aboard On the ship. Opposite of ashore.


Ashore On shore. Opposite of aboard .
At Anchor The position of the ship after it has dropped anchor.
Berth 1. The particular parking space in which the ship docks at the pier. 2. your cabin beds. 3. What you m ight experience
nine months after a romantic cruise.
Baggage A mechanical device for transferri ng baggage from a moving conveyor belt to a baggage claim counter in such manner
diverter that the baggage is evenly distributed along the baggage counter.
Boarding The poi nt at which a passenger's credentials are inspected to assure that he is authorized to board a particular flight.
control point Normall y, this poi nt is located in the vicinity of the gate from which the flight will depart.
Bunkering To take on fuel. Sometimes an announcement may be made such as "Smoking will not be allowed for the next 6 hours as
we are bunkering".
Gate An extension from the main terminal building primarily intended to provide protected access for passengers between the
concourse main terminal buildi ng and the gates.
Debarkation Exiting the ship, usually at the end of your cn1ise.
Disem bark Exiting the ship, usually at the end of your cn1ise.
Dock Act of parking a ship at the pier.
Draft 1. Depth of water a ship draws (how far down into the water the ship's hull reaches), especially when loaded. 2. Beer
dispensed from a tap.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Draught 1. Depth of water a ship draws, especially when loaded. 2. Beer dispensed from a tap.
Embark To board a ship, especially at the start of your cruise.
Embarkation To board a ship, especially at the start of your cruise.
Fathom A measure of water depth equal to six feet.
Gangway I . Opening in the side of a ship through which it is boarded or provisioned. 2. What you hear when the buffet first
opens.
Knot One nautical mile per hour. (One knot is about 15% faster than one mile per hour).
Nautical 6,080.2 feet Sl ightly more than 1.15 land miles.
Mile

Pilot Local from shore who is responsible for bringi ng the ship into and out of your Port of Call .
Port I . The left side the ship. Easy to remember because PORT and LEFT each has 4 letters. 2. Short for "port of call".
Port of Call A destination that your ship stops at on your voyage.
Promenade A ship's "shopping mall"-
Quay (Pronounced "key") a dock, berth or pier.
Stack I. Ship's smokestack. 2. How many ships they can get into the same port of call at one time.
Starboard The right-hand side of the ship. STARBOARD and RIGHT HAND each have nine letters.
Tender The smaller ship, boat, or lifeboat used to transfer passengers from the ship to the shore and back again when the ship is
anchored offshore.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

FLOW DIAGRAM- INTERNATIONAL & DOMESTIC TOURISTS LANDSIDE FUNCTIONS

domes1ic
transit intem a tion-al domestic
Arriving at or leaving the terminal by car

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LITERATURE REVIEW
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CHECK-IN LAYOUTS :
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HELIPORT IMMIGRATION COUNTER LAYOUTS


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LITERATURE REVIEW

PORT SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND TECHNICAL DETAILS

SHOCK ABSORBER :
• Provided to neutralize the impact of vessel on the berth
• Horizontal movement provided exactly below where the ship 1s --
anchored .

BUOYS:
• Used for temporary anchor and direction
• They are anchored or piled indicators placed along the whole width of the navigation channel.

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNIQUES:


The port areas are always affected by sewage disposal and get accum ulated over the stagnant zones. The algae
formation is another drawback . The high tide and low tide influences the movement of algae in and out the port
region. The algae' s are dangerous for speed boats, since it clogs inside the propellers. The floating layer of algae
makes the speed boats to slip over losing control.

Generally two methods are used to tackle these problems.

1) Tugs are tied to the floating net and the algae film is wiped out to the shore.

2) The sewage and oil films over the channel are removed by installing temporary sucking pump system.

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i,!I)• !!) I
DRAFT REQUIREMENT
Draft of various cruises helps in selecting the site as the
depth varies. These also help to know if the cruise a certain
depth can embark on site

MATERIALS

Fixed piers are open to a wide range of construction


material, steel, concrete & timber is the most common and combination of these materials is used. In constant water level areas a fixed systems is
an obvious choice, piles may be driven and capped off 610-914mm above the surfaces of the beam

SELECTION OF MOORING SYSTEMS DEPENDS ON FOLLOWlNG FACTORS:

I . Tidal range
2. The qual ity of the bed or holdi ng ground
3. To what extent the site is sheltered
4. The depth of water
5. The speed and direction of the expected currents
6. Wind speeds and wave height
7. Capital and maintenance costs

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LITERATURE REVIEW LENGTHOF
833%MAX. S lOPE ALONG
RAMP
SHIP
.
SHIP MOORING PROCEDURES
\IERTICAL W IM )()W
OFACCE:SSllllUTY"
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TICKETING/ QUEUING
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BAGGAGE H ANDLING
HEIGHTABOVEAPRONTO
VARY DUE TO TIDAL RANGE APRON INTERMOOAI.ZONE
_, , . - - -
CRUISE TERMINAL
TIDAL RANGE
..!r - -

ARRIVAL PROCEDURE
J
• Information is passed to the port by ship authorities a
DEPARTURE (VESSEL CALL OUT)
month before arrival. • Captain announces the time for callout
• Schedule is prepared by docks manager. • Customs officers are send to inspect the
• Short list is passed to section superintendent engineer/ vessel.
mooring section I survey section about the allotted berth . • Survey sect. Engineers check the
• Vessel reaches the outer sea, anchor in buoys-conveys technical side & channel draft.
signal to port. • Customs /survey section gives the green
• Port manager informs the moonng section and the
signal .
customs. • Pilot boards the vessel to direct the tugs
• Survey I mooring section check the berth & foreman
• Tugs drag the vessel to outer sea.
appoints Dockers. • When the vessel reaches the outer sea, the
• Customs boats with mooring pilots are send for
pilot boat is sent back.
prel iminary check. • Note: Width of the channel must be twice
• Dockers send the tugs. Pilots direct the tugs the length of ship. The height of hand rail
• Tugs drag the vessel to the allotted berth.
is l m.

18
..-((·1j:,:; !:Ji ! 1h:J •f31JJ.Jlr.till
'
f ....... ,,,.,,. ......,
LITERATURE REVIEW

SPACE STANDARDS I PASSENGER TRAVEL DISTANCE TO EMERGENCY


FOR TERMINAL BUILDING
STAIRCASE
1. Check in Area: 1.4sqm ( !) Every building meant for human occupancy
shall be provided with emergency exit
2. Departure lounge: l .8sqm
sufficient to permit safe escape of occupants in

3. Bars I Shopping areas: 2.l sqm case of fire or whenever other emergency
occurs.
4. Arrival lounge: 1.5sqm
(2) Emergency exits shall be located in such a

5. Baggage claim I Reclaim : L6sqm way that the travel distance on each floor shall
not exceed 30 metres for every occupant.
6. Customs I immigration : 2.0sqm

7. Circulation areas: 2.0sqm

19
..-((·1j:,:; !:Ji ! 1h:J •f31JJ.Jlr.till
' .......
f ,,,.,,. ......,
CASE STUDIES

CHAPTER 3 - CASE STUDIES


KAI TAK CRUISE TERMINAL, HONG KONG
MASTER PLAN OF KAI TAK DEVELOPMENT - VISION
A Distinguished, Vibrant, Attractive and People-oriented Kai Tak by Victoria Harbour

PLANNING PRINCIPLES
• Continuous publ ic part icipation in the planning and development of Kai Tak
• Planning Kai Tak for sustainable and environmental ly friendly development
• Designing Kai Tak as Hong Kong 's showcase for good landscaping and urban design
• Designing Kai Tak as a hub for sports, recreation, tourism, and quality housing
• Maximizi ng waterfront for pubIic enjoyment
• Respecting the heritage value of the ex-Kai Tak Airport
• Integrating Kai Tak with its surrounding
• Providing opportunities for revital izing the surrounding districts
DESIGN CONCEPT
Concept I: City in the Park (Residential option)
Concept 2: Kai Tak (Business and Tourism option) - To regenerate the economic role of the
ex-airport site by providing a high density office node adjoining the multi-purpose stadium in the North Apron Area, to a cruise termina l
and tourism node at the runway end.
Concept 3: Sports by the Harbour (Recreat ional option)

20
CASE STUDIES

KEY DEVELOPMENT COMPONENTS


With the Government's policy support, the followi ng
key development components have been incorporated
I) Cruise Term nai l

a) one berth in medium term


b) one to two additional berths in long term
2) Cross-boundarv Heliport
3) Multi-purpose Stadium (23.5 ha)
a) Main stadium : 45,000 seats, with retractable
roof
\
b) Secondary stadium : 5,000 seats View to mount parker
c) Sports arena : 4,000 seats with swimming pool
and ball courts
4) Shatin-to-Central Link (SCL)
(4.2ha)

Cruise Term inal

21
CASE STUDIES

Kai Tak Metro Park - forming a central park across Indoor sports arena Main Stadium

North Apron (at least 10 ha)

5) Premier Office Node - facing the Harbour and


next to SCL Station
6) Nevv San Po Kong - mixed commercial area
adjacent to San Po Kong serving as the new
gateway of Kai Tak and a catalyst for regeneration
_n.a.•,
7) Island & Waterfront Living - residential clusters on the runway islands (9 ha)
8) Water Glamour - water fountain and water curtain film show at the waterfront of
Ma Tau Kok and Kai Tak Approach Channel
9) Kai Tak Promenade - runway promenade with historical displays and cultural
activities and a runway park with facilities of aviation or other themes is proposed
at runway end
Legend:
10)Harbour-front Promenade and Park Network - from To Kwa Wan to Kwun Tong
along the harbour front and also throughout the study area
---- Waterfront
Promenade

11)Pedestrian Kai Tak - pedestrian connections of various forms and settings.

22
CASE STUDIES
J "
i

CASE STUDY-I
KAI TAK CRUISE TERMINAL SITE --- '
, ·•- U \
Architect: Norman Foster + partners ' ... I'
I
I

· t• .I
I
. ...
I
'
,' '
SITE INFORMATION
' - --
• About 7.6 hectares at the southern end of the former runway, with a waterfront of about 800m long, and is between 60 m and 100
m wide Access road
• Height restriction: maximum buildi ng height of 35m.
Entry gates
LOCATION

• Because of its promi nent position on the South China Sea and in Southern Asia, Thanks
to the cruise terminal built on the former runway of Kai Tak airport, the city achieved its
objective, and it has become a hub for luxury cruises in Asia. The project symbolises the
stature of the city and illustrates the need to support the tourist industry in a territory that
Gangways
attracts more than 50 million visitors each year.
SITEBOUNDARY
'°""'
ACCESS TO THE SITE
1. BY RAIL ••illl•ro U • lli i

• Elevated monorail system; 9km long, 12 stations




Connect to SCL Kai Tak Station, MTR
All major metro areas within 10 km (6 mi).
Kowloon Bay Station and Kwun Tong Station
_ - -.....

23
CASE STUDIES

• 5 km (3 mi) by road to Hung Hom train station, with rail connections to Shenzhen,
Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing and other Chinese cities.

1. BY ROAD
• Distributor Roads D2 and D3
• Central Kowloon Route+
• Existing Kai Tak Tunnel
2. BY AIR

• 10 km (6 mi) by road to Kowloon Station Airport Express Line and


airline check-i n.

.,
t
Airport N

,/
3.PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIVITY and Elevated ··
·.• ·.. ... '\'I,.
. ....

PEDESTRIAN
- :'· .,'\,
..···· ..
·..··..·\ .. /
4. FERRY: In addition to land based transportation, the
- Cf:RCULATION ······L
terminal can be accessed from the Hong Kong Island via
a scenic ferry ride from North Point or Sai Wan Ho pier to Kwun Tong pier, and then changing
to a taxi.

-.... .....
=- . ,
-..
.. ·

24

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CASE STUDIES

KAI TAK APPROACH CHANNEL


Problem: The key environmental problem s of KTAC are the
existing odour problem from poor water and sediment qualities at
embayed water bodies
Solution: A 600 m opening at the former runway is proposed to
facilitate water circulation and improve water qual ity.
Use Bio-remediation method to break down odorous materials and
organic pollutants to address odour problem
THE TERMINAL SURROUNDING

1. The planned cruise termi nal with necessary site formation works can berth two mega cruise ships and accommodate the essential
cruise operation and facilities on site without reclamation.
2. At the south-western tip of the runway abutting the end of the cruise terminal, an at-grade cross-boundary heliport site is
reserved to serve cross-boundary travellers in synergy with the customs and excise, immigration and quarantine (CIQ) facilities
provided for the cruises.
3. Adjacent to the cruise terminal will be the tourism node housing a great variety of retail and entertainment facilities. A high-rise
hotel is planned with publ ic observation gallery at its top floor. It will form a magnificent landmark at this part of the harbour,
while commanding the gorgeous harbour view. The tour ism node will also provide suitable pedestrian access to and landscaping
measures to blend in with the Runway Park.
4. A runway park will be the dominant use at the end of the runway with aviation and other themes .

