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LINEAR CONTROL

SYSTEMS
Ali Karimpour
Associate Professor
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Lecture 16

Lecture 16

Time domain design of control systems


Topics to be covered include:
 Design of controller in time domain.
Various controller configurations.
Different kind of controllers.
Controller realization.
 Time domain design of the PID controllers.
Design of PID controllers.
Design of PD controllers.
Design of PI controllers.

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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Various controller configurations.


‫ساختارهای کنترلی‬
‫متفاوت‬
1 Series or cascade compensation. ‫ ساختار کنترلی سری‬1
r(t) + e(t) u(t) c(t)
-
Gc (s ) G p (s )

2 State-feedback control. ‫ کنترل فیدبک حالت‬2


r(t) + u(t) x(t) c(t)
-
G p (s ) D

K
3 Forward compensation with series compensation. (Two degree of freedom)
(‫ جبران سازی پیش رو با جبران سازی سری )دو درجه آزادی‬3
r(t) + e(t) u(t) c(t)
Gc 2 ( s) Gc1 ( s ) G p (s )
-
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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Various controller configurations.


‫ساختارهای کنترلی‬
‫متفاوت‬
4 Feed forward compensation. ‫ کنترلر پیش خور‬4
(Two degree of freedom) (‫)دو درجه آزادی‬
Controller

Gc 2 ( s ) Controlled
process
r(t) + e(t) + u(t) c(t)
Gc1 ( s ) G p (s )
- +

Controller
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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Series Compensation Structure


‫جبران سازی سری‬
In this Course we consider the
series or cascade compensation.
Controller
PID controllers.
In This course
Lead lag controllers
Different H2 Controllers In Graduate courses
kind of
controllers H∞ Controllers
Adaptive Controllers
…………..
NN Controllers
Intelligent Controllers …………..
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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

PID Controllers ‫کنترلر‬


PID
PID has become almost universally used in industrial control.
These controllers have proven to be robust and extremely
beneficial in the control of many important applications.
PID stands for: P (Proportional)
I (Integral)
D (Derivative)
The standard form PID are:
GP ( s )  K p
Proportional only:
Ki
Proportional plus Integral: GPI ( s )  K p  Kd s
s
Proportional plus derivative: GPD  K p  K d s  Kd s 1
Proportional, integral and K
GPID ( s )  K p  i  K d s 6
derivative: s
An Alternative form for PID  K 
GPIDseries ( s )   K p  i 1 
Kd s 

 s   K d s  1  Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Lead-lag Compensators
‫کنترلر پیش فاز پس فاز‬

Closely related to PID control is the idea of lead-lag


compensation. The transfer function of these
compensators is of the form:

a s  1 sz
G ( s)  k or G ( s)  k
 s 1 s p

If a<1 , then this is a lag network. Or (z>p) in other form.

If a>1 this is a lead network. Or (z<p) in other form.

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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

PID and Operational‫کننده‬


Amplifiers
‫ و تقویت‬PID ‫کنترلر‬
‫عملیاتی‬

Vo ( s ) Z f ( s)
G( s)  
Vi ( s ) Z i ( s)
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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

PID and Operational‫کننده‬


Amplifiers
‫ و تقویت‬PID ‫کنترلر‬
‫عملیاتی‬

Vo ( s ) Z f ( s)
G (s)  
Vi ( s ) Z i (s)

Vout ( s) Rf
G(s)    K p
Vin ( s ) Rin

Vout ( s ) R
G (s)     RCs   K D s
Vin ( s ) 1 / Cs

Vout ( s ) 1 / Cs
G ( s)    1 / RCs   K i / s
Vin ( s ) R
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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

PID and Operational‫کننده‬


Amplifiers
‫ و تقویت‬PID ‫کنترلر‬
‫عملیاتی‬

Vo ( s ) Z f (s)
G (s)  
Vi ( s ) Z i (s)

1
R2 
Vo ( s ) C2 s
G ( s)   
Vi ( s ) 1
1
 C1s
R1

R2C2  R1C1 1
G ( s )  ( )  R2C1s
R1C2 R1C2 s
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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16
Effects of the PD control on the time response.
‫ بر پاسخ زمانی‬PD ‫تاثیر کنترلر‬
Step Response
R (s)+ E (s) C (s )
c(t ) 2
+ n 2
KP
- s( s  2n )

plitude
+ 1

Am
KDs
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
PD controller Time (sec)
e(t ) Step Response
1

Derivative part can improve

plitude
0

Am
the oscillation. -1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (sec)
e(t ) 0.5 Impulse Response

‫جمله مشتق می تواند رفتار‬ 0


.‫گذرا را بهبود بخشد‬
plitude

-0.5
Am

-1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (sec) 11
Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Effects of the PI control on the time response.


