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Patterns of Development in

Writing Across Disciplines

Reading and Writing Senior High School
There are ways to
develop your ideas
in writing.
Narration tells a story.
 It relates an incident or a series of
events that leads to a conclusion or
It tells the readers when, where, and
what happened.
 A narrative paragraph contains action verbs and
transition words that indicate time or sequence.
*Transition words used to signal time or sequence
 First, second, etc.
 After, next, then, eventually, soon
 Meanwhile, a short time later
 During, at the same time, simultaneously
 Suddenly, instantly, momentarily
 The next day, following, thereafter
 In the end, ultimately
Last night, I was walking on my way home
when it suddenly rained. I forgot to bring my
umbrella, so I ran to avoid getting completely
soaked in the rain. Not seeing where I was
going, I fell into a paddle of water. Then a guy
helped me stand up. When I looked up, I
recognized him. Momentarily, I forgot that I
was soaking wet and that I was very cold. He
offered to walk me home, and I just nodded.
The next day, he and I saw each other at
school. At last, we talked like old friends.
Description gives information of what a
person, an object, a place, or a situation is
 It appeals to the reader’s senses
Types of Description

1.Objective Description
- looks into factual and scientific
characteristics of what is being
described as objectively as possible

* The writer stays away from emotional impressions or

responses and instead, describes the scene as it is
The Acer barbatum is a small to medium-sized,
deciduous tree usually ranging from 15 to 25 m.
(50 to 80 ft.) tall when mature. Its bark is light
gray and smooth on younger trees, and it
becomes ridged and furrowed with age. Leaves
are opposite and shallowly to deeply palmately
lobed, with a few blunt teeth but no serrations.
The leaf sinuses are rounded, unlike those of red
maple (Acer rubrum) which are sharply V-
shaped. Also, the sides of terminal leaf lobes are
more or less parallel, while those of red maple
are widest at the base, tapering to the tip.
Types of Description

1.Subjective Description
- a sort of description that the author would
normally use to “paint a picture” of how he sees a
character, or how he wants the reader to see a

My mother had hair so dark that it

looked like a waterfall of ink. She
always kept it in a braid that fell to
her slim waist, and always tied with a
plain black band. The braid of black
slung over her shoulder, the plaits
shining like scales.
The tarsier has soft, grayish fur. It has bat-
like ears and a long, rat-like tail. It only
stands about 100 millimeters. It feeds on
insects like crickets, beetles, and termites;
and on small animals, too, like lizards,
frogs, and small birds. Also, it is capable of
turning its head 180 degrees and jumping
backward with accuracy.
Definition explains a concept, term, or
explains not just what something means or
is, but also what something does, what
something is used for, what something
looks like, etc
The greenhouse effect is a natural
process. As the sun shines, Earth
absorbs some of its energy. Then the
greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
like water vapor, carbon dioxide,
methane, nitrous oxide, and the ozone
absorb and emit that energy. This
energy warms the atmosphere as well
as the Earth’s surface. As a result, the
process keeps Earth warm.
Exemplification and
-the main idea is explained by giving
an extended example or a series of
detailed examples.
-simply proving or supporting your
point, or thesis with examples.
Today, men and women of all ages undergo surgery to
feel good about themselves. Three of the most popular
surgical procedures are liposuction, facelifts, and hair
transplants. First, liposuction is a quick fix for those who
find good diet and exercise ineffective and time
consuming. Next, surgical facelifts promise men and
women a younger and fresher look. Lastly, hair
transplants are now possible, especially for balding
men. Thanks to medical advances, men can now avoid
the harsh reality of losing their hair by undergoing a
long-lasting hair transplant procedure.
Types of Examples
Examples that illustrate - use concrete
examples to illustrate an idea.
Examples that explain - give an
explanation to illustrate a concept.
Examples that tell a story - use a short story
to illustrate a point.
Examples that describe - use examples to
make help the reader visualize a scene or
a thing
Examples that illustrate

-Muslim woman are active, assertive and

engaged in society. In Qatar, women make
up the majority of graduate school students.
The Iranian parliament has more women
members that the U.S. Senate. Throughout
the world, many Muslim women are
educated and professionally trained. They
participate in public debates…
Examples that explain

