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ACIDS ,BASES

AND

KETAN.R.THAKKAR
SALTS

CHEMISTRY
CLASS 10
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 Definitions of acids and bases in terms of molecules
and its characteristics properties
 Ions present in mineral acids and alkalies and salts

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and their solutions ,Use of litmus to test acidity and
alkalinity
 Definitions of salts and types of salts

 General properties of salts [ Deliquescence,


Efflorescence, Water of crystallisation]
 General methods of preparation of salts

 Laboratory preparation of salts [Normal and acidic


salt]
GENERAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND
BASES

 Acids are sour to taste  Bases are bitter to taste


 Acids turns blue  Bases are soapy to touch

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litmus red  Bases turns red litmus

 Acid conducts blue


electricity  Bases conducts electricity

 Acids do reacts with  Soluble bases [Alkali]


active metals like Zn, reacts with metals like
Mg, Fe to liberate Aluminum, Zinc and lead
hydrogen gas to liberate hydrogen gas
DEFINATIONS OF ACIDS AND BASES
ACID BASES
An acid is a compound which when A base is a compound which reacts with
dissolved in water produces hydronium ion of acid to give salt and
hydronium ion [H3O+] ion as a water

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positively charged ion CuO + 2HCl CuCl2 + H2O
Cu(OH)2 + H2SO4 CuSO4 + 2H2O
HCl + H2O H3O+1 + Cl-1
Bases are oxides and hydroxides of metal
as well as ammonium ion

Alkali is a compound which when


dissolved in water gives hydroxyl ions as
the only negatively charged ions
NaOH +H2O Na+(aq) + OH-1 (aq)
CLASSIFICATION OF ACID& BASE
[ON THE BASIS OF STRENGTH]
ACIDS BASES
Strength of acid depends upon the Strength of alkali depends upon the
concentration of hydronium ions concentration of hydroxyl ions present
present in an aqueous solution of acids in an aqueous solution of alkali

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1.STRONG ACID:- The acid which 1.STRONG ALKALI:- The alkali
dissociates completely and produces which dissociates completely and
high concentration of hydrogen or produces high concentration of
hydronium ions [Contains almost only hydroxyl ions [Contains almost only
ions] ions]

WEAK ACID :-The acid which WEAK ALKALI :-The alkali which
dissociates partially and produces low dissociates partially and produces low
concentration of hydrogen or concentration of hydroxyl ions
hydronium ions [Contains ions and [Contains ions and molecules]
molecules]
CLASSIFICATION OF ACIDS & BASE
[ON THE BASIS OF CONCENTRATION]
ACIDS BASES
Concentration of acid is the measure of Concentration of alkali is the measure
amount of water present in acid of amount of water present in alkali

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CONCENTRATED ACID CONCENTRATED ALKALI
It is the acid having relatively high It is the alkali having relatively high
percentage of acid and little or no water percentage of alkali and little or no
water
DILUTE ACID DILUTE ALKALI
It is the acid having relatively low It is the alkali having relatively low
percentage of acid and more water percentage of alkali and more water

A weak acid remains weak even if it is A weak alkali remains weak even if it is
concentrated as dissociation is less. concentrated as dissociation is less.
A strong acid remains strong even if it A strong alkali remains strong even if it
is diluted as it dissociates more is diluted as it dissociates more
CLASSIFICATION OF ACID
ON THE BASIS OF BASICITY
 Basicity of an acid is number of hydrogen ion which
can be produced per molecule of an acid in aqueous
solution.
MONO Ionises in water to produce only one hydrogen HCl,HNO3

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BASIC ion per one molecule of acid ,CH3COOH
ACID etc
Only one type of salt is formed
[ Normal salt]
DI Ionizes in water to produce two hydrogen ion H2SO4
BASIC per one molecule of acid
ACID
Two type of salt is formed
[ Acid salt and Normal salt]
TRI Ionizes in water to produce three hydrogen H3PO4
BASIC ion per one molecule of acid
ACID
Three salt is formed
[ Two Acid salt and Normal salt]
CLASSIFICATION OF ALKALI /BASE
ON THE BASIS OF ACIDITY
 Acidity of an base is number of hydroxyl ion which can
be produced per molecule of an alkali/Base in aqueous
solution.
MONO Ionises in water to produce only one hydroxyl NaOH,KOH,

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ACIDIC ion per one molecule of alkali/Base NH4OH
Base

DI Ionizes in water to produce two hydroxyl ion Ca(OH)2,


ACIDIC per one molecule of alkali/Base Zn(OH)2
Base

TRI Ionizes in water to produce three hydroxyl ion Al(OH)3


ACIDIC per one molecule of alkali/Base
Base
METHODS OF PREPARTION
ACIDS BASES
[OXIDES AND HYDROXIDE]