‫ بر پاسخ زمانی‬PI ‫تاثیر کنترلر‬
R(s ) E (s) C (s )
+ n 2
KP
+ - + s ( s  2n )
KI
s
PI controller

Loop transfer function without controller Loop transfer function with controller

n
2
n
2
KPs  KI
G (s)  Gc ( s)G ( s) 
s ( s  2n ) s s ( s  2n )

PI controller can improve error by increases


the type of system by one 12
Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Tuning of PID Controllers


PID ‫تنظیم کنترلرهای‬
Because of their widespread use in practice, we present
below several methods for tuning PID controllers.
Actually these methods are quite old and date back to
the 1950’s. Nonetheless, they remain in widespread use
today.
In particular, we will study.
 Ziegler-Nichols Oscillation Method
 Ziegler-Nichols Reaction Curve Method
 Cohen-Coon Reaction Curve Method
 Time domain design
 Frequency domain design
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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Ziegler-Nichols Design
‫طراحی زیگلر نیکولز‬
This procedure is only valid for open loop stable plants.
 Open-Loop Tuning
 Closed-Loop Tuning
According to Ziegler and Nichols, the open-loop transfer
function of a system can be approximated with time delay
and single-order system, i.e.

where TD is the system time delay and T1 is the time


constant. 14
Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Ziegler-Nichols Reaction Curve Method(Open-Loop Case)


‫طراحی زیگلر نیکولز حالت حلقه باز‬
For open-loop tuning, we first find the plant parameters by
applying a step input to the open-loop system.
The plant parameters K, TD and T1 are then found from the
result of the step test as shown in Figure.

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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Ziegler-Nichols Reaction Curve Method(Open-Loop Case)


‫طراحی زیگلر نیکولز حالت حلقه باز‬

Kp Ki Kd
T1
P KTD
0.9T1 0.27T1
PI KTD KTD
2

1.2T1 0.6T1 0.6T1


PID KTD KTD
2
K

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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Numerical Example
‫مثال عددی‬
Consider step response of an open-loop system as:

40e  sTD
So : K  40 C ,

TD  5 sec, T1  20 sec G (s) 
1  20s
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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Numerical Example
‫مثال عددی‬
40e  sTD
So : K  40 C ,

TD  5 sec, T1  20 sec G (s) 
1  20s

Kp Ki Kd
T1
P KTD
 0.1 K P ( s )  0.1
0.9T1 0.27T1 0.0054
PI KTD
 0.09
KTD
2
 0.0054 K PI ( s)  0.09 
s
1.2T1 0.6T1 0.6T1 0.012
PID KTD
 0.12
KTD
2
 0.012
K
 0.3 K PID ( s )  0.12 
s
 0.3s

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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Ziegler-Nichols Oscillation
‫نوسانی)حلقه‬ ‫نیکولز بروش‬Method(Closed-loop)
‫طراحی زیگلر‬
(‫بسته‬
This procedure is only valid for open loop stable plants
and it is carried out through the following steps
 Set the true plant under proportional control, with a very
small gain.
 Increase the gain until the loop starts oscillating. Note
that linear oscillation is required and that it should be
detected at the controller output.
 Record the controller critical gain Kc and the oscillation period of the
controller output, T.
 Adjust the controller parameters according to Table

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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Ziegler-Nichols Oscillation
‫نوسانی)حلقه‬ ‫نیکولز بروش‬Method(Closed-loop)
‫طراحی زیگلر‬
(‫بسته‬

Kp Ki Kd

P 0. 5 K c

Kc
PI 0.45 K c 0.54
T
Kc
PID 0.6 K c 1. 2
T
0.075 K cT

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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Numerical Example
‫مثال عددی‬
Consider a plant with a model given by

Find the parameters of a PID controller using the Z-N


oscillation method. Obtain a graph of the response to
a unit step input reference.

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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Solution ‫حل‬

Applying the procedure we find:


Kc = 8 and ωc = 3. T=3.62

Hence, from Table, we have


Kc
K p  0.6 K c  4.8 K i  1.2  2.65 K d  0.075 K cT  2.17
T

The closed loop response to a unit step in the reference at t


= 0 is shown in the next figure.