25
CASE STUDIES

CRUISE TERMINAL
AREA STATEMENT
New Bui ldings V .1
I) Terminal area- 32,000 sq. m Provisional Platin11n1

2)Landscaped area- 23,000 sq.m


Total Score: 8 0 .0
3) Commercial area- 5,600 sq.m
4)Total built up area- 40,600 sq. m
5) F.A .R- 0.53

Construction of a cruise terminal building at the southern tip of the


former Kai Tak runway accommodate the following -
(a) Customs, Immigration, Quarantine and Police (CIQP) facil ities for cruise terminal operation and CIQP facilities for the future
heliport development;
ORIENTATION:
(b) Accommodation for the future heliport operator;
(c) Accommodation for the Hong Kong Tourism Board;
(d) Supporting facilities
(e) Ancillary commercial areas;
(t) Pick-up and drop-off areas for var ious types of vehicles and parki ng spaces w- - - - - - - E
(g) A landscaped deck;
Apron Facil ities- passenger gangways, electricity supply system, on-shore water supply, ,, ,,
''
on-shore sewage reception facilities, external lighting, navigation lighting, fire fighting
'' s _,,'
' '

provisions, cable containment for telephone and data, etc.

2
6
CASE STUDIES

DESIGN OF TERMINAL BUILDING

../ The terminal has a generous, rectangular footprint and is arranged over three main levels, encased by a lattice of large white
' fins' that allow dayl ight to filter through to the passenger waiting spaces.
../ The design is highly flexible, incorporati ng spaces that are suitable for alternative functions and enabl ing the building to be used
all year round, fully utilising ' down time' .
../ The sustainable design also combines a number of energy saving measures, as well as generati ng power from renewable sources
and making use of recycled rain water for cooling.
../ Services are integrated with the structure and the different levels are fused with the surrounding pedestrian walkways.
../ A pedestrian route starting from the waterfront promenade progresses up through the building and opens onto a large publ ic roof
garden, with open and sheltered spaces for informal picnics and outdoor dining, set against the stunning backdrop of the city.

GROUND FLOOR PLAN


-&
EN rAANCE HALL )(jI r i A U ENTRANCE HALL B AGGAG HANDLING AREA DRIVEWAY COACH STAGIN<
COACH & f AGIN G A I W \ .,,,
BAGGAGE HANm.JNGAREA

••
- - - •- - - --.- - --

OFFICE O FFICE ArRIUM CUSTOMS HAl.L A i td U M


SECOND BERTH FIRS I BERTH
/\ 0

2
7
CASE STUDIES

24-0m
Ground floor has the following areas:
ENTRANCE
l. Apron 16 M WTDE
FOYER
2. Entrance halls ROAD
3. Waiting halls- 5800 sq.m
4. Baggage handl ing area-
12600sqm
5. Custom hall
6. Atrium
7. Office areas
8. Baggage handl ing area TERMINAL
9. Coach staging area CIRCULATION

. / The spacious interior spans just over 42 metres and the waiti ng areas can be
converted into a venue for performances, events and exhibitions, supported by
a variety of restaurants and shops.
./ The terminal has capacity to berth two large 360-metre-long vessels, each with
more than 4,000 passengers and over 2,000 numbers of crew, as well as
anticipating the demands of a next generation of larger ships.

./ The Iinear arrangement


of light-filled passenger
areas is characterised by
its clarity and ease of
._ - - ---'- ...;..._ ---w A==:
. ...
use.
CASE STUDIES

OPERATIONAL ARRANGEMENT S AT KAI TAK CRUISE TERMINAL (DEPARTURE)

Cruise Vessel CUSTOMS, IMMIGRATION & HEALTH QUARANTINE AREA


Upper Deck For
Pa ssengersAnd
.--- - - - - - - -
I Customs Clearance I<- -
- - - - - -
Passengers I I CRillSE TERMINALSUPPORTIVE AREAS
Cre\v Boarding
T
Im m igration
G: I
and crew
- alre.ady
cleared on
! ·· ······

nI
········ ·················· ···········
I
·····
····· ··
Non -group
I Crew : : Ticketing Areas I - passengers
Clearance for
Pa ssengers and
I board H without tickets

In ! r3l
I
Crew
Departure
Gl Cruise [!]
- terminal Pa ssengerWaiting
\
- :
-- Group
IPa ssenger & ,f:"" G operator to I And Check-in
Pa ssengers
Ierew to be -- I
', GJ Areas
c1eared onland Port H ealth
direct
_accordingly! Security ' .
1 Screening
- Screening -- [2J
- - - - - - - - 1- H
Non-group

rLp-A;GGAGE
-
-- --- AREA ..
B.aggage Drop--0ff -- passengers with
. . '' '' Counter ticket;,
- ..,
I --1Baggage handling area I -
I-
-
-
I
I Security
S reening
- r

-
: - - _ screening _ _ _ JI
_ _ _Customs
.
...... -
Cruise Vessel
Lower Deck For
r- - - - - Customs
- - -screening
- -l- - - - -...-....-.....
-....
- I....Mail
..........................................•
& postal PEOPLE FLOW -- - +
1 I provision s and - -).,. BAGGAGE FLOW
rvlail and Post al & clearance supplies for cruise
Package , I Apron operation
Security I vessels
- ) PEOPLE & BAGGAGE FLOW
Supplies and I Screening I - ) PROVISIONS, STAFF FLOW
Baggage l_ APRO!:_ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Operator staff

2
9
CASE STUDIES

OPERATIONAL ARRANGEMENT S AT KAI TAK CRUISE TERMINAL (ARRIVAL)


Cruise Vessel C
Upper Deck For r- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
USTOtl.'1S, IlvfMIGRATION & HEALTH QUARANTINE AREA
Passengers And . Cruise terminal ) PEOPI!.E FLOW
Port Health S creerung operator to direct
Crew Disembark I 121 accordingly
) BAGdAGE FLOW
IPassengers - - - -
I
-, ) PEOPLB & BAGGAGE FLO\V
I and crew
r -L..:...J_
- ) P R O V I S I ONS, STAFF
I FLOW
cleared with Inunigration Clearance
Ibaggage for Pa ssengers and 3 Passenger &
I CrewAnival
I
crew cleared on
IPassenger & oard "i' thout
crew cleared Passenger& aggage
Ion land with t - --+- - . crew cleared on I
Ibaggage J----J" -- - - ..r- and 'ithout
L_ _ _ _ - - - _ _agga - I
IBAGGAGE ARU - - - - - - - - - - ...---- ..., Public
- -----< .,... Customs clearance for t---t
I aaage
, . . . . - Bao o g& passengers &'crew transport
I han collection area .... , '\\- or without I
I Custom i...--- - i th baggage
screening . , I
I-
Cruise \ Tessel
Lower Deck For
--- -- -- - - -- - -- 0--Waste disposal
:rYlail and Postal Customs screening L r

Package , & clearance l"\i I cargo,mail &


postal packages
Supplies and . _ Security
+ - Apron - - Screening
Baggage operation
APRON AREA ·- - - - - •-IOperator staff
30
CASE STUDIES
COACH STAGING BAGGAGE
AREA HANDLING AREA

• Along the 61Omlong


terminal, the ground floor
consist a total of 3 1
staircases and 14 escalators.
• Spacing b/w lifts- 30 m
approx.
Vertical circulation

Escalators
0

......-:=-==-==
--:=-==-=:-= ,--1.i•FI- - ..._
....=:.=i ""• -_...- - :_ - - - - - - - - - - - .1.1!'.& ,. The building has
BAGGAG E
OFFICE ENTRANCE HA LL EXIT HALL adopted a wide span
HANDLING AREA
design, which enables
the conversion of the
passenger waiting hall
into other uses (such as
_
t __ __
- --
--fo - -
- ..- - - meetings, conferences,
- - - - - exhibitions and
.. banquets) during off
peak cruise periods to
BAGGAGE achieve maximum
HANDLING potential from this
prime location.

31
CASE STUDIES
B AGGAGE COACH STAGING
ENTRANCE HA LL DRIVEWAY
HAN D fNG

- - =-- - - -
-

CUSTO
HA LL @• c CJ CJ

APRON

ATRIU M

• Four atria and six large skyl ights draw natural


light to the building

• Curved buildi ng facades with low-e double

glazing Ln
tr iangular
shape

32
'::J
RESERV!OO AAcAS F
CASE STUDIES PARKING PLACE ATR UM OPERATION OF THE HE

- -...e=-
L__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _J
PARKING ATRIUM OFFICE
MEZZANINE FLOOR
11
--

,.. * .. :y - -
/:,J:... ( T T l --
- - LJ

is above ground .
floor.
1!/J '!1 'J '/J J I/
RAMP UP
I:: t ' t
-.:: """'"'! 1 L - l
h1::><
_ l _ L -- -+ -- --
-:
H J L ---,u'1- , '
.
--r--
1 I I
I " 1111Ill
- --
I
80-90 cars at this -
floor. 85m 700m

L___
1

RAMP DOWN
• Provision of I0
-- - - -- - - - - -- - - -- -- - - - - -- --
A.H.U. rooms
• 4 atriums provided for natural ventilation .
• Access to hel iport OFFICE ATR I M CONCOURSE AHU ROOM AT IUM

-
T =t= ;;;;;::;---+-_:_ ----·-,
1-1- 1
-- - - - - -
• • . .- - .l 'I r•.
700m
33
PARKING ATRIUM

65m
I

FIRST FLOOR PLAN -- -- -- - - -- -- -- -- -


PU 6 l1C C LONl'IAOE ATR UM IMMIGRAT Ol'I HALL l 'TRIVM ATR UM I.AND ?ED DECK

L__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
I
__ ·
- ------------ ------------------------------_J
__ __ ANCIU ARY COMMERCIAL AREAS l 'NCILlARY COMMERCIAL l 'REAS

LA N DSC PED DECK ATRIUM PUBLIC C OLONNADE ATR IUM

First floor consists of the following areas:

I. Landscaped deck
2. Public colonnade
3. Immigration hall
4. Check-in and waiting area- 5800
sq m
5. atrium
60m 110m
COMMERCI L AREAS

34
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CASE STUDIES
IMM IGRATIO N HALL ATR IUM & WAITING AREA ATR IUM LAN DSCAPED DECK

SECOND FLOOR PLAN COMMERCIAL AREAS

A I B
ANCILLARY COMMtRCIAI. AREAS LAND5CAPEDDECK I \ LAtlDSCAPED DECK ANCILLARYCOMMd<CIAL AREAS
If'\\
/ I \\

4&i- !J'irfl ..
I I

L------------------------- -i<!"!---- --------- - K ! ---- 1'*'' _ _ _ _ _ _j


Second floor consists of the following areas:

1. Commercial areas
2. Landscaped deck
3. . Skylights
4. Atrium
All the commercial areas at both ends of the second floor
of the terminal building have retail shops, a cafe, a money
exchange shop, a Chinese restaurant and other eateries.

35
( CASE STUDIES
I
)- - I I
ANCILLARY COMMERCIAL AREAS LANDSCAPED DECK / / \ \\
I I \

L : j -:_=::;,..:t - = r - - - - :..:-:.-.-
- :.tiiiliff_l""_
_ I
--
0 0 00 0 0 0 0

----=:-::-=::::_ ---- --
I 0 0 0 0 0 oo
---- ----
I 0 0 0 0 0 oo

j 'lm
9m


011 •l 517m
4 Hectares of green roof & 132 photovoltaic panels LANDSCAPED DECK ANCILLARY COMMERCIAL AREAS ARCHITECTURAL
ROOF CANOPY
• The roof landscape decks minimise the heat island effect
---,
• The rooftop houses three commercial spaces each 354.7 oo
--,.:-_ _I_t-§!J - -- -'rd - - - - - - . - - - -,
0
0 0 0 :...
0 0 I II
sq.m. I 3,818 sq.ft. In size. 0 0 oo
0 0 0 0 0 oo
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I
I I
'"- - - - f:lol-
• Two of the commercial spaces are located at the south 00000 00 0 0 0 0
+==lli:;::=-:t t = = L_::::f
east and south-west end (berth l ) of the Terminal.
45m
• The third commercial space is located at the north-east
SKYLIGHT
end (berth 2) of the Terminal. The I

spaces are readily accessible to


I
both cruise ship passengers
• The three commercial spaces are
part of a grand 22,000 sq.m.
Landscaped roof deck, featuring
leisure facilities run by Leisure and
Cultural Services Deptt.

36
CASE STUDIES

• A pedestrian promenade rises up through the term inal and opens onto a large public roof
garden. The rooftop has a beautifully manicured garden ideal for photo-taking, set against
the stunning backdrop of the harbour.