1 .FROM NONMETALS :- 1.FROM METALS:-


Nonmetals reacts with hydrogen Metals reacts with oxygen to
to give acid give a base

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H2 +Cl2 2HCl Mg+O2 2MgO
H2 + I2 2HI 4Na +O2 2Na2O

2 .FROM ACIDIC OXIDES 2. FROM BASIC OXIDE


Acidic oxides when dissolved in Soluble basic oxides dissolved
water produces acid in water gives base [ Alkali]
CO2 + H2O H2CO3 K2O + H2O 2KOH
SO2 +H2O H2SO3 Na2O + H2O 2NaOH
P2O5 +3H2O 2H3PO4
METHODS OF PREPARTION
ACIDS BASES
[OXIDES AND HYDROXIDE]
3 .FROM SALTS :- 1.FROM SALTS:-
Nonvolatile acid on heating with Aqueous solution of salts with a
salts of volatile acid displaces strong base gives ppt of base

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volatile acid. [metal hydroxide]
NaCl +H2SO4 NaHSO4+HCl AlCl3 + 3NaOH 3NaCl +Al(OH)3

4 .BY OXIDATION OF 2. BY DECOMPOSITION OF


NONMETALS SALTS
Non metal gets oxidised by When certain carbonates and nitrates on
conc.HNO3 to form acid heating give a basic oxide [base]
CaCO3 CaO +CO2
S + 6HNO3 H2SO4 +6NO2 +2H2O
2Pb(NO3)2 2PbO +4NO2 +O2
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND BASES
ACIDS BASES

 Acids are sour to taste  Bases are bitter to taste


in aqueous solution in aqueous solution

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 Mineral acid are  Bases soapy to touch
corrosive in nature  Bases turns red litmus
 Acid turns blue litmus blue
red  They show mild
 Some acids are in corrosive action on skin
solid state where as  They are electrolytes
some are in liquid
state
 They are electrolytes
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
 Acids reacts with active metal to form salt and librates
hydrogen gas.
 Acids reacts with base to form salt and water

 Acids reacts with carbonate and bi carbonates to form

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salt, water and evolves carbon dioxide gas
 Acid reacts with sulphites and bi sulphite to form salt,
water and evolves sulphurdioxide gas.
 Acids reacts with sulphide to form salt and librates
hydrogen sulphide gas
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BASES/ALKALIES
 Strong alkalies carbon dioxide from the air and
form corresponding carbonates
 They neutralise acids to form salt and water

 They reacts with salts of some heavy metals and

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forms insoluble metal hydroxide as a precipitate
 When they are warmed with ammonium salts
forms ammonia gas
 Insoluble bases do not affect the indicators

 Insoluble metal hydroxide decompose on strong


heating into their respective oxides
NEUTRALISATION
 The reaction in which hydronium ion from an acid and
hydroxyl ion from base combines to form practically un
dissociated water is known as neutralization
 Practical application of neutralization

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Sr No Application
1 Person suffering from acidity is advised take either cold
milk or antacid tablets
2 The sting of bee and ants which contains formic acid is
neutralize by rubbing soap or applying slaked lime
3 Astronauts to neutralize the dangerous level of carbon
dioxide by using Lithium hydroxide
4 Farmers neutralize the effect of acid rain by using slaked
lime
USES OF ACIDS
Sr.No Uses
1 H2SO4 is used in manufacture of fertilizers,chemicals,drugs
and dyes
2 HNO3 is used in manufacture of fertilizers ,

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explosives,paints,dyes and drugs
3 HCl is used in tanning and printing industries
4 Citric acid used as a source of vitamin C, as a flavouring
agent
5 Boric acid is used as a eye wash
6 Benzoic acid is used as a preservative
7 Oxalic acid is used as ink stain remover
8 Tartaric acid is used in manufacture of baking powder
9 Carbonic acid used in fizzy drinks
USES OF BASES (ALKALI)
Sr Uses
No
1 NaOH is used to manufacture soap

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2 Ca(OH)2 is used in manufacture of bleaching powder ,to
soften the hard water, to neutralise the acid in the soil due
to acid rain
3 KOH is used in alkaline batteries

4 Mg(OH)2 is used as a constituent of antacid

5 Al(OH)3 is used as foaming agent in fire extinguisher

6 NH4OH is used to remove grease stains from clothes


PH SCALE
 In order to define acid and bases in terms of hydrogen
ion and hydroxyl ion which may some times lead to
confusion so Sorensen define both acids and bases in
terms of hydrogen ions only.
 In pH the p= potenz= strength and H = hydrogen ions

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 So pH is a measure of strength of hydrogen ions

 The pH of solution is defined as the negative logarithm


to the base 10 of hydrogen ion concentration.
 Thus mathematically pH= -log10 [H+1 ]
pH SCALE
•In order to define acid and bases in terms of hydrogen
ion and hydroxyl ion which may some times lead to
confusion so Sorensen define both acids and bases in
terms of hydrogen ions only.