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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Response to step reference


‫پاسخ سیستم به پله‬

Step response for PID control


1.5

Amplitude
2.65
C PID ( s )  4.8   2.17 s
s 0.5

2.65 2.17 s
C PID ( s)  4.8   0

0.01 2.17 s  1
0 5 10 15
s Time (sec)

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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Time domain design ‫طراحی حوزه‬


‫زمانی‬
Is it possible to set the value of k such that the damping ratio of
complex poles be 0.707? Yes
‫ را بگونه ای تنظیم کرد که‬k ‫در سیستم زیر آیا می توان‬
‫ گردد؟‬0.707 ‫مختلط سیستم‬ ‫نسبت میرائی قطبهای بله‬
R (s )+ E (s) 40 C (s)
k k 
- s ( s  25 )

k 0 45 k 0
 
45
-25 0

12.5 2  12.5 2
40k  ?  k  7.8125 k 
1
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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Time domain design ‫طراحی حوزه‬


‫زمانی‬
Is it possible to set the value of k such that ramp error constant be
100? Yes
‫ را بگونه ای تنظیم کرد که ثابت‬k ‫در سیستم زیر آیا می توان‬
‫ گردد؟‬100 ‫بلهمعادل‬ ‫خطای شیب‬
R (s )+ E (s) 40 C (s)
k
s ( s  25 )
k v  100
-
40k
 lim s  100
s 0 s ( s  25)
 40k  2500

 k  62.5

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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Time domain design ‫طراحی حوزه‬


‫زمانی‬
Is it possible to set the value of k such that the damping ratio of
complex‫که‬poles
‫ کرد‬be 0.707
‫تنظیم‬ ‫ ای‬and ramp
‫بگونه‬ ‫ را‬kerror
‫توان‬constant be 100
‫زیر آیا می‬ ? ‫در‬
‫سیستم‬
‫ و ثابت خطای‬0.707 ‫نسبت میرائی قطبهای مختلط سیستم‬
‫ گردد ؟‬100 ‫شیب معادل‬
R (s)+ E (s ) 40 C (s )
k
- s ( s  25 )
k  7.8125
k  62.5

Clearly the design is not possible


???!!!???
Other controllers 26
Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Tuning PD controller ‫طراحی کنترلر‬


PD
Determine the controller coefficient such that the damping ratio
of complex
‫که نسبت‬poles
‫کنید‬be 0.707‫ای‬and
‫تنظیم‬ ramp
‫بگونه‬ ‫ را‬error
‫کنترلر‬constant
‫ ضرایب‬be 100 ? ‫در‬
‫سیستم‬
‫ و ثابت خطای شیب‬0.707 ‫میرائی قطبهای مختلط سیستم‬
‫ گردد ؟‬100 ‫معادل‬
R (s )+ E (s ) C (s )
40
kP  kD s
- s ( s  25)

40 40k P
kv  lim s (k P  k D s )   100  k P  62.5
s 0 s ( s  25) 25

40 s
1  kD 2 0
s  25s  2500 27
Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Tuning PD controller ‫طراحی کنترلر‬


PD
R (s )+ E (s) 40 C (s )
kP  kD s
- s( s  25) 40 s
1  kD 2 0
s  25s  2500

Tuning kD by graphical method.

48.4
kD  0

22.52  13.4 2 22.52  83.4 2


40k D  45 kD  
35  35
2 2
-50 -35 -12.5

k D  1.1426
kD  0
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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Tuning PD controller ‫طراحی کنترلر‬


PD
R (s )+ E (s) 40 C (s )
kP  kD s
- s( s  25) 40 s
1  kD 2 0
s  25s  2500

Tuning kD by mathematical method

40 s
1  kD 0  s 2  (25  40k D ) s  2500  0
s  25s  2500
2

Compare with : s 2  2n s  n  0


2 2
n  2500  n  50

45.7
2n  25  40k D  70.7  kD   1.1425
40 29
Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Tuning PD controller ‫طراحی کنترلر‬


PD
R (s )+ E (s) C (s )
kP  kD s
40
k P  62.5 k D  1.1425
- s( s  25)

Clearly kv  100

Step Response
1.4

1.2 Why P.O. > 4.3%


1

C ( s ) 40(1.1425s  62.5)
0.8
 2
Amplitude

0.6
R ( s ) s  70.7 s  2500
0.4

0.2

30
0 Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16
Lecture 16

Tuning PI controller ‫طراحی کنترلر‬


PI
Determine the controller coefficient such that the damping ratio
of complex
‫که نسبت‬poles
‫کنید‬be 0.707‫ای‬and
‫تنظیم‬ ramp
‫بگونه‬ ‫ را‬error
‫کنترلر‬constant
‫ ضرایب‬be 100 ? ‫در‬
‫سیستم‬
‫ و ثابت خطای شیب‬0.707 ‫میرائی قطبهای مختلط سیستم‬
‫ گردد ؟‬100 ‫معادل‬