Ancillary commercial area at the roof


level

Waiting areas of the terminal are easily


re-purposed for special events

Colonnade in Kai Tak Cruise Termi nal

I N ight View of the Terminal Section of the Terminal

37
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CASE STUDIES

AREA MALE FEMALE


PROVISION OF TOILETS
WC URINAL WC
In the current design, in addition to the 10toilets for the
Landscaped Deck 8 8 16
disabled, the cn1iseterminal building is provided with toilet
Ancillary Commercial Area 12 IO 28
facilities representing a raise of 40 % over the minim um
Passengers Check-In And 26 16 54
requirement of sanitary fitments required for the public
Waiting Areas
PROVISION OF BABY CARE ROOMS Baggage Handling Areas 10 8 26
The cruise terminal building has a total of 4 baby care rooms Sub Total 56 42 124
in the landscaped deck and the passengers check-in and
waiting areas.

GREEN FEATURES
Green features in relation to conservation of energy,
0•
•• • S O L A R H OT W ATER S Y ST E M

adoption of renewable energy and recycl ing includes: L A N D S C A PE D


D EC K S K Y L IG H T

• 1 ..- . -
• The Cruise Terminal Building util izes the Kai Tak
S E L F.SH A DIN G ATR IU M
D ES IG N
District Cooling System (DCS) as its main chilled
water circulation system. There are sub-stations in
the terminal to cater for the air-conditioning
requi red for the terminal operation facilities and
commercial area.

• The carriageway on the ground and first floors are


naturally ventilated, with wind flows assisted by
CASE STUDIES

ceiling mounted extraction fans along the boundary.


70m

8m

"""""
,.. «. 5 m

l - - , . - - - - - - - -1- - - - - i - - - - - t - - - - -
1'
12.5m
l •IGHT LIMIT
HE
The main heating plant for the air-conditioning 1s
provided by water-to-water heat pumps in energy
' s.om ROOF
-"-
efficient manner.
8.Sm
T h iIGRATCO HALL FIRST FLOOR • Solar panels installed on the roof provide hot

8.om water for use in showers in the building.


EXITllALL MEZZANINE FLOOF
• The building employs photovoltaic panels to generate
8.Snl
'
APRO N GROUND FLOOR zero carbon electr icity on site. Rainwater and AIC
condensate water recycling assist in reducing the
SECTIONA-A
70m

potable water demand for irrigation. f---i- ---r----


1 '
---------------J 5.0 m
HEIGHT LIMIT

J" •
ROOF
• At the roof garden area, a portion of
8.5m
external lighting is provided by solar FIRST FLOOR
"
energized lighting system in order to
8.0 m
emphasize the application of recycle TAXI P CK-1.1 ' MEZZANINE FLOOR
v

energy in this buildi ng as well .


I 8.5m

APRON GROUND FLOOR

39
CASE STUDIES

STRUCTURE f :a :
• One of aspects of the structure includes the innovative bridge engineeri ng
U MfTl!RlllPA H A f t l P ACUA'OOl l l - TH I
4
techniques adopted in its construction and the extensive use of sustainable
elements.
• The main building is a three-level concrete structure on a footprint of 610m x
--·
G l ' lrM .&. .

70m, with an apron area of 850m x 35m.


• The 44.7m-wide column-free layout in combination with high loading
requirements meant that extensive post-tensioni ng was needed.
• More than 2,000t of post-tensioning steel was installed.
• The precast secondary beams of the first and second floors are supported on the primary box beams.
• The precast secondary beams of 1st and 2nd floor are spaced at 5.6m

SITE FORMATION
• Construction of an apron area, including piled structures.
BERTH DETAILS
• The terminal cover 76,000 sq.m of land with the quay of 2 berths covering about 850m in
length and 35 m in width .
• The first berth covers a length of 455 m while the second berth covers a length of 395 m.
• The terminal is capable of berthing 2 mega size cruise ships simultaneously.

40
CASE STUDIES

LANDSCAPING OF KAI TAK CRUISE TERMINAL

The Landscape Design:-


(i)Originating with the concept of "Hills, City and Waterfront" from the interpretation of the project location;
(ii)) Creating interesting experiences through the matrix of helix foot path circulation with ramps universally accessible to all landscape
areas;
(iii) ) Wave-l ike roll ing landforms reflecting the undulating internal roof structure.

The Landscape consists of:-


(i) 1F Tree lined Arrival Allee leading visitors into the building for further exploration;
(ii) ) 2F North and South Terraces commanding unobstructed distant views of urban and natural landscapes of Hong Kong;
(iii)) RF Major activity zones along the
central spine mimicking the urban area
("City");

(iv) RF Series of intimate landscape gardens T T f- - - T-


viewing at distance the hillside in the back of INTERPRETATION OF SITE - 'Hills, City and Waterfront'

Kwun Tong ("Hills");


(v)RF Viewi ng steps and platforms in front
of Victoria Harbour for enjoyment of its
view. ("Waterfront").

HELIX FOOTPATH CIRCULATION AND ZONING

41
CASE STUDIES
Al),.\._ B

PLANNING DESIGN CONCEPT


. : : - 1 ------- .:.I.:..:.
L._ .._ __ ,._,._·- ·- ·- ..- ·_ .._ ._ .. ....!.
J...::2:.:::
- ·- -.!!. - - · - ·- ·- ·..!!R
==t__
. : .....- 2 '.. - ·- · ·
J
r il
...- .._ ..

SE..
2f RF 2f
(
J. E )

2F PARK 2/F
0£0< DECK
PLAZA

Aui.E
"'- ...
Planting Selection Criteria and Concept:
Seasonal Effect
l . To accentuate and distinguish activity zones of Water
January
Garden, Central Lawn and Park Plaza along the central
spine;
2.To meet functional requirements - Provide shading, April
varying colour, and texturally rich quality;
3.To meet site conditions - Be small /medium-size , salt,
wind and drought tolerance in an exposed environment ; August

4. To echo with CEDD Greening Master Plan Guidelines


- Incorporate a few species into the planting palette;
5. To meet maintenance requirement - common exotic December

and native woody species for ease of maintenance.

42
CASE STUDIES

( GF). lF (
) 2F )
( LANDSCAPING MASTER PLAN
ARRI VAL
PLAZA
,, LEGEND
G 1) Arrival Plaza 10) Winter Garden
2) Arrival Allee 11) Landscaped Garden
3) Buffer Planti ng Area 12) Central Lawn
4) 2f North Terrace 13) Park Plaza
5) 2F South Terrace 14) Sitting out Area
Total Sit e Area : 46,2 50 sq1n Landscape a t GF and l f 6) Viewing Lawn 15) Platform Area
Roof Area: 31,900sq m 7) Shops 16) Viewing Platform
Landscape Area: 32,000 sqm 8) Atrium 17) Viewing steps
Plant in g Area: 16 700sq n1 9) Toilets 18) Covered Walkway

19) Sit out Area at Atrium 20) Shade Structure 21) Lawn Area 22) Fountain Plaza 23) Park Office

Site Conditions - Measures


(1) 1Om Security Zone from Cruise Vessels - Planting Buffer;
(2) Universal Accessibility - Ramp System/Braille Map/Audio;
(3) Exposed to All Weathers- Seats under Covered Walkway/Atrial/Tree Planting for Shades.

43
CASE STUDIES

--- -- -- -- ':!!..- ".!- - -- - ----J


LANDSCAPE MASTER PLAN- PA RT PLAN -I
.---- =L=-:::::;--
:=================--.
·- - - - - - -- -- -- -- - - -- - -..!.. . - --..!..
. . .! " . !

GF- ARRJVAL PLAZA IF- ARRJVAL ALLEE 2F- NORTH TERRACE


Connection to broader Kai Tak The tree lined arrival Allee Terrace with unobstructed views to RF- VlEWING LAWN
Waterfront Promenade inviting visitors with seating along leads Kowloon, provided with plenty of
into the publ ic spaces of the Crujse visitors further into the seating areas framed by diverse and Space for viewing and art
Terminal Building building colourful low shrub planti ng events

c- Nt
-JJ.:•[------- J--r- -------------------
• 7f=:' f
-- ------------ --------------------
tom security zoo from CftJ•$e v e - s ls
:1_ _ _ _ . , . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _

RF- WATER GARDEN

An intimate pond surrounded by layers of


lush planti ng showcasing aquatic plants

IF- ARRJYAL ALLEE 2F- NORTH TERRACE

44
j\
1/\\
CASE STUDIES
..
-
• _,J.. l !> - -

LANDSCAPE MASTER PLAN- PART PLAN- II L - - - ·- ·- ·- ·- ·- ·- ·- ·- ·- - --..!!!!• "")".J2 ; ' ! _ ._ _2 .'!?..._ . _ . "!!..• ...!!' !.!2:'!-- - ·..!"..!.- - - J

RF- Landscaped RF- Central Lawn RF- Park Plaza RF- Flagpole Platform
Garden Large mult i-purpose open space with ascending An urban plaza of formal
Agai nst a strong and dramatic backd rop
Spans across the entire landform unfoldi ng the scenic view of the Victoria landscape character for
for both formal and informal ceremony.
roof deck, with seating, Harbour flexible events
lawns for allocated for RF- Shaded RF- Shaded , RF- Shad RF- South Terrace
small-group activities Pocket Space Pocket Space Pocket S ed Unobstn1cted harbour view
pace
.
---

RF- Lawn Area RF- Viewing Deck RF- Lawn Area RF- Fountai n Plaza RF- Sit out Area
Entici ng Shaded promenade Playful landforms Safe water play provides Intimate plaza 0I m Security
landforms for for spectacular for children in an cooling effect during space with zone from
relaxing harbour views intimate setting summer months informal seating cruise vessels

No Rail ing at the Edge

l . Non Sl ip Mater ial,

2.Distinguishable Edge
Demarcation

3. Avoid Sharp Edge

4. Shallow Water Depth Sunken Sitting Area


enclosed by Aq uatic Plants
45
4 -1lJ.:J j
........
.!..Jh:.l "f
........
j JJJlr B.I
, , ,,,,. r--
.......
CASE STUDIES
--
LANDSCAPE FEATURES I
--
Sit out Area --
Flagpole
Platform

Lawn area in curvil inear form encourages publ ic to explore further Quiet pocket space with seating and lawns
for small group of people
Unfolding the A stunning
Scenic Victoria backdrop and stage
Harbour on the for both formal and
ascending informal activities
landform at at the Flagpole
Central Lawn Plaza

SPECIES COMMON NAME COLOR OF SEASON Ramp


leading
FLOWERS
Bauhinia variegata Camel 's foot tree pink Spring (mar-may)
to Park
Plaza
Tabebuia chrysantha Yellow pui yellow Spring (mar-may)
Plumeria rubra frangipani White, red Summer Uune-aug)

46
CASE STUDIES

SERVICES- TERMINAL BUILDING

1. HVAC SYSTEM

, / The main chilled water circulation system util izes the Kai Tak District Cooling System (DCS) available on the site.
,/ C o n s u m e r sub-stations cater for the air-conditioning required for Berth l and 2 term inal facil ities, CIQP accommodations
and commercial areas.

, / The project comprised 33 nos. of AHUs, 14 nos. of PAUs and 500 nos. of FCUs.
, / The car park areas on the ground and mezzanine floors are naturally ventilated with wind flows assisted by 500 ceiling mounted
extraction jet fans.

, / CO and N0 2 sensors have been provided to regulate the operation of the fans and optimize their energy use.
, / The main heati ng plant for the air-conditioning is provided by water-to-water heat pumps in an energy efficient manner.
2. KAl TAK DfRECT COOLING SYSTEM

• First of its kind in Hong Kong


• All government buildings (except Publ ic
Rental Housing) in Kai Tak use DCS
• Provided chilled water for the Cruise
Terminal

Chiller plant
Seawater pum p house covered by
the walkway and chiller plant

47
CASE STUDIES

l . ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
, / Solar panels installed on the roof provide hot water for the use in showers in the building as well as
pre-heat for the space heati ng in winter.
, / The building also employs photovoltaic panels to generate zero carbon electricity on site and to
export it back to the main electricity grid.

, / The electrical installation mainly consists of 10 nos. of transformers with a total capacity of l SMVA.
, / In addition, diesel generators with a total capacity of 6MVA have been installed together with 8,2001fuel tanks.
, / The lighting system adopted by the development, using energy efficient light bulbs and lighting sensors extensively, consumes
75% less electricity than the BEAM Plus basel ine system.
, / A I0, 000-point Central Control and Monitoring System and a Building Energy Management System have been provided for the
building services installation, together with 600 energy meters for major BS equipment in order to allow separate monitor ing of
electricity and power consumption. Besides, a Power Quality Monitoring System has also been implemented for the facility.

2. FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM


The fire protection system consists of 25,000 sprinkler heads, 800 drencher nozzles and 3,800 automatic fire alarm devices.

3. WATER EFFECIENCY
Water efficient devices have been installed to reduce consum ption by at least 30% compared to the BEAM plus baseline, and rainwater
and A/C condensate water recycling assist in reducing the potable water demand for irrigation purposes.
CASE STUDIES

ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION

• The terminal buildi ng has an iconic design which makes it a


landmark in the Victoria Harbour.

