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Infrastructure

Part 3
Signalling

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What the TSIs mean…

 The on-board system is tightly defined – it has to be able to go


anywhere,

 The trackside allows flexibility,


 If features are not required on a route or in a location, why
provide them?

 Think of a Chinese menu!


On-board set meal & the trackside ETCS menu

 On-board is tightly defined  The trackside gives you the full menu, with
Like a set menu. No choices, you just every option you can think of.
get it!  We have to choose the right combinations
of dish to deliver the operations we need.
 Few choices the owner can make, but
 The dishes will be made to order so they
cannot change the core.
will be expensive.
 There are loopholes allowing  If we can choose a sub-set of dishes and
seemingly robust rules to be buy in bulk, it will be more consistent for
interpreted differently! signaller, driver and engineers, and be
cheaper.
Building blocks

The TSI (Technical Standard for


Operability) mandates a series of (SRS)
TSIs, SRS, etc. System Requirements Specifications.

The SRS define the communication


Reference between the trackside and the train –
Design they are the building blocks.

Applications We need to select and assemble these


blocks into a series of facilities from
which we can build a railway.

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The Reference Design Concept

 How do we define which building blocks we need and what they


look like?

 Understanding how the railway needs to work,

 Breaking the journey of a train into small units,

 Each unit is a facility – defined and documented,

 The railway can be built from a sequence of facilities.


Typical journey

 Train starts in depot (start of  Driver enters cab and undertakes


mission process), start of mission,
 Train enters ETCS area (N1) in  Train obtains first movement
Level 1, authority (G2 or G3 followed by
 Train transitions to Level 2 (N1), A2),
 MA is extended (A1) several  Train Dispatch takes place (D),
times,  MA is extended (A1) several times,
 Train approaches occupied  Train approaches critical routing
terminal platform (H1) and point and routing information is
transitions to OS mode, provided (A3),
 Driver brings train to a stand and  Train is stopped on approach to
closes cab (C), junction (E),
 Coupling takes place in SB (I),  MA is extended (A1).

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Mapping Facilities

Train Splitting in
Despatch SB
D1/2 I1

Immediate End of
Start of
FS Mission SB
Mission
G2-1 C

Stopping at
TAF
EOA
G2-2
E1/2/3

Start in OS Step Up Extend MA


G3 A2-2 FS A1-1/2

OS
SB
Permissive
Extend OS
Line OS
A1-3
H1/2

Step Up
A2-2
Step Up
A2-1

Extend OS
A1-3

Start in SR Extend MA
SR
G1 A1-1/2
Developing a scheme
 Our current processes rely on:
 the scheme plan conveying a lot of information
 the designers understanding the operational requirements.

 No longer constrained by aspect sequences and signal spacing.

 Scheme plan will focus on hazards to be protected and the


operational outputs needed.

 Block section lengths can vary to provide capacity and reduce


junction occupation times.

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Scheme Design – Level 1 Launch
L1 Launch can be used for short space transitions
Offers single-section L1 MA past the entry signal into ETCS area
Trains can connect to L2 later in the transition process
What matters is what the driver sees

 At start of mission,

 During the journey,

 Entering an occupied platform,

 Transitioning

 We need to design what the driver is offered and when they are
offered it – this may not be linked to physical things.
Many ways of Start of Mission

On Sight? Full Supervision? Track-Ahead-Free?

Route setting – avoiding When do we offer On-Sight?


driver alerts

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All about the communications
 GSM-R is the backbone,

 Built for voice but ETCS needs data,


GSM-R
 The base option - use a voice channel
for the data

 Better option is to use Packet Switch


(GPRS) permitting 3 or 4 data calls
over one channel.

 FTN needs an upgrade for either


solution.
ERTMS trackside equipment

FT Network

GSM• R
Object Central
Traffic
Controller Control
RBC

Interlocking
Train
Detection
Track Circuit/
Axle Counter
Unit

Point
Machine

Point
Machine
Beacon
Level
Crossing

Beacon

Trackside
Track Circuit/
Axle Counter
Unit
Lineside Signage
On Track Equipment
Axle Counters replace track circuits

Euro-Balise.
(French for beacon)

Clamp-lock points
Infrastructure changes

 Signals disappear and new signs introduced


 Block section lengths can vary
 Different type of maintenance required
 Scheme design will focus on the hazards to
be protected and the operational outputs
needed
 Design plans will convey very different
information – symbols and terminology
 Operational aspirations needs to be
integrated at the design stage
Infrastructure Maintenance

 TSR no longer have trackside signs


 Maintenance activities will change
 Telecoms (GSM-R) now key part of
signalling system.
 Possession rules change
 Fitting ETCS to OTM.
 New kit in ROCs.

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Handheld possession terminals

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Yards and Depots

 Full ERTMS. Movements in OS or FS.

 Level NTC – movement authority


received from lineside signal or
Shunter’s hand signals.

 Level 1 launch at outlet

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Overlay – a special case
 ERTMS gives the greatest
benefits when you start with a
blank sheet
 Substituting an in-cab MA for a
lineside signals gives little
advantage on its own
 Understanding “pure” ERTMS
rules in overlay
 Conflicting information!
 Driver behaviour/ workload
 Transitions are challenging.

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But hang on, it is interoperable!

 Remember the Chinese menu!


We have many things we can do, but which do we need?

 Suppliers have only implemented what they have been asked

 It may seem like a “pick-and-mix”, but…

 We need to take account of the international rule book; the


requirements of the other TSIs, etc.

 It has to be demonstrably safer and better than today!


Challenges ahead

 We don’t yet have all the answers!


 We are working with the industry to agree the best solutions,
 Once again we are leading the field – many of the questions we
are asking have not been asked before!
 Our European colleagues are facing many of the same
challenges and we are working together to understand potential
solutions,
 Train despatch, level crossing management, braking models,
degraded working, start of mission, heritage vehicles,
management of misrouting are all topics in the pot!

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Questions?