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•In pH the p= potenz= strength and H = hydrogen ions
So pH is a measure of strength of hydrogen ions
•The pH of solution is defined as the negative logarithm
to the base 10 of hydrogen ion concentration.
Thus mathematically pH= -log10 [H+1 ]
APPLICATION OF PH VALUE
 The pH value helps us to determine the nature of the
solution. For e.g
1.If the pH of substance is less than 7 then it is acidic solution
2.If the pH of substance is equal to seven then it is neutral

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solution
3.If the pH of substance is more than 7 then its is alkaline
solution.
 It helps to compare the acidity of two solutions

 In medicine pH values helps in formulating the drugs as


body enzymes acts only at specific pH values
 In agriculture the pH value helps to determine soil
conditions as specific crops requires specific pH conditions
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BUFFER SOLUTIONS
 The solution which resists the change in its pH on
addition of small amount of acid or base to it is called as
buffer solution

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USES OF BUFFER SOLUTION
 The digestive enzymes in stomach requires an acidic
medium
 The digestive enzymes in intestines requires alkaline
medium

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 Certain drugs requires some specific pH in which they
are active towards the reaction
INDICATORS
 An indicator is a chemical substance which by means of
sharp colour change indicates the nature of solution
 Types of Indicators :-

1. Acid base indicators

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2. Universal Indicators

ACID BASE INDICATORS UNIVERSAL INDICATORS

Some of the common indicators The universal indicator is a mixture


like litmus methyl orange, of organic dyes or mixed indicators
phenolpthalein can be used to which gives a definite colour changes
distinguish between acids and over a wide range of pH.
bases Universal indicators not only
They can not determine the differentiates nature of acidic or
strength of acid and bases and basic solutions but also indicates the
cannot help us to know the pH of strength of solution.
solution
SALTS
 Salt is a compound formed by partial or complete
replacement of the ionisable hydrogen atoms of an acid
by a metallic or ammonium ion.
 Partial Replacement

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NaOH +H2SO4 NaHSO4 +H2O
 Complete Replacement
2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 +2H2O
 Ionic Definition : Salt is a ionic compound which
dissociates in water to give a positive ion other than
hydrogen ion (H+1) and negative ion other than the
hydroxyl ion (OH-1)
CLASSIFICATION OF SALTS
 There are six kind of salts

Normal salts

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Acid salt

Basic salts
SALTS
Double salts

Mixed salts

Complex salts
NORMAL SALTS
 The salt obtained by complete replacement of
ionisable hydrogen atoms of an acid by either metallic
or ammonium ion.
 Normal salts do not possesses any ionisable hydrogen

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ACIDS + BASE SALT + WATER

HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O

H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O


ACID SALTS
 Acid salts are obtained by partial replacement of
ionisable hydrogen atom of polybasic acid by metal or
ammonium ion.
 Acid salts usually formed when the amount of base is

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taken insufficient for the complete neutralisation of acid
 Dibasic sulphuric acid gives sodium hydrogen
sulphate(NaHSO4)
H2SO4 + NaOH NaHSO4 + H2O
 The examples of acid salts are NaHSO3, Na2HPO4,
NaH2PO4
 Acid salts ionise in water solution to give hydronium
ion and thus shows acidic properties
BASIC SALTS
 Basic salts are obtained by partial replacement of the
hydroxyl group of di or tri acidic base by an acid
radical.
 The basic salt contains a metallic cation ,a hydroxyl ion

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of the base and an anion of the acid.
Pb(OH)2 + HCl Pb(OH)Cl +H2O
Mg(OH)2 + HCl Mg(OH)Cl +H2O
 The other examples of basic salts are as under
Basic Copper chloride Cu(OH)Cl
Basic Copper nitrate Cu(OH)NO3
Basic Lead chloride Pb(OH)Cl
Basic Magnesium chloride Mg(OH)Cl
DOUBLE SALTS
 These are the salts prepared by mixing the saturated
solution of two simple salts and followed by the
crystallization of saturated solution
K2SO4+Al2(SO4)3+24H2O K2SO4*Al2(SO4)3*24H2O

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 The examples of these salts are
Potash alum K2SO4*Al2(SO4)3* 24H2O
Mohr’s salt FeSO4*(NH4)2SO4*6H2O
Dolomite CaCO3*MgCO3
MIXED SALTS
 These are the salts which contains more than one basic
or acidic radical
 There is no general method of formation.