• There are a few one-of-a-kind architectural features, such as


i) An oval-shaped dome,
ii) huge arches on both ends of the building,
iii) special faiyade design to absorb the maximum amount of
view yet balancing the sustainability of the terminal,

SUMMARY

Facilities: Baggage handli ng area, customs hall, concourse, immigration hall, passenger waiting hall, roof garden, ancillary commercial
area, retail shops, restaurant and car park Customs, immigratjon and health quarantine operation: Clears 3,000 passengers per hour
Num ber of berths: Two
Commissioning-date : June 2013
Apron area: 850m length x 35m width
• First berth 455m length x 35m width
• Second berth 395m length x 35m width
Cruise vessel that can berth at the Terminal: Displacement tonnage - 110,000 I Gross tonnage - 220,000
Depth of water: 12 metres - 13 metres (for dredging)

49
CASE STUDIES

INFERENCES
1. LOCATION- built on 213rd area of ex-kai tak airport with a strategic location and has 4 visual corr idors.
Recreational facilities promote the use of the cruise term inal even when there is no port of call.

No reclaimed land
2. ACCESS- The term inal has satisfactory hinterland connections - By rail, By road, By air & pedestrians.

3. APPROACH CHANNEL- There is an existing odour problem from poor water and sediment qual ities at embayed water
bodies.

Although, bio-remediation method is being used to overcome the problem.

4. SITE ENTRY- 3 no. of entry & exit gates are provided but no boundary wall are provided . The project is focussed on attracting
as many people as possi ble.
Although, the site is well secured throughout the day by the security guards and CCTV' s.

5. PARKING- The park ing is only for licensed and authorized vehicles- shuttle bus service, taxi' s etc.
Pr ivate vehicles are not allowed to park their cars. This is also done to make sure that people visiting the kai tak development use
the pedestrian pathways more than the private vehicles and if not, then they should use the public transportation- because of the
concern of rising air pollutants in hong kong.

6. ORIENTATION- The building is facing NS direction. To avoid the South sun entering the departure halls and various other
areas of the terminal, the facade is treated with curved walls to avoid the South sun in summers.

5
0
CASE STUDIES

7. FLOOR PLANS- The terminal building has a rectangular footprint due to which the passenger tend to keep mving forward,
thereby exploring spaces inside the terminal.
Flexi ble designed spaces that can be converted and used for different types of events.
Use of green building features to promote efficiency and the idea "better city, better life"
4 atriums provided for natural light & venti lation. And to make sure that the publ ic observe the atrium' s ambience, the
staircase is from within the atrium and escalator and lifts are adjacent to the atriums.

CIRCULATION- all staircases, escalators & lifts are provided at regular intervals of approx. 30m
SERVICES- mostly the services are provided at the longer side of the building. The A.H.U.' s are provided along the longer
side of the terminal at the mezzanine floor.
Direct cool ing sytem is adopted in this project which is energy efficient
PV panels- the use of photovoltaic panels for heating the water for air conditioning and for irrigating the landscaped deck.

STRUCTURE- box beams are provided which cater the needs of maintenance of the terminal without creating chaos.
TOILETS- 10 toilets for the disabled,and adequate num ber of toilets for the passengers are provided at close distances.

LANDSCAPING- use of evergreen and deciduous trees.


Helix foortpaths created for the flow of visitor 's movement.
Barrier free movement- use of ramps.

5
1
CASE STUDIES

CASE STUDY - II

OSANBASHI YOKOHAMA CRUISE TERMINAL

ABOUT THE PORT


);>- Yokohama is a port city in Kanagawa Prefecture which is next to Tokyo, the capital of Japan.
);>- The word "Osanbashi,, means a big pier in Japanese. Since its opening, the Osanbashi Pier has served
as the Pacific Ocean gateway for Japan.

);>- The Osanbashi Yokohama International Passenger Terminal is a major port where foreign cruise
ships dock during international cruises.

);>- Architects: designed by Alejandro Zaera Polo and Farshid Moussavi (a UK


based architect).
With a maxim um height of 70m and width of 15m, Surrounded by the sea, it
features Yokohama ' s best views of the Minato Mirai skyl ine, and the pier is
one of the most creative architectural achievements.

);>- The construction work was carried out, using various detailed engineering
studies based on their prize-winning design. With abundant curved surfaces, its
unique form and a massive column-free space, this design was proving to be
one of the most innovative projects ever constructed. The buildi ng attracted
attention not only domestically, but also internationally.

5
2
CASE STUDIES

CONCEPT
The project starts with what the architects have named as the "No Return Pier", with the ambition to structure the precinct of the pier as
a fluid, uninterrupted and multi-di rectional space, rather than a gateway to flows of fixed orientation . A series of program.matically
specific interlocki ng circulation loops allow the architects to subvert the traditional linear and
branching structure characteristic of the building.

Rather than developing the building as an object or figure on the pier, the project is produced as an
extension of the urban ground, constructed as a systematic transformation of the lines of the
circulation diagram into folded and bifurcated surface. The folds produce covered surfaces where
the different parts of the program can be hosted .

FEATURES OF THE TERMINAL

I. The Term inal can accommodate up to


four LOA 200-meter class vessels or two 300-meter class vessels at the same time.

2. The height of the building is designed to allow passengers to comfortably get on and
off vessels, but at the same time it hovers on the horizon so as not to interrupt the
view of the Port. The rooftop is gently curved as if it was symbol izing rolling
waves.

3. As the pier projects into the sea, visitors coming from the land would usually have to walk to the end of the pier and return all the
way back again towards the land to leave the pier. Given this, the Terminal has diverse passages for better navigability based on the
concept of serving as a citizens, park.

5
3
CASE STUDIES

OVERVIEW OF THE TERMINAL

LOCATION 1-1-4 Kalgandori,Naka-ku, Yokohama citv, Kanagawa,Japan.


COMPLETION TIME December 2002
STRUCTURE & DIMENSIONS Two stories above ground and one storey below ground
Steel frame construction
len!!th Aoorox 430m
Maxi mum height Approx 15m
Width Approx 70m
TOTAL FLOOR SPACE APPROX 44,000 sq .m
Basement level Machine room
I sr floor Parking
2°a floor Passenger terminal Entrance & exit/buses/taxis
Lobby Information counter, ticket
counter, lounge,cafe and shops
CIQ facil ities Customs, immigration &
quarantine
Osanbashi hall
restaurant
Roof level Rooftop plaza,visitors deck, outdoor event plaza
BERTHING CAPACITY Berths A and B Length 450 m; Depth 12 m;Apron width 20 m
Berths C and D Length 450 m; Depth I 0-11 m; Apron width 20 m

7
CASE STUDIES

ZONING & AREA STATEMENT


1) The first and second levels are the terminal itself, the third level is designed for the use by the citizens.
2) The entire ground floor is taken by the luggage handl ing facilities which are organized as follows:
a) Consignment of domestic luggage;
b) Collection of domestic luggage;
c) Area for moving luggage around;
d) Lifts, escalators, double conveyor belt;
e) Collection of international luggage;
f) Consignment of international luggage.
3) At the 2 extremities are areas for:
a) Machine rooms
b) Stora12:eareas
CITIZEN FAClLITIES CRUISE TERMINAL AN D SUPPORT FAClL ITIES

I . Foyer- 1200 sq.m I) Departure and Arrival hall- 2000 sq.m


2.Salon- 800 sq.m 2)CIQ- 2500sq.m
3. Garden plaza- 4000 sq.m 3) Departure and Arrival lobby- 800 sq.m
4. Exhibition gallery- 500 sq.m 4) Cruise deck-3000 sq.m
5. Shopping space- 500 sq.m 5) Visitor deck-4000 sq.m
6. Restaurants, cafeteria- 3000 sq.m 6) Adrninistration-500sq.m
7.Machine room- 3000 sq.m 7) Yokohama PR centre-500sq.m
TRAFF IC FACILlTlES 8) Information centre-500sq.m
9)Visitor hall & restaurant- 1200sq.m I
I. Traffic plaza for cruise terminal- 6000 sq.m 0) Machine room- 2500sq.m
8. Traffic plaza for citizen use- 2500 sq.m 11) Storehouses- 500sq.m
9. Parking- 18000 sq.m 12)Baggage ' s- 2600 sq.m

5
5
CASE STUDIES

CIRCULATION
CONCEPT:

1. The ambition of the architects was to create a pier "WHERE YOU NEVER RETRACE YOUR STEPS". The idea was that a visitor
could travel the pier in any direction and would experience a continuous forward motion.
2. There is a combination of textures in the terminal, with rough woods on the exterior and smoother, more polished woods on the
interior. The project blurs the distinction between architecture and landscape.
3. On either side of the long ' topographical ' roof, there coexists a transportation hub and more public spaces.
4. From the idea of constant forward momentum came the architect's ''NO RETURN" diagram interpretation .

PLAZA VISITOR'S OECK ENTRY/EXIT TO ENTRY/EXIT ENTRY/EXIT


TERMINAL TO SHOPS RESTAURANTS HALL OF C
IVIC EXCHANGE

A. MOVEMENT FLOW
TO SHOPS
OF PASSENGERS RESTAURANTS

I. The circulation
CITY TRANSPORT L06BYNAT
IONAL
PASSENGERS
EXHIBITION HALL OF C M C
EXCHANGE
INTERNAT
IONAL
PASSENGERLOBBY
FER RY
PLAZA IMMIGRAT
ION

sequence shows the


nodes of interest as one
would approach and APRON

enter the port from the


city.
CARPARK
NO RETURN
2. The approach shows CIRCULATION DIAGRAM
pedestr ian and
vehicular sequence. One can perceive how the programmatic elements are merel y zones and there is no concrete separation between
zones of program and circulation.

5
6
CASE STUDIES

3. The overlapping zones provide for the diagram at right


where only the beginning and end of the sequence are
non overlapping nodes.
4. The utilization and perception of the space is
constantly modified by the size and arrangement of the
ships.
5. The major circulation paths become evident during
high traffic times but the gentle curves of the structure
allow people to flow almost completely unrestricted.

INTERNATIONALS \_
INTERNATIONALS

". FASTER PATH OF GATH ERING

• ·· SLOWER PATH OF GATHERING

6. The two distinct flows are that of embarking and disembarking, the two overlap

constantly, and adding minor circulatory flows such as visitor and passenger pick up,
completel y bring the architecture to life.

5
7
CASE STUDIES
• Parking Space

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN OF YOKOHAMA


TERMINAL
• Ramps
• Elevator
1. GROUND FLOOR
CIRCULATION
RAMPS
There are no stairs inside the building (except for audience seat steps at the Outdoor Event Plaza).
In this barrier-free environment, the ramps are used to move between all levels or the elevators to
travel between the GF and 1st floor.

Ramps built along the girders serve both as the structural frame and passageways.
ELEVATORS

There are 3 elevators inside the Lobby and 2 in the Osanbashi Hall.
The elevators in the Lobby are glass boxes with no elevator shafts. With the hydraul ic
system, they are operated through expansion and contraction of a supporting shaft at the
bottom . (This mechanical operation can be viewed in the Parking on the 1st floor.)
The special film applied on the glass gives the frost glass effect when viewed from a
particular angle.

ss 1
CASE STUDIES
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);> The ground floor is


'

.!!ll!lillllBllB1llllialiihli I

dedicated for parki ng approximatel y 400 standard-sized passenger cars, including 28 spaces that can accommodate coaches.

I PARKING AT THE G F I PARKING AT THE ROOF FLOOR


FIRST FLOOR

GROUND FLOOR

59
. . Restaurant • Osanbashl Hall
CASE STUDIES
• CIQ Facllltles (CIQ Plaza)

• Glass Curtain Wall


1. FIRST FLOOR
• Cruise Deck

• Lobby
LOBBY (4400 sq. M )

);>- • Shops (7)


The information desk and check-in
• Coffee Shop .. R
counters are located in the 4,400 ni lobby
along with a cafe and 7 shops.
);>-
The 35m long check-in counters on either
side of the Lobby handle the boarding
procedures and luggage delivery services.
);>-
There are conveyor belts behind the counters to send passengers' baggage down to the delivery trucks on
the ground floor.
);>-
The slightly tilted rectangular steel tubes on the two sides are called "girders." They are the main
supporting structures of this building. Inside these tubes are the slopes connecting to other floors.
Triangular pyramids made of folded steel plates are placed over the girders. The plates act as the support
for the ceil ing and the floor.
);>-
Light within the Lobby comes from the indirect light of the mercury lamps on the girders reflected from the
ceiling.
);>-
Most of the air conditioning in the terminal comes from the floor, not the ceiling.
CRUISE DECKS
);>-The fences are folded inwards all along the deck to provide room for the connecting boarding bridges.
These boarding bridges are required to allow the passengers to safely board & disembark from the docked ships.
CRUISE DECK
CASE STUDIES LOBBY
COFFEE SHOP
SHOPS
LOUNGE
CIQ FACILITIES (CIQ PLAZA) - 3000 sq. m RESTAUR ANT
OSA NBASH I HALL
);>- CIQ (Customs, Immigration and Quarantine) facilities

are for those passengers arriving on foreign cruise ships who are required to go through the customs, imm igration and quarantine
procedures. The total area is approximately 3,000 n i.
);>-
The conveyor belts provided on both sides of the Plaza can send the passengers'
baggage, which has been unloaded from ships onto the apron on the ground floor, up to
the CIQ facilities for inspection.
);>-
The inspection desks, stations, partitions and all other inspection equipments in the CIQ
Plaza are designed to install wheels so that they can be easily rolled into another area.
This allows the Plaza to be turned into a large event hall when not in use as an inspection
area.
QSANBASHI HALL - 2000 sq. m

);>- The multi-purpose Osanbashi Hall is located at the end of the first floor.
Through the huge glass wall, you can see vessels coming to and leaving the
- To thHoof
I
If I1
Port and enjoy the scenery of the bay. Outdoor event OsanbashlHall
space

..
2,000m'
);>- With a ceiling height of 6 to 8m and an area of 2,000n i, the Osanbashi Hall
can be the venue for a variety of events, such as lecture meetings, ----- ,
I I I I
.....

exhibitions, parties and weddi ngs.