R (s )+ E (s) C (s ) R(s)+ E (s ) C (s)


+ 40 kP s  kI 40
kP
- s( s  25) - s s( s  25)
+
kI
s

Clearly type of system is 2 so: kv  


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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16
Tuning PI controller (Continue) (‫ )ادامه‬PI ‫طراحی کنترلر‬
We now need‫مختلط‬
‫سیستم‬ damping ratio of
‫قطبهای‬ complex
‫میرائی‬ poles‫که‬be‫داریم‬
‫نسبت‬ 0.707.
‫حال نیاز‬
.‫ گردد‬0.707
R (s )+ E (s ) C (s )
kP s  kI 40 Root loci with proportional controller
- s s ( s  25)
40
1  kP 0
s( s  25)

(s  kI / kP ) 40 k 
1  kP 0
s s( s  25)

Let k I / k P  12.5
kI / kP  2 k 0 45 k 0
 No important change in root loci  
-25 45 0

12.5 2  12.5 2  12.5 2


40k P 
10.52  12.52
k P  8.45 32
k  Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16
Tuning PI controller (Continue) (‫ )ادامه‬PI ‫طراحی کنترلر‬
We now need to set kP.
.‫ را تعیین کنیم‬kP ‫حال نیاز داریم که‬

( s  2) 40
Root loci with PI controller 1  kP 0
s s ( s  25)

k 

k 0 45 k 0
 -11.5

-25 -10.9 -4.6 45 0

k 

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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Tuning PI controller ‫طراحی کنترلر‬


PI
R (s )+ E (s) C (s )
k
kP  I
40
s( s  25)
k P  8.45 k I  2k P  16.9
- s

Clearly kv  

Step Response

Why P.O. > 4.3%


1.4

1.2

C ( s) 338( s  2)
0.8
 3
Amplitude

0.6
R ( s ) s  25s 2  338s  676
0.4

0.2
Poles are :  2.37 ,  11 .3  12.5 j
0
34
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Time (sec)
Lecture 16

Compare PI and PD PI
controllers
‫مقایسه کنترلرهای‬
PD ‫و‬
R(s)+ E (s ) 40 C (s) R (s)+ E (s ) C (s )
k 40
kP  kD s kP  I
- s( s  25) - s s ( s  25)
k P  62.5 k D  1.1425 k P  8.45 k I  16.9

Step Response
1.4

With PI controller
1.2

With PD controller
0.8
Amplitude

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
35
Time (sec)
Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Exercises
‫تمرینها‬

1- In the following system design a PID controller with Ziegler-Nichols


Oscillation Method
R (s )+ E (s) C (s )
40
GPID (s )
- s ( s  48.5)

2- In the following system design a PID controller with Ziegler-Nichols


Oscillation Method
R(s )+ E (s ) C (s)
4
GPID (s )
- s( s  5)( s  10)

36
Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Exercises
‫تمرینها‬

3 In the following system design a PD controller such that that the


damping ratio of complex poles be 0.6 and ramp error constant be 80.
R (s )+ E (s) C (s )
40
GPID (s )
- s ( s  48.5)

4 In the following system design a PD controller such that that the


damping ratio of complex poles be 0.6 and ramp error constant be 80.
R(s )+ E (s ) C (s)
4
GPID (s )
- s( s  5)( s  10)

37
Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Exercises
‫تمرینها‬

5 In the following system design a PI controller such that that the


damping ratio of complex poles be 0.6 and ramp error constant be 80.
R (s )+ E (s) C (s )
40
GPID (s )
- s ( s  48.5)

6 In the following system design a PI controller such that that the


damping ratio of complex poles be 0.6 and ramp error constant be 80.
R(s )+ E (s ) C (s)
4
GPID (s )
- s( s  5)( s  10)

38
Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013
Lecture 16

Exercises
‫تمرینها‬

7 Consider following structure:

Let the input impedance be generated by a resistor R2 be in series with


a resistor R1 and a capacitor C1) that are in parallel, and let the
feedback impedance be generated by a resistor Rf and a capacitor C f .
a) Show that this choices lead to form a PID controller with high
frequency gain limit as;

b) Derive the parameters in the controller.


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Dr. Ali Karimpour May 2013