But I came to realize that those husbands who

helped very little at home were often just as
deeply affected as their wives – through the
resentment their wives felt toward them and
through their own need to steel themselves
against resentment.
Examples that tell a story
One day, rushing into the office
of a magazine I was writing for with
a deadline story in hand, I was
mistaken for a burglar. The office
manager called the security and
with an ad hoc posse, pursued me
through the labyrinthine hall, nearly
to me..
Exemplification and
Classification refers to sorting or arranging
subjects (e.g., persons, places, things, ideas)
into groups or categories according to their
common or shared characteristic.
 The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) are composed
of the Philippine Army, the Philippine Air Force, the
Philippine Navy, and the Philippine Marine Corps. The
Philippine Army, the main and largest branch, is
responsible for ground warfare. It was established on
December 21, 1935, and it has 86,000 active personnel.
The Philippine Air Force is the aerial warfare service
branch. It has 15,000 active personnel and a total of 126
aircraft. It has been active since July 1, 1947. The
Philippine Navy is the naval service branch. It was
founded on May 20, 1898 and has a total of 101 ships
and 24,000 active personnel. The Philippine Marine
Corps conducts amphibious and expeditionary warfare
as well as special operation missions. It was established
on November 2, 1950, and it has 8,300 active personnel.
Dogs are domesticated animals that have been
living with humans for generations. Dogs can be
classified in a number of different ways. For example,
they can be classified by breed. Examples of different
breeds include beagles, basset hounds, poodles and
countless others as defined by the American Kennel
Club (AKC). They can also be classified by their role in
the lives of their masters and the work they do. For
example, a dog might be a family pet, a working dog, a
show dog, or a hunting dog. In many cases, dogs are
defined both by their breed and their roll. For example,
a dog could be a beagle that is a family pet.
Using Exemplification and Classification

You can use both exemplification and

classification in developing a paragraph. You
can begin by classifying some ideas and then
explain each idea by giving examples.
Pollution of air, land, and water affects people’s health.
Toxic gases, particulate matter (e.g., smoke, soot, dust),
and other hazardous air pollutants can contaminate the
air. If breathed, the air causes or exacerbates serious
respiratory problems, such as asthma, bronchitis,
emphysema, and lung disease. Toxic wastes like
chemicals, garbage, pesticides, and heavy metals make
the land toxic. If people are exposed to such land, they
can develop skin problems, deformities, and certain types
of cancer. Chemicals, sewage, fertilizers, and other
harmful substances can contaminate primary water
sources like the oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, and streams.
Water from affected sources can cause stomach illness,
liver damage, certain types of cancer, and neurological
problems in people.
Comparison and Contrast

Organizes ideas based on how events,

places, people, things, and concepts are
similar to or different from each other
A. separately – involves describing
one item first followed by the second
B. side-by-side – involves discussing
both items based on each point of
Cause and Effect
Explains why something happens or
what results a particular event
 A cause is simply “why something happens,”
 effect is “what happens.”
The following words can be used to signal
cause and effect:

as a result
because of (this)
due to (this)
There are three different ways to use the
cause-and-effect pattern in writing:

Cause to effect
Effect to cause
Consecutive cause and
Cause and Effect
Salmonellosis is a type of food poisoning caused
by Salmonella enterica bacterium. People who
are infected with such illness experience
abdominal cramps, fever, and diarrhea.
Consequently, they suffer from severe
dehydration, vomiting, headaches, and body
aches. Furthermore, salmonellosis can lead to
complications, such as Reiter’s syndrome
(reactive arthritis) and focal infection
Effect to Cause
Example: Global warming, the increase of Earth’s
average surface temperature, is happening. One
of its major causes is the buildup of greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere. Those gases trap heat in
the atmosphere, which keeps the Earth warm.
However, burning fossil fuels like coal, oil, and
natural gas produces more carbon dioxide, a
greenhouse gas, in the atmosphere. Thus, more
heat is trapped in the atmosphere, and the Earth
gets warmer than usual.
Another major cause of the global warming is
deforestation. When forests are burned, large
amounts of carbon are released into the
atmosphere. Likewise, when trees are cut down,
much carbon dioxide from living things, some of
which is absorbed by the trees, goes to the
Consecutive cause and effect
American women gained status during World War II.
Many of them took over men’s jobs in factories and farms
as men enlisted into the military. As a result, they learned
new skills and experienced work outside of the home. Also,
women were allowed to serve in the military following the
bombing of Pearl Harbor, so they felt the pride of being in
the military service. Lastly, because of the absence of
men, women made decisions for themselves and their
Problem and Solution

A problem-solution pattern divides information

into two main sections, one that describes a
problem and one that describes a solution.