1' G
);>- There is also a restaurant on the Shinko Side (facing the Red Brick
Warehouse) .
1 p..,uy
.... J. ;tlnJR! :
I I I •

61
CASE STUDIES

GLASS CURTAIN WALLS - The interior space is separated from the cruise decks with glass curtain
walls made of 19mm-thick tempered glass.
The glass curtain walls are firmly fixed at the bottom but not at the top to avoid impacts against the
steel frame during an earthquake. They tilt slightly outward at 9 degree on the Yamashita Side and 1
degree on the Shinko Side.

LOUNGE

Visitors to the Terminal largely include locals, who might choose to relax in the Lobby after
enjoyi ng the spectacular view over the Port, or watch cruise ships coming and going through the
glass walls.

SHOPS AND RESTAURANTS

There are seven shops offering a variety of souvenirs and goods featuring Yokohama and Japan, a
relaxing cafe/restaurant with an ocean view, and a full
fledged restaurant with a panoramic night view of the
port at the end of the Terminal.
ADMINISTRATION AREA- for port., PR centre and
information.

62
CASE STUDIES

• Rooftop Plaza • Outdoor Event P


laza
TERRACE FLOOR

ROOFTOP PLAZA
Vf1itora Octck

);>- The rooftop level is open 24 hours, an open


.. R
air plaza furnished with wooden decks and • Sunshades & Buffer Stops

natural grass lawns. • About the Construction Mater ials

);>- • About lpe


The building's height was kept at the lowest
possible level (15m max.) to enhance the spectacular ( VIS ITORS DOCK
ROOF PLAZ A
appearance of ships.
O UTDOOR EVENT
Cruise ships call ing at the Termi nal can be seen from
the mainland, and passengers on-board can enjoy the
unobstructed views of the Port and the city.
The Rooftop Plaza is one of the best locations to enjoy
the scenery of the Yokohama waterfront district On a clear day, you can also see Mt. Fuji in the distance.

OUTDOOR EVENT PLAZA

The space near the entrance to the Osanbashi Hal l can be used as a stage for events like mini-concerts and
dance performances, with the surrounding steps functioning as audience seats.

VISITORS DECK S

On the rooftop, Visitors Decks are provided on both sides for visitors to welcome arriving cruise ships or see the passengers off

63
CASE STUDIES

The Terminal can concurrently accommodate two 70,000-ton cruise vessels, or four 30,000-ton
class vessels.
SUNSHADES & BUFFER STOPS

Wooden board sunshades are provided on the rooftop to help keep you cool on summer days.
);> Small cylindrical buffer stops are provided on the deck floor to mark the areas "vith the highest
strength which will allow direct access for emergency vehicles.
);> The lighting provided on the rooftop is designed to be intentionally out of alignment with the
buildi ng, representing the architects ' intention to create asymmetrical forms.
RESTAURANTS AND SHOPS- The 2 floor restaurant for Yokohama citizens use is at the extreme
end of the structure.

Vertical access is by means of rod ramp, which ascend from ground floor level to 2 plaza' s, and by
escalators, 1ifts and service stairs.

Utilities, toilets, kitchen, etc., are in mobile capsules or in area where they can be easily dismantled and moved elsewhere.

ABOUT THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

);> The non-decorative appearance of the structural frame is one of the special features of this building.
);> A special metal spray technology is applied to the steel to achieve fire resistance without the need
to apply an additional fireproofing coating.
Other construction materials include wood for the flooring (Ipe) and glass curtain walls. Steel,
wood and glass are what constitute this building.

64
CASE STUDIES
)> The floors of the second floor and rooftop are finished with wood to give a feel ing of a ship's deck. The wood used here is a
Brazilian wood called Ipe, which has excellent strength and durability as well as a specific gravity greater than that of water.
(Wooden panel thickness: 20mm for the interior; 30mm for the general exterior areas; 45mm for the vehicle passages)

)> The rooftop also has natural grass lawns. This way, the Term inal is designed to serve as a working pier as well as an enjoyable
and relaxing park-like public facility for Yokohama residents.

)> Made of strips of wood, this long, windi ng pier also has large sections of grass, making it an ideal place to have a picnic.

V1Sicor deck Roof plaza


Visitor deck
SECTIONAL
/
EVALUATION :
As the structure - -
Boarding deck

takes shape, its


------ C r par-··------...,.•-
it

extraordinary form
becomes apparent
both externally and
internally. Lugpge conveyor Service trench Lugpge conveyor Service trench

SECTIONTHROUGH DEPARTUREANO ARRIVAL HALL


• The working sections and earlier conceptual sections indicate the innovative geometry. These geometries expose the abstract
bands of space that are used by the architects, along with folds in the ground that are translated into envelopi ng structures, in one
big operating platform working in an active and efficient system .
• For example, the piazza situated at the center of the project has not only the function of channelling the flow of travellers but also
of producing a field of stresses likely to incite them to explore various directions.

6
5
CASE STUDIES

Offices
- ---
....

-
- -- j Visitor deck
Customs 1mm1gration Offices
& quarantine
Boarding deck --------
Car park Boarding deck
..

SECTIO N THROUGH CUSTOMS IMMIGRATIO N & QUARANTINE


WHY COLUMN FREE SPACE?
• A column-free structure was appropriate because it would provide fewer interruptions to the flow of passengers constantly
moving through the space.
•It was also the most efficient way to organize the large parking floor on the pier level for cars and buses. Moreover, since cruise
ships would only moor at the terminal daily, it was important that the terminal offer citizens reasons to visit, apart from just travel,
during the low season.
•Designing the departure and arrivals halls without columns makes the space more flexible because the large, uninterrupted halls
can double up as a multi-purpose event space.
•During times when no ships are moored at the terminal , the furniture can be rolled away transforming the space into a large venue
for a variety of different kinds of events l ike markets, banquets, fashion shows and fairs. This gives the term inal ongoing life and
activity and ensures that it is connected with the lives of citizens in many different ways.

6
6
CASE STUDIES
Roof plaza auditorium
Visitor deck
.......
- ------
- - -------
--
- - --
--
Variable

- -- Boarding deck

II
r··
--------
·-·-----·---- '
Boarding deck Car f)'rl<

-. . -· ,....
I • I

Service t11?nc:h Servtc:e trench

SEC TIO N THRO UGH OPEN-AIRAUDITO RIUM


LIGHTING
L The immense upper deck is a rolling landscape of timber and grass designed as a new public space for Tokyo. This
roof then folds back into itself The principal of the folded plate has an amazing coherence, with the public realm
twisting from outside to inside to form ramps in the internal areas.
2. This puts the arrival and departure hall in darkness at much of the day. This fundamentally humanizes the
architecture. The origami ceiling skin coupled with strategic lighting is able to bring the space to life especiall y
during times of darkness. The dark curves of the arrival and departure hall present a dramatic contrast to the sunlit
curves of the roofscape above.
3. The diagrams at right show the arrival and departure hall at three different stages of the day. The first stage is ap
proximately 6 am when the hall actually experiences the most natural illum ination.
4. The second diagram shows the hall during the noon hour when the sun is at its peak in the sky and the hall becomes
a 'bat cave.'

5. The final stage represents a time followi ng sunset where the hall is, of course, dark and one can begin to see the
pffprt<: n f th P lioht<: n n thP n ri o m i rPil in o d r u r t n rP

6
7
CASE STUDIES

STRUCTURE
1. The building is steel framed, consisting of main beams (girders) on the two sides
and a triangular pyramid (folded plates) system to support the roof and floors.
2. These results in a massive column-less interior space, with external walls all made
with tempered glass. In short, wood, steel and glass are what constitute the
Termi nal. - I - - - •

3. The strength of the materials minim izes the need for vertical supports and allows for
a mostly open floor plan, while the height of the structure allows for a spectacular
variety of ceiling conditions in the interior spaces.

PURPOSE OF CREATING UNDULATIONS


I . One of the most distinctive characteristics of the Yokohama Term inal is that continuous curved surfaces connect and divide levels and
spaces instead of traditional walls, floor and ceilings. These undulations, or curves, carry many functions.
2. Structurally, they provide curved arches which enable the steel structure to span long distances both along the width and along the length of
the terminal. They also provide continuity between the various levels of the terminal because, rather than being divided by flights of stairs,
the levels slope into one another in a way which makes all levels of the terminal equally accessible to everyone and comfortable for
passengers with luggage, wheelchairs or prams .
3. Designing the structure as a continuous steel surface meant that the structure could not be built through conventional ways of building from
the ground and layering levels on top of one another in a horizontal order. In other words, the structure of the terminal could not be broken
down into floors and walls and ceil ings as these, in this case, were one and the same thing. Therefore the buildi ng envelope had to be
conceived as three dimensional large pieces that were bridging across levels and across spaces. These would be brought to site in large
chunks with very large cranes and assembled together.
CASE STUDIES
AXON INTCGRAT&> TIMBER ANO
SOD ROOF SKIN

1. The design sought to encompass the general


funct ional imperat ives of the cruise terminal (as a LONGIT\JOINAL STEEl
TRUSS CONNECTORS
smoothly functioning link between land and
water transport)
2. The term inal is a shed buildi ng measuring 412
O RIGAMI C B UN G SKIN

meters in length and composed of 27 steel trusses


averaging 42.5 meters in span and placed at 16
meter intervals.
3. The trusses are joi ned longitudinally by trussed
members of conventional configuration, and
purl ins carrying, either metal cladding or glazing.
4. The trusses are carried on concrete piers
extending from the basement parking level
through the apron to the surface of the main level.
5. The large shed employs unified form through
repetitive structural units to enclose a single l !EINFORCEDCONCPETE _
SlA8
homogeneous space.
6. The transformation yields a complex of spaces PIER DECK
- ---!

that smoothly incorporates the multiple terminals,


civic and garden program mes within and below

its span. PIER SUPPORTS ---------1--!-1-J U


CASE STUDIES

ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION

);> At the observation deck, the material fabric of the


floor rises and falls in wave-like oscillations to
create pathways and apertures into the vast,
enclosed spaces below. These changes in
elevation- sometimes subtle, sometimes s h a r p -were the essence of the novel architectural language invented for the project.

);> Throughout the project, a deliberate dynamism pervades the tectonic and material languages of the building. The abundance of non
orthogonal walls, floors, and ceilings creates a controlled sense of vertigo that is accentuated by similarly off-kilter fixtures and details.
);> The effect is magnified by material cues, such as the shifting grains of the wooden planks on the observation deck that indicate the
locations of creases, and the minimalist grey metal panelling that is reveali ngly worn by the structures under it.
);> Whi le the contours of the building occasionally betray an element of randomness, they are in fact generated by a single circulation scheme
that dictates spatial organization. The circulation operates as a continuous looped diagram, directly rejecting any notion of Iinearity and
directionality.
);> Visitors are taken through paths that meander vertically and horizontally before arriving at any destination, and their sight lines through
space are comparably tortuous and indirect. For all of the chaotic complexity of the materials and formal gestures, the simplicity of this
diagram offers a sense of clarity and reveals the process from which the building emerged.
DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM: This is an energy efficient method and minimizes pollution
and the possibil ity of accidents. The central plant features a heat exchange and storage system that draws its power
at night when electricity is cheap. A second plant uses a large-scale, high efficiency turbo refrigeration unit to save
energy and reduce co2 emissions. As the area served expands, more eco-friendly, higher efficiency heating
equipment is installed.
70
CASE STUDIES

INFERENCE :
PROS CONS
I) MATERIAL- extensive use of wood is
I) CONCEPT- Based on the concept of 'No Return Pier' where you can
seen in the terminal. Almost 75% of the
never retrace your steps is what makes this terminal unique in itself
interiors & exteriors are catered with
2) FOCUS-The terminal has focussed more on structuring and
wood which adds to the monotony of
circulation & created spaces that are architecturally & aesthetically
the design.
pleasi ng.
2) LANDSCAPING- the terminal lacks
3) PARKING- The project allows the public to park their cars and visit
landscaped pockets when compared
the terminal plaza and rooftop plaza.
with the number of visitors.
Park ing for approx. 400 cars is provided.
3) The terrace floor of the terminal has
The publ ic transportation are allowed to reach the terrace floor level
more of the hard areas & lesser soft
and park the vehicle.
areas.
4) CIRCULATION- no staircase is provided. It is made sure that the
building should promote barrier free movement
PROS
5) ZONING- the building has 4 levels- ground, first, second & terrace
level. All the areas are zoned as per passenger movement flow. 7) The cruise terminal is provided with halls for

6) MONUMENTAL SCALE- the building has a monumental scale to holding var ious function ( private & public). -

create a grandeur effect on the visitor 's mind. Osanbashi hall - 2000 sq.m

Also the interiors of the terminal reflect advanced design methods and
technologies-- folded plates & girders are used to achieve the output

71
CASE STUDIES
·---
CASE STUDY - Ill

COCHIN CRUISE TERMINAL, KERALA


PROJECT BACKGROUND

• The Port handles the largest number of Cruise Liners in India.