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 The examples of these salts are
Sodium potassium carbonate NaKCO3
(This salt contains two basic or positive radicals like
Na+1and K+1 )
Bleaching powder Ca(OCl)Cl (This salt contains two
acidic or negative radicals like OCl-1and Cl-1 )
COMPLEX SALTS
 These are the salts which on dissociation give one
simple ion and one complex ion.
 These are the salts prepared by mixing the saturated
solution of two simple salts and followed by the

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crystallization of saturated solution
Example Formula Simple Complex ion
ion
Potassium mercuric iodide K2[HgI4 ] K+1 HgI4-2
Nessler’s Reagent
Na+1
Sodium Silver cyanide Na[Ag(CN)2 ] Ag(CN)2-1

Sodium Zincate Na2ZnO2 Na+1 ZnO2-2

Tetra amine Cu(NH3)4SO4 SO4-2 Cu(NH3)4+2


Copper(II)sulphate
GENERAL PROPERTIES OF THE SALTS
 The salts are electrovalent compounds which conducts
electricity in its molten or aqueous state
 Salts are nonvolatile and crystalline in shape

 Most of the salts are soluble in water. The degree of

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solubility varies with temperature
SOLUBILITY OF SALTS
SALTS EXCEPTIONS
All compound of KHCO3 and NaHCO3 is
ammonium, sodium and sparingly soluble
potassium are soluble in

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water
All nitrates and nitrites are -------------------
soluble
All chlorides ,bromides and Hg2Cl2,AgCl,PbCl2(it is
iodides are soluble in water soluble in hot water)
All sulphates are soluble CaSO4,PbSO4,BaSO4

All carbonates, sulphides, Except of ammonium,


sulphites and phosphates sodium and potassium
are insoluble
HYDROLYSIS OF THE SALTS
 The process in which cation or anion or both the ions
of the salt combines with water to produce either
acidity or basicity is known as hydrolysis

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 The hydrolysis of the salt is based on following
assumptions
1.The salt undergo complete hydrolysis
2.The strong acid or strong base dissociates
completely
3.The weak acid or weak base do not dissociates
completely
CLASSIFICATION OF SALTS
 Depending upon the nature of the acids and bases
used during the preparation of the salts the salts are
categorized into following types.
 TYPES OF SALTS:-

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1.Salt of strong acid and strong base.
2.Salt of strong acid and weak base
3.Salt of weak acid and strong base
4.Salt of weak acid and weak base
o When the above kind of salt is dissolved in water they
give characteristic pH to the solution depending upon
the type of salt
SALT

ACID BASE

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STRONG WEAK STRONG WEAK
ACID [SA] ACID [WA] BASE [SB] BASE [WB]

SALT OF SALT OF SALT OF SALT OF


SASB SAWB WASB WAWB
NATURE OF SOLUTION OF SALT OF STRONG
ACID AND STRONG BASE
 The aqueous solution of salt of strong acid and strong
base is neutral to litmus.
NaCl+H2O NaOH +HCl

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Salt of SASB SB SA
In ionic form the above reaction can be written as
Na+1 +Cl-1 + H2O Na+1 +OH-1 +H+1 +Cl-1
Cancelling out common ion on both sides we get
H2O H+1 +OH-1
Thus aqueous solution of salt of strong acid-strong base
is neutral in nature . The examples of this kind of salt
are NaCl,KNO3,Na2SO4,K2SO4 etc
NATURE OF SOLUTION OF SALT OF STRONG
ACID AND WEAK BASE
 The aqueous solution of salt of strong acid and weak
base is acidic in nature..
NH4Cl +H2O NH4OH + HCl

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Salt of SAWB WB SA
In ionic form the above reaction can be written as
NH4+1 +Cl-1 + H2O NH4OH +H+1 +Cl-1
Cancelling out common ion on both sides we get
NH4+1 +H2O NH4OH + H+1
Thus aqueous solution of salt of strong acid-weak base
is acidic in nature due to free H+1ion. The examples of
this kind of salt are FeSO4,FeCl3,CuSO4,AlCl3etc
NATURE OF SOLUTION OF SALT OF WEAK
ACID AND STRONG BASE
 The aqueous solution of salt of weak acid and strong
base is alkaline in nature..
CH3COONa +H2O NaOH + CH3COOH

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Salt of WASB SB WA
In ionic form the above reaction can be written as
CH3COO-1+Na+1 +H2O CH3COOH +Na+1 +OH-1
Cancelling out common ion on both sides we get
CH3COO-1 +H2O CH3COOH + OH-1
Thus aqueous solution of salt of weak acid-strong base
is alkaline in nature due to free OH-1ion. The
examples of this kind of salt are
CH3COONa,Na2CO3,CH3COOKetc
NATURE OF SOLUTION OF SALT OF WEAK
ACID AND WEAK BASE

 The aqueous solution of salt of weak acid and weak


base may be acidic ,basic or neutral in nature
depending upon concentration as well as the

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dissociated ions and undissociated molecules.
 The