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3G VS 4G

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Network Architecture

The Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) is a main component of
the GPRS network. The GGSN is responsible for the interworking between
the GPRS network and external packet switched networks, From the
external networks’ point of view, the GGSN is a router to a sub-network,
because the GGSN ‘hides’ the GPRS infrastructure from the external
network. When the GGSN receives data addressed to a specific user, it
checks if the user is active. If it is, the GGSN forwards the data to the SGSN
serving the mobile user, but if the mobile user is inactive, the data are

The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) is a main component of
the GPRSnetwork, which handles all packet switched data within the
network, e.g. the mobility management and authentication of the users

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LTE Architecture:

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LTE Key Features

In ANR mod system tell the UE with SIB1 about the neighbors.
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The capability of UMTS is evolving throughout the various releases of the 3GPP specifications. For example, the use of either 64QAM or MIMO is introduced within the release 7 version of the
specifications. The use of both 64QAM and MIMO is introduced within the release 8 version of the specifications. Historically, UMTS has been limited to a 5 MHz channel bandwidth whereas the
release 8 version of the specifications introduces the pairing of two 5 MHz channels to effectively provide a 10 MHz channel band-width. This is limited to HSDPA within the release 8 version of the
specifications but is extended to HSUPA in the release 9 version. This evolution of the UMTS specifications allows UMTS to remain competitive with LTE although LTE has the fundamental key
advantages of a potential 20 MHz channel bandwidth and a flat architecture. Furthermore, LTE does not experience intracell interference compare to UMTS or HSPA system, which results in better
spectral efficiency.

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Power Congestion Concept
In UMTS There is many congestion like power congestion, uplink congestion,
down link congestion
But in LTE there is one important congestion is PRB congestion, and we
calculated PRB primary resource block.
PRB in uplink and in the down link as well
Dedicated control channel, dedicated mean that its only for one UE.

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In UMTS coverage is based on power transmitted by Pilot channel

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Soft Handover

Soft hand over concept is make and break, if you are moving
first you will make connection then you will break previous
In hard handover UE will leave current cell and go to other cell.
In HSDPA soft handover is not supported but in HSUPA soft
handover is supported. UE can connect six cells in active mode.
If the UE is receiving signals from 4 different cell. It can connect
with four cells and if one cell get down ue will continue to trans
and receive from other 3 cells, we call it active cell. Active cell is
configurable parameter it can be configure with 3,4,5 ,6 cell
more cells in active cell means UE is using more resources and
it will effect on capacity of the network,

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NodB is not hearing single connection, Lets suppose

it hears from UE A and c/i in uplink is -5 and UE B is -
12 and other is -13 , so the network is keep
measuring c/I for each channel, there is lot of Ues
connected with one cell. It measure c/I for that
individual channel of that UE but for optimization
prospective this is not important because there are lot
of UEs and you are optimizing the network for all the
UEs. So it need a criteria to measure the interference
for all the UEs in network it call RTWP . It measure
total level of noise within the UMTS frequency band
in any cell. It gives you total power received which is
also called RSSI. -105 is good RTWP , -100 in
creasing interference , -95 is very bad its mean it
already dropping some calls

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Pilot channel power received by UE. Ue send the power to NB which call UMTS signal is
measured using RSCP, RSCP is measured against each cell.

La célula es identificar por dos cosas una es id de celda y otra es Scrambling código.
System measure its signal strength with RSCP in other words coverage is measured by RSCP.
There is other thing called RSSI RSCP is measured by UE, then it will go to NB and then RNC.
Measurement done by UE in down link and NodB in uplink. -70 RSCP considered good, -70 and -90
considered ok , -90 and 100 is bad. If you want to see the signal strength of cell you will look for
RSCP.RSCP is also suitable for Uplink quality and Ec/No for downlink Quality.

RSCP is used to make Decision for Handover.

RSSI combined signal hay temam cells ka. Jeb UE aik sector say connect hoti hay to wo ustime
dosry sectors say signal b larai hoti hay. Kio k baqi cell b same frequency tranmit ker rehy hoty hain.
Ham kaise differentiate (ferq), ager ap RSSI measure keraingy to uy adition hoga temam signals ka,
RSCP her scrabling code k sath measure hoti hay.

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RSCP walk test

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Io: Interference is the Broadband, interfering co-channel, including yours

E: Energy of one bit

Channel quality is measured with Ec/Io

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Walk test for Ec/No

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RSRP(reference symbol received power)

It measured the average received power over the resource element that carry
cell specific reference signal within certain frequency bandwidth.
RSRP is applicable in booth RRC-Idle and RRC- Connected modes. While
RSRQ is only applicable in RRC connected mode.
In procedure of cell selection and cell reselection in idle mode RSRP is used

Quality measurement

In lte Quality is measured by two things RSRQ and SINR . Mostly

SINR being used. RSRQ measured in Logarithmic scale. Thermal
noise not considered in RSRQ, to measure the quality thermal noise
is important.(In logarithmic scale the values are in negative, in Linear
scale the values are in positive) . UE reports quality in term of RSRQ
and eNB convert it in SINR.

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You can check a part of sector power, then have to check Antenna is correct
or azimuth is correct. Lac of dominant cell. If we have coverage and we have
Ping-Pong, why we want to finish Ping-Pong and why we want dominant
server. its mean SINR will also be bad. On that location. It will result on call
drop, low throughput dominant is related to good SINR
With doing down tilt 1 and up tilt 2 make dominant cell

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SINR(signal to-interference-andnoise

SINR indicates the Quality of received

reference signal
C: carrier, I+N: interference + Noise
The good values of SINR consider 10 or
above .

The ideal range of SINR is 30 DB. MIMO will

operate if the SINR value is between 20 to
30 DB. 10 to 15

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Transmit diversity:
This mode provides an improvement in signal quality at reception and does not improve the data
rate. Accordingly this form of LTE MIMO is used on the Common Channels as well as the
Control and Broadcast channels.

In case of Open Loop SU-MIMO Spatial Multiplexing, there is no UE feedback required.

Mapping of data to the transmit antenna ports is fixed and the system cannot be influenced. If
the conditions for Spatial Multiplexing are too bad, however, the UE may request to lower the
transmission rank and ultimately to fall back to Transmit Diversity.
In case of Closed Loop SU-MIMO Spatial Multiplexing, UE feedback is required. Mapping of
data to the transmit antenna ports follows the Codebook entry recommended by the UE. The
loop between base station and UE is closed, and the system can be influenced to better enable
Spatial Multiplexing. Again, if the conditions for Spatial Multiplexing are too bad, the UE may
request a fallback to Transmit Diversity

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