• Initiall y, the vessels were berthed at the existing cargo berths according to availability which was later
recognized that the nature of the port infrastructure plays a significant role in selection and determination of a cruise destination.
• Therefore, the provision of adequate service facilitations and tour ist attractions further helped in value addition. Cochin cruise termi nal
is developed to diversify and enhance Kochi's attraction as a tourist destination.

ABOUT THE SITE


• Cochin Port, one of the 12 Major Ports in India, is located on the south west coast of the Indian sub continent,
in the beautiful State of Kerala, at latitude 7 6 16 ' N and 9'58 '£ longitude.
• The Port is located on the artificiall y created Will ington Island , in the vast expense of the Vem banad
backwaters , which discharges into the Arabian Sea through an opening in the shore known as the ' Cochin gut' .

GEO-STRATEGIC LOCATION

The Port is strategically located very close to the trunk sea routes from the Gulf to Singapore as well as Suez to the Far East I Austral ia
routes. No other Indian Port enjoys this proxi mity to maritime highways.

Cochin is well connected with the rest of the country by a network of highways as well as railways. Cochin also has a modern
International Airport with convenient connections to the rest of the country and a num ber of International destinations .

72
CASE STUDIES

EXISTING PORT FACILITIES


The marine facilities of the Port are located in the Willington Island, which divides the Port ' s inner navigational channels into two -
namely the Mattancherry and Ernakul um channels. The onshore facil ities are mainly located on the Willington Island. The existing
facilities include:

1. 16 berths including 3 oil jett ies 4. Dedicated facilities to handle bulk/break bulk as well as variety of liquid cargo.
2. Modern Container Terminal 5. Adequate storage spaces
3. Maximum draft up to 12.5 metres

ADJACENT STRUCTURES
Towards the north is Taj Malabar hotel and the Cochin port trust
administrative building (new and old).Towards the other side is the old
harbour terminus godowns and other office buildings.

2.3 HINTERLAND CONNECTION


FIG ACCESS ROAD TO THESITE
FIG.NEW ADMINTRAT/ ON BLOCK
Cochin, an all weather Port, is strategically located on the East-West trade route, only 76 nautical miles away COCHIN PORT TRUST

from the direct sea route to Australia and the Far East from Europe, and 11 nautical miles from Singapore - Gulf sea route. No other
Indian Port enjoys this looseness to maritime highway. This locational advantage puts Cochin in a commanding position to exploit the
massive East-West ocean trade.

The Port is well connected with the hinterland by Road, Rail, and Inland Waterways as detailed below:
1. NH 17 - Cochin to Panvel takes off from NH 47 from Edapally at Cochin
2. NH 47 - Salem to Kanyakurnari passes through Cochin
73
CASE STUDIES

3. NH 49 - Cochin to Madurai I Dhanushkodi, takes off from NH 47 from Kundanoor at Cochin.


4. NH 47 A - National Highway Link connecting W/lsland and NH 47 at Kundanoor
5. NH 47 C- National Highway connecting Vallarpadam with NH 47 at Kalamassery and NH l7 at Cheranallore
• The Port is also well connected with the rajlway network of Southern Railways and it is connected to the Konkan Railways, through
Southern Railway. The National Waterway No.ill from Kollam to Kottappuram passes through the Port, which connects various towns
and minor ports and places of commercial and industr ial importance like Kollam and Alappuzha.

• Cochin has an International Airport, which provides instant access to the world. EllNAKULAM

PORT CHANNELS:
The entrance to the harbour is by a l OOOOm long and 200 m wide 13.8 m deep outer approach channel
divided into two navigational channels. ERNAKULAM CHANNEL with a length of about 2800m, widths
varying between 300 to 500 m and depths from 9.75 to l 3.5m. MATTANCHERRY CHANNEL with a
length of about 2200 m, widths varying between 180 to 250 m and a depth of 9.75 m. Mattancherry Channel
has the berths Q l to Q4.
FIG. SHIP CHANNEL
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMEN T OF THE PORT

TOPOGRAPHY

• The whole coastal area is characterized by formation of the coastal land forms, whjch are made up of sand bars and barriers, sandy flats
and mud flats. The coastal plain is occupied by quaternary and recent sediments consisting essentially of sand, sandy clays, clays and
carbon clays. The near shore area outside the Cochin Gut is relatively shallow reaching a water depth of Sm at a distance of about 2
Km from the shore and gradually deepening to l 0 m at a distance of about 6 Km outside the Gut. The sea bottom is mainly soft
mud up to several metres deep in the near shore waters of Cochin.

74
CASE STUDIES

Month Temperature in 'C


Maximum Minimum
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY January 28.5 26
February 29 26
• Temperature at Cochin varies from about 23°to 32 .S'C. There are not much March 30 28
April 30.5 25
distinct seasonal var iations in the tem perature, which is more or less unifor m
Mav 32.5 25 .5
throughout the year. However, highest temperatures tend to occur in the June 28.5 25
July 28 23
months of March to May. August 29.5 23
• The humidity is high all throughout the year. It ranges from approximately September 29.5 25
October 29 24
75% in the morni ng during winter months to approximatel y 90% in the Novem ber 28.5 25 .5
monsoon period December 28.5 26
Month Observed Wind o/o time Directio
WINDS AND CYCLONES Maximu speed ns
m exceeded 20
• The wind speed and wind direction is determined by the season and by the
Velocitv KMPH
daily temperature differences between land and sea. KMPH Direction
January 58 SSE IO w
• The predom inant wind direction during the monsoon period i.e. from June
53
Februarv N 20 w
to September is west to South-west and the effect of land breeze is not 80 26
March SSW w
dominant during this period. April 88 SSW 23 w
• The maximum wind speed observed was of the order of 112 kmph from Mav 1 12 WSW 23 w I
J une 86 WNW 13 w
WSW direction.
July 93 SW 13 NW
RAINFALL Aue.ust 93 NNW 16 NW
September 77 WNW 15 NW
The maxi mum rainfall usually occurs during the monsoon period i.e. from October 67 NNW 6 w
mm. ber 69
June to Septem ber. The annual rainfall in the region varies between 2500 to 3500Novem WNW 5 w
Decem ber 64 SSE 3 w
75
CASE STUDIES Month Rainfall in mm
Maximum Minim um
January 85 0
OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA February 11 0
March 64 6
TIDES April 201 35
May 553 39
Cochin experiences semi diurnal tides. June 702 387
July 1063 514
CURRENT August 536 104
September 5 13 199
• As per observations the maximum current velocities at the Cochin Gut during
October 503 199
the non-monsoon periods is of the order of 3 knots, which could increase to as November 305 75
high as 5.5 knots during the monsoon periods. December 276 1

• Inside the harbour the current velocities are low, of the order of 0.5 knots only, with directions varyi ng at different locations.
WAVES

• The wave climate is governed by the South West monsoon when wave action can be strong with prevail ing wave direction from North
West to South-West
• Wave action inside the harbour is insignificant because of narrow entrance between Cochin Gut and Fort Cochin and the configuration
of the land. Generally, calm conditions prevail in the harbour basin throughout the year except during the time of extreme wind action.

PER M IT
Any passenger ship or cruise line cannot enter the port territory. Certain procedures are carried out for entering the channel. Daily berth
meeting are carried out in which the traffic manager, customs officer and other officials make decisions accordingly . The documents are
checked properly and are pilots are allotted accordingly.

7
6
CASE STUDIES

INTERVIEW WITH CHIEF ENGINEER :


1. PASSENGER MOVEMENT

• Passenger movement between the Cochin Cruise Term inal Bui lding and the vessel is
accomplished at an upper level via elevated passenger gallery.
• This gallery is located at an elevation of 12 meters above normal low water or 9
meters above the wharf The gallery is extended by 200 m along the length of the
wharf and has doors positioned at every l 0 meters.
• Between the gallery and the ship, a MOVEABLE GANGWAY is provided to adjust
for door position and height.
• For the vessels, door elevations range from 3m to I Sm above the water line. However, most of the design vessels have higher
elevation doors. In order to accommodate a normal door height
range of 7.5m-15m, a modern passenger bridge is provided .
2.
PASSENGER LOUNGE
l. A passenger waiting area is provided at the Cruise Terminal PASSENGER LOUNGE
2 0 3 0 SO M
upper level that includes provision for security check, circulation and
service counter.
2. This lounge doesn't require to hold entire passenger load, such
as is encountered at an airport, but it has comfortable waiting
capacity for about 20% of the largest design home port vessel.

UPPER LEVEL PASSENGER LOUNGE PLAN

7
7
CASE STUDIES

3.Passenger seating, standing and circulation areas are


approximately 4.5 sq. m per passenger creating sufficient
space with significant surge capacity. The passenger waiting
area is 2000 sq. m (approx.).
4.Within the passenger lounge, there is a small counter area
that serves multiple purposes. For arriving port of call
vessels, it is attended by an information agent for directing
disembarking passengers. For embarking home port
operations, it is attended by a pre-boarding agent that sees to
the comfort of the waiting passengers and provides soft
drinks or light refreshments.
5.Counter space and storage is given of 25 sq. m. in addition, a VIP lounge and m DEPARTU FINALSECURIT
RE Y CHECK
iscellaneous storage and security offices are given of about 452.3 sq. m of space. LOUNGE
" ATOR
6. Although the security screening for cruise passengers is not as rigorous as that for airline ESCA
L
passengers, metal detector screening of individuals and X-ray examination of hand luggage is TICKET & ITO SHIP I
DOCUMEN
done. T DEPATUREFLOW
CHECKING
" AT PASSENGER LOUNGE
7. The security check is capable of passing an entire home ported vessel in 3 hours or
approximately 700 passengers per hour. With current screening procedures, a single portal can DEPAARTING
PASSENGER
check about 250 passengers per hour. Therefore, 3 security portals are sufficient but Cochin
Cruise Terminal provides for 6 portals to accommodate peaking and periods of high security enforcement.

7
8
CASE STUDIES

3. PASSENGER ARRIVAL, BAGGAGE CHECK AND


DOCUMENTATION

1. Embark ing passengers arrive, curb-side, at the cruise terminal by bus or licensed
taxi service. Only author ized vehicles are allowed in front of the terminal and passengers
arriving by private auto are required to drop off luggage first and then park the vehicle
before checking in.
2. Four covered bus lanes (3.5 m wide) with a total of 12 bus park ing spaces are provided for

airport and rail station shuttle service. In the case of port of call vessel, the two of the four lanes
are used to provide 6 tour bus parki ng spaces. Taxi' s and private vehicles load and discharge
Ii ' : - ..-
passengers along the outer edge of the bus loading zone.
3.The baggage claim tags are pre-marked with the passenger 's names and cabin num ber as well
as the bar code that corresponds to their reservation .
4. Arrivi ng passengers already have affixed their own baggage claim to their bags.
Therefore, all that is needed is to present the tagged baggage to the outside attendant prior to enter ing the term inal.
5. Any necessary security inspections are conducted within the customs-bonded baggage area of the terminal.
6. When the passenger checks in, his reservation is verified and his travel documentation is confirmed . For security, a digital

picture is taken and the passenger is given a card similar to a credit card that includes the picture and a magnetic information strip. This
card is his authorization to board and leave the ship and it helps the vessel management to track passenger locations and to confirm that
all passengers have boarded prior to sailing. Total processing time per passenger is from 2-3 minutes.
7. For the design vessel, 30 passenger check-in clerks can process all 2000 passengers in approximately 3 hours.
8. 6-8 "trou ble" desks are provided for passengers with missing documentation, excess baggage and other problems .

79
CASE STUDIES
LOWER LEVEL CHECK-IN & BAGGAGE CLAlM PLAN

9. After check-in, passengers proceed to the

departure lounge for security check and immigration


exit stamp. The lounge is designed to comfortably
accommodate 400-500 people, or about 20°/o of the
passenger capacity of the design vessel. At
maxim um occupancy, it has a capacity of 1000
people, or approximately 50% of the design vessel.

4. PASSENGER DISEMBARK.ATION, BAGGAGE CLAIM AND EXIT

l. After the vessel arrives, baggage is collected from the passengers and ARRIVAL&BAGGAGECLAIM ISHIP I
transferred to the wharf level, customs-bonded baggage claim area. The floor of the 16COUNTERS

PASSPORT
baggage claim area is painted with numbered and lettered rows and aisles. Baggage CHECK&
BAGGAGECOLLECTED

IM MIGRATION
-- FROM PASSENGER
com ing from the ship is ' spotted' at a pre-determined row and aisle location. I
WHARFLVL I
2.The passenger lounge becomes a final passport and immigration area. 16 v

ESCALATOR CUSTOMS BONDED


passport counters are provided for documentation of the passengers. BAGGAGE CLAIM
I
3.Approximately 1.5-2 sq. m per cabin is necessary for baggage inspection and claim. , I SECURITY

Therefore, the cruise terminal has 1820 sq. m of claim area, which is sufficient for the I EXIT ,-
I - BAGGAGE
RECLIEVED + - - - - - -I
AISLES CHECK

home port vessel of I000 cabins.


- - BAGGAGEFLOW
PASSENGER FLOW

so I
CASE STUDIES

5. ARRIVAL & DEPARTURE MOVEMENTS AT COCHIN CRUISE TERMINAL


Da i ly berthi ng Checki ng of Pilot allotted
meeting
con ducted
·-- docurnents

.
,
Baggage take n by
ve hicle to d eck
..• •
jI Dise m barkat ion
E m barkar otion

. Passengers wa lk down the berth 1


through the mobi le gangways
r
Personal p ersonal
jEXIT
... I
Passengers wa lk
.,
...
check
I ENTRY
.... I cllee k
down the berth
through the mobi le
Baggage taken by
vehicle
gangways
•Kec 1a11n baggage Baggage for -
- •

..
..•.....•
."'..
ta!:!S
,.
.-·
V>
Vl
'<:
...- . - . --···· - . - ..
. -··.····· . -- ...
-
8
Ci
Q)

::i
0 Seating area -Q)

c
"'
0
u
Bu ildi ng

"'2
"'
0
co
.. u
c
·.z:;0
-Q)
-><:
u . Passengers w ith tickets and boru·d ing passes
. "o.. .
·;:::'
f=
:::
0
u s
..=.
. Passe ngers w ith no ticke ts and board ing passe s
t::
g -- g.
0
. Passengers with tickets and no board ing passes
-,,, ,,,
c:
o'. ·<-J
0"
-- u .. Seating area
0.
Q)
. Dise m barki ng Passengers
-............ .........Y t/)
:.2
u 0

81
CASE STUDIES

6. OFFICE MEZZANINE

l. Between the pier levels passenger check in area and the upper passenger lounge and boarding area, there is a mezzanine office
for terminal administration, security and cruise line operations.
2. This office has approx imately I 067.5 sq. m of occupied space plus another 353 sq. m for machinery, electrical panes and storage.
Access to the mezzanine offices is by the stairway or elevator only and is restricted by security card readers .
7. PASSENGER ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE- TRANSPORTATION

l. For security reasons, only licensed vehicles are allowed in the passenger loading
area. Private vehicles with ticketed passengers are allowed to the entrance for dropping
off the baggage only. No other private vehicles and no un-ticketed individuals are
allowed in the passenger loading area.
2. For home port transfer to the airport, the loading area is designed to
accommodate at least 12 buses in 4 lanes.

8. INFRASTRUCTURE FOR IMMIGRATION WING

l. Sufficient space for counters, office equipments and good infrastructure for the Immigration wing at the terminal building is
observed.
• The arrival and departure side has l 0 imm igration counters each and all counters are connected with the lease line of Bureau of
Immigration / Nedumbassery airport for the security verification.
• Provision of 20 no.' s of U.V. lamps, lenses and other advance equipments at the counters for effective verification of travel documents.
• 20 no.'s of passport reading machines are also installed at the counters.

s2 I
CASE STUDIES

2. An office for the PRO and staff, measuring not less than 300 sq. m, visitor 's room with sufficient seating and facil ities are also
provided .
9. TERMINAL SECURITY

l. Security for the cruise terminal is provided according to the International ship and port

security (ISPS) code as adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and
according to cruise terminal security guidelines developed and implemented by the cruise
lines themsel ves.
2. Passenger security is defined by cruise line requirements, but involves restricti ng
access to the boarding areas and vessel to ticketed passengers only and requiring some inspection of passenger carry-on baggage.
Passenger screening at a cruise terminal is not as rigorous as at an air terminal because the risk level is lower. However, under high
security alerts, additional screening can be done.
3. Only credentialed dock workers and authorized service providers are allowed on the wharf itself In the case of direct boarding of
passengers from the wharf, a roped walkway is designated .
4. The passenger loading area is restricted to ticketed passengers and licensed public carriers only. Casual visitors and general
vehicle access are not allowed in this area. Vehicle traffic is controlled by the gate booth at the entrance to Milne road .
10. TERMINAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE

1.Norma l passenger notification and public address is on the flat screen monitors placed within the check-in area and at the boarding
lounge level. These monitors are supplemented by an audio annunciation system for special announcements and emergency
notifications.
2. Fire emergencies and other evacuation alerts are accompanied by flashing strobes to assist the hearing impaired .
CASE STUDIES

3. The passenger loading area also provides fast and efficient access for emergency response vehicles including fire equipment,
ambulances and police cars. In case of emergency, rapid evacuation of the term inal is possible along the entire front and rear of the
building. Vehicle access to the wharf allows medical personnel direct access to the ship in the event of an on-board medical
emergency.

11. FIRE FIGHTING FACILITY


l. The fire fighting facility at the cruise terminal and public plaza is planned by consider ing it as a medium risk class area.
2. Underground water tanks with pumps of adequate capacity are provided for the building, separately.
3.
The hose reel with spraying nozzles and fire extinguishers on each floor is also provided.
4.
Sprinkler protection for the entire building, manual ly operated electr ic fire alarm system as well as an automatic fire detection
alarm facil ity, public address system etc. are provided.
12. STRUCTURE
The Basic structuring is done with steel columns of I sections and roof with metal sheets bolted and welded to steel tubes which are in
turn connected to the steel columns. Finishing is done with enamel paint.

Expansion joints - at the spacing of 30m of IOOmm

TERMINAL BUILDING SUMMARY


A. The Cruise Terminal component of this plan fulfils three functions:
1. It is capable of safely berthing and servicing a variety of passenger vessels,
2 . I t efficiently processes, embarks and disembarks passengers, and
3 . I t conveniently receives and dispatch passengers and luggage by a variety of surface transportation modes.
B. The cruise terminal building as determined by the vessel size and operational data has a total of 3 levels including:
I. The lower or pier level for passenger check-in and baggage handling,

84 l
CASE STUDIES

2. An upper or boarding level for security check and passenger waiting lounge,

3. A mezzani ne floor between the two floor levels for offices only and there is no access for passengers.

Cruise Termi nal Summary of Passenger Maxim um Holding Capacity: ANCILLARY FEATURES:

• Lower level check-in queuing : 2 10 passengers • Secure passenger boarding/arriving gallery for
• Lower level baggage claim : 900 passengers control of passenger access to the ship
• Mezzanine level : approx. 50 office employees • One moveable gangway able to accommodate 300-
• Passenger boarding lounge : 500 passengers per hour
i) Embarkation 400 passengers ; boarding • A bus and taxi loading area
ii) Debarkation 800 passengers ; passport control • Wharf level access for vessel servicing
Three building levels with a total of 10,862 sq. m area: • Lower level access for employees and commercial
suppliers
• 4,098 sq. m lower level for passenger loading and customs-bonded baggage • Adeq uate lighting and signage for efficient
handling passenger processing
• 1,666 sq.m mezzani ne level for term inal offices • Video marq uees, fiber optic data system and public
• 4,098 sq. m upper level for security processing visa check and pre-boarding address/announcement system
lounge • Currency exchange at passport lounge
• 1,000 sq. m boarding gallery (200m long)

ss 1
CASE STUDIES

INFERENCE :
PROS CONS
I) Cochin has a locational advantage I) Cochin cruise terminal doesn't meet the international standards for the
because of the closest maritime proper functioning of cruise terminals.
connection to the main sea routes which 2) The number of tourists visit per year is more than the terminal could
makes it an ideal spot for port of call. support. Only 20% of the ship occupants are catered at the cruise
2) The terminal building is used as a mixed terminal.
use buildi ng where spaces are used for 3) The passenger waiti ng lounge is designed for a maxim um occupancy
organising different events. of 1000 people and a minimum of 400-500 people, which is why it
3) Strong hinterland connection via Rail, remai ns insufficient for meeting the international requirements.
Road, Air & Sea. 4) The green pockets around the building are rare and the site
4) The island security is governed by using surroundings include the storage areas and iron ore ports which affect
only author ized & permitted vehicles & the ambience of the term inal.
pubIic transportation. 5) The terminal building has no concept or form- it is a plain rectangular
5) Gated entrance with security check post. area; including facilities to cater passengers; and a pitched rood at the
(Only I entry pt.) top of the building.
6) Use of natural light and ventilation and 6) The building Jacks architectural features and lacks terminal facil ities
also of HVAC system for air as well. In all, the terminal neither serves functionall y nor

conditioning. aesthetically.
CASE STUDIES

COMPARITIVE ANALYSIS
KAI TAK CRUISE YOKOHAMA CRUISE COCHIN CRUISE REMARKS
TERMINAL TERMINAL TERMINAL
L LOCATION Strategically located at Located at the yokohama Located on the artificially Strategic location of cruise
the site of ex-airport port with the visual of created Wellington Island termi nal is an important
having visual corridors Minato Mirai skyline sharing the closest l ink to criteria
from all 4 sides and harbour front main sea route
2. CONNECTIVITY Access from roads, rail, Access from roads, rail, Access from roads, rail, Hinterland connections
air, ferry as well as air, ferry as well as ferry as well as pedestrians should be satisfactory for
pedestrians pedestrians promoti ng tour ism
3. ZONING The term inal is well The terminal is placed on The terminal is placed on The termina l should have
placed between parks a reclaimed land the well ington island with recreational facil ities around
and gardens around surrounded by the ocean. cargo storage areas around to boost cruise tourism and
includ ing a heliport promoti ng the use of the
termi nal
4. CIRCULATION the term inal is well The terminal is The termina l is connected The terminal should have
connected from three connected from only one via a network of roadways sufficient no. of gates and
major roads major road leading to the term inal road width to avoid chaos
on site level.
5. BUILDJNG
A) ZONING Parking facil ities at the Parking facil ities at the Parking facilities for buses Parking facilities should be
first 2 floors and site level & ground floor only at site level and provided at site and ground
terminal facilities at the and terminal facil ities at terminal facilities at level
uooer floors the uooer floors grou nd and upper floors
B) CIRCULATION circulation should was circulation should was circulation should was circulation should be
according to the according to the according to the according to the flow
movements of movements of movements of passengers movements of passengers as
passengers as per passengers as per as per guide Iines per guidel ines
ruideli nes !luidel ines
C) LANDSCAPING 4 hectares of land was Landscaped area was No landscaped areas Landscaping plays an
covered under very less as compared to important role in promotin!l

87
CASE STUDIES

landscaping area adding the paved areas the terminal building.


to leisure spaces on the Proper landscaped decks
terminal and other ancillary features
and elements should be
provided . E.g. Garden plaza,
sitting areas, picnic spots
etc.
D) STRUCTURE fhe main building is a The buildi ng is steel No structural features are The structure of the terminal
added in this terminal building should be strong,
hree-level concrete framed, consisting of aestheticall y pleasing and
tructure on a footprint of main beams (girders) on functional.

J I Om x 70m, with an the two sides and a


tpron area of 850m x triangular pyramid
Sm. (folded plates) system to
The 44.7m-wide column- support the roof and
ree layout in combination floors.
With high loading These results in a
•equirements meant that massive column-less
xtensive post-tensioning inter ior space, with
was needed. external walls all made
with tempered glass.

ss I
CASE STUDIES

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
DEPARTURESPAC ES ARRIVAL SPACES
• Ship d eparture lounge w ith corridor l SO • Ship arriva l lo un g e w ith corrid or ISO
•Public co ncourse 2000 • Public concourse 2000
• Immigration & check-ins 100 • Im mig ratio n & ch eck-ins 100
• Information c o unter with booking office so • Informa tio n counter w ith b o o kin g office so
• C hild ca re cenlre 100 • Tourist informa tio n centre so
•Baggage ha n dling (including all ba ck office wo rk • C hild care centre 100
for departure passeng ers) 400 • Bagg a g e handling (includin g a ll b a ck o ffic e work
• Baggage- lost and found 70 for arrival p assengers) 400
• Trolley room 70 • Baggage- lost a nd foun d 70
•d uty free shop ( for d eparture passenger) 105 (15.7) •duty free sh o p ( for arriva l p asseng er) 105 ( 1s • 7)
• ba nk extensio n c o unter (dep a rture) 125 • b a nk extensio n counter (arriv a l) 125
•Rent-a-car counter 25 • Rent--a--car counter 25
•Basic kiosks lSO •Basic kiosks l SO
•Firstaid r o o m (arriv a l) 160 • Firsta id 'fo o m (arrival) 160
•C afeteria with kitchen 60 •Cafeteria w ith kitc h en 60
• To ilets as/standards • Toilets as/stand ards

OTHER FACILITIES
•Ticket counter w ith q ueue u p area 3SO A C C O UNTS DEPARTM ENT
• Postal services 80 • A c c o u n ts a n d rec o r d k eep in g 30 sq. m
• C o m munic a tio n c entre 100 • Cash flow a na lysis 30
•Ship b a g g a ge check-in h a n dlin g 400 • Salary a d m inistration 25
• Insuranc e taxation 25
FORMAINTENANCE 30
• Stores ISO
• Office a d ministration 60
• Office p la nning a nd forecasting 30
• Supp ly in ventory 20
• Public relations department 40
• Ship co-ordination c en tre 40
•Ac plant rooms 60
•Sub statio n 60
CASE STUDIES

RECREATIONAL FAC ILITIES Firefigh ting office with parkin g for fire engines 350
•Shop forimpulse buying

}
1000 (55 no.) I. Office 30
• fast fo o d c entre w ith viewing deck 500 II. Storage 20
•Restaurant with k:itchen 500 Ill. Engine parking 2SO
•C afeteria 40
•Vehicular check in wit h booking office 80
•Entertainment cen tre/ gaming zone
•Internet cafe 30 (8 no .) GROUND TRANSPORTATION MODES
•Book store 30
• Bus loungewith parking for buses 3500
OFFICE REQUIREMENTS • Taxi parking area 1000
• Terminal manager 60 • Taxi and auto waiting lounge 800
• Head/ Chief 30 •Stoff parking 1500
• Secretary and staff room 30 • Y acht parking facility
• Waiting l SO
• Duty officer 30 OTHERSTAFF FACILITIES
• Security chief 30 • staff lo ckers with toilet 100
• Technica l chief • Stoff restroom 80
(3 no.J}
• Stoff fo r each • Stoff canteen 80
• Maintenance officer 25 •Crew lounge so
• staff office 30 • C ontrol tower 2SO
•Announcement room 20 • Viewin g g a llery 60
• Video monitor room 30 •CraH comp a ny offices 120
• Conference room 200 • Local guard office so
• To ilets as/stand a rds • Security staff 100 (25 . 4)
• Life gua rd 60 • Store 80
SITE ANALYSI S

CHAPTER 4 SITE ANALYSIS


. / Area 3702 sq. kms. SITE SELECTION
. / Population 1,3,43,998 Why G-Oa?
. / Climate Summer - March to June (24 c - 32.7 c) Strengths
Winter - Novem ber to February (21.3 c - 32.2 c)
Goa has a rich inventory of World class tourism
Monsoon - June to September (rainfall- 320cm) resources, both natural as well as manmade, they include:

. / Altitude Sea level to 1022 m • Picturesque landscape

. / Location Between latitude 15 48 '00" & 14 53' 54" • BeautifuJ mountains (the Western Ghats)

And longitudes 74 20 ' 13" E & 73 40' 33" E • Serene Rivers like the Mondovi, Zuari, etc.

• 105 km of palm-fringed shorel ine with 34 fabulous beaches

• Wildl ife sanctuaries at Bondla, Mollem, Cotigao in the Ghat region and Bird sanctuary at Charao island

• Tranquil lake at Mayem and breath taking "vaterfalls at Dudhsagar

• Heritage monuments, many Churches reflecting Baroque or traditional Portuguese style of architecture with exquisite interiors, Temples and
Mosques which are thronged by thousands of devotees every year- great potentiaJ for religious tourism.

• Rich cuJturaJ heritage enjoyed by residents and tourists.

91
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=
SITE ANALYSI S

• Pleasant climate for most part of the year, ranging from 24c - 35c in summer and 2 l c - 32c in winter- plenty warm sunshine which attract
lakhs of foreign tourists.

• Accessibil ity by all modes of transport.

Opportunities
Goa has enormous potential for the development of new product ideas,
some of which are the latest craze in the western world today.

I. Heritage Tourism 2. Entertainment Tourism


3. Cultural Tourism 4. Educational Tourism

5. Business Tourism 6. Health Tourism

SITE VALIDITY
I . The location of the site is immediately next to a "vater body with draft
of at least 12 m to accommodate large vessels.
Share Q(Foreign Tourist Ju Goa /11199 1 GCZl\IA u od for cr uis e te r nti1111I 11tl\1PT
2. Also, more the length of the side of the structure abutt ing the
12% Port looking to diversify as revenue from mining
sea, more the number of vessels that can be serviced by the exports has fallen drastically
24 Sep, 2015, 06 13AMIST
terminal.
PAHJIM O o aCoastalZoneM I N ; t m e r lAllll10llt)'flU QfiWlf49')pjOIMJIOMolmi.90Poftl.lll1U2Ccons.tftiell0n o !an
ulu1mOC1e-r1c.t\llW!t bMdrcJwNdi 1• n p e . : i e d t o b t c . e d b r l'Oll

OCl,.,..lf'l10mffllro;Mff• o r - .. o a c i o r o w 1 i . u . p r o , t e 1 1 1 1 ' t d m ' C c n W Z n«11011l01'12C»t


DRest of lndla • Goa
REGIONAL SENARIO - GOA •tllllriglh•Ie!t :PllOpO:StdprQjfCl•l l •l s urlder Cit%. . . .. . M d w.t M pOd l i mb Tno OfOPOS.llV.a'!eslfl•I M P T - 11."SIO
c o 1 1 •*"1Met.1l<Mi01"1'S•olp:tt,Sfl"Ol'Sto bClarCI·

Goa has been one of the major tourist destinations in India for Foreign visitors. Its share is around 11% of the total foreigners visiting the country
as is visible.

9
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SITE ANALYSI S
Yea r Foreign ,•isitors to Foreign visilorsto %
Lndia Goa
(million) (ruillionl
During the years from 1990 to 1998, the share of foreign tourist as the share of 1991 l.68 0.078 4.64
1992 1.87 0.120 6.42
total tourists visiting Goa has considera bly increased from 11.83% in 1990 to 1993 1.76 0.170 9.66
22.39% in 1998. 1994 l.89 0.2 10 11.11
1995 2.12 0.230 10.85
• This is significantly higher than the normal trend of about 3.37% of foreign 1996 2.261nl 0.240 10.62
1997 2.401nl 0.260 10.83
tourist observed in India. 1998 2.551nl 0.280 10.98
1999 2.37(nclual) 0.280 11.81
BREAKWATER

• The site proposed to be developed is bounded on the north by the existing channel and on
-- - --- - ........
the east by the existing breakwater . -- - .. tn1
• To the south, the site is limited by headland hill, and on the west it is open to the Arabian
Sea.
• The existing West of Breakwater site has very little upland associated with it and is exposed
'
I

to Arabian Sea storms during the monsoon season.


MOIU I U t A O tl ! : A
• A new breakwater is proposed to shelter the berthing basin and possibly form part of a new O

land reclamation area. &IOP.•t )

MORMUGAO, GOA
O RIENTATION:
AREA STATEMENT ACCESSIBILITY SITE

• Site area - 70,000 sq. m • 5 km from Dabolim Airport

• Existing area- 24,000 sq. m • 10 km from Dabolim Railway Station

• Area under reclamatjon- 46,000 sq. m • 2 km from Vasco market Bus Stand

.' I --·
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SITE ANALYSI S
Average meteorologicalcondition s of the projec t area
Month Temn..rnture rel Rainfall No. of Re ative h umiditv 1%1
Maximum Minimum (mm) rainy days 8:30 hrs. 17:30 hrs.
• Morm ugao port lies midway between the ports of Mumbai January 29.7 21.4 1
.8 0.1 61) 62
February 29.0 21-9 0.0 0 66
and New Mangalore. n
March 30.0 23.9 0-4 0 73 69
April 30.9 26.1 20.3 .8
0 69
• The Port of Mormugao has a 250-meter wide channel that n
May 31.3 26.9 81.3 3.5 73 72
is 5.2 kilometres long in the Outer Channel and 2.3 June 29.4 24.7 777.8 22.0 83 83
Jutv 28.0 24.0 905.1 26.5 86 88
kilometres long in the Inner Channel. Channel depths August 27.8 23.9 412.9 21.9 87 86
September 28.1 23.8 225.9 15.2 87 84
range from 14.1 meter s in the Inner Channel to 14.4 meters
October 29.8 23.9 138.7 6.9 82 78
November 31.0 22.8 42.6 2.4 69 65
in the Outer Channel. December 30.5 23.7 4.9 0.3 62 60
Total 2611.7 99.6
• This site is exposed to waves from all directions. The Source : Mormugao observatory
Annualmean 29.6 23.7 76 73

protection provided by Western breakwater to this new development area would be limited as incom ing wave energy from Western
directions would diffract around the head of the breakwater and the Eastern part.
• Since this is a part of the existing port, the Hinterland connections are satisfactory.
POWER SUPPLY

• Since 1999, Reliance Energy Limited (REL), a private organization and Goa State Government are supply ing the required electric power
to the port.

WATER SUPPLY

• The current fresh water consum ption of Mormugao Port Trust (MPT) is about 3000 m3/day and supply is limited to working hours only.
• About 1500-1800 m3/day of this consumption is provided by a 300 mm water pipe line belonging to the Goa Pu blic Works Department
(PWD).

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DESIGN CRITERIA

AT SITE LEVEL
I) ORIENTATION OF THE SITE - N-S facing; 400 * 150 M site dimension : The •
project site has its wider footprint along the Arabian Sea. •
Visual Corridors: - Towards NW- Dona Paula & Dias Beach
Towards South- Japanese garden
Towards NE- Arabian sea, breakwater and lighthouse
Towards west- Vasco harbour

2) ZONING AT SITE LEVEL : With reference to the


case studies; and keeping thesis objectives in mind; zoning
of the site will include

-Apron

-Centrally placed Termi nal Building with recreational


facilities at EW ends of the site and adjacent to the
terminal building- INTERACTIVITY

- Waterfront and Harbour front Promenade- highl ighting the visual corridors.

-Central Park- recreational park facilitating all age groups and barrier free movement; towards the southern side of the site; also acting as a
buffer area from the residential area at front of the site

- Termi nal surrounding- a) North- Arabian Sea c) West- Waterfront promenade

b) South- Landscaped Central Park d) East- Harbour front promenade

9
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._, ........ ,,,,.,,.,. --..... ,,,,.... .......... ...
DESIGN CRITERIA

I µ - \\""
3. CIRCULATION: Referring from the case studies, the circular pattern would be f l NC"2: A.f lN

planned as below: ,,J <;.-1_.. .v. .J w

a)Entry to the site via 16 M wide road.

b) Parking at Ground & First floor and the Central park

c)Promoti ng Pedestrian movement around recreational facilities for the visitors


to explore the plaza' s and landscaped areas.

4. LANDSCAPING - At site level, landscaping will be done at the central park


by promoting barrier free movements and adding certain elements- landforms, water bodies, sitting areas, picnic areas etc.

- Buffer strip separating Apron area from the recreational facilities at site level will be provided w.r.t security.

- Promenade at both ends will be well landscaped with native plants, shading tress and adding street furniture.

AT BUILDING LEVEL
5. ZONING- a) at Ground Floor level- (i) Offices (ii) Baggage & Cargo handling

b) At First Floor Level- (i) Offices & storage (ii) CIQ facilities (iii) Parking

c) At Second Floor Level- (i) Departure & Arrival Halls (ii) Restaurant & cafeteria (iii) Security check & CIQ facilities

(iv) Ticketing and information counters (v) Commercial areas- Shopping areas

d) At Roof Floor Level- (i) Rooftop plaza (ii) Shops, Restaurant etc. (iii) Ancillary features

9
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._, ........ ,,,,.,,.,. --..... ,,,,.... .......... ...
DESIGN CRITERIA

6. CIRCULATION : With reference


from the case studies; the circulation pattern
in this thesis project would be as shown. - "' (;::::==

7. FORM OF THE BUILDING-
-Single building component- a terminal
building incorporating all the facilities matching International standards.

-To make sure that the terminal building generates revenue throughout the
year, the rooftop would be planned with undulations in the structure and
curvilinear form.

-Studying the oceanic data of the site, the tidal changes and wave patterns
around the site, the form will depict a close relation with the sea life.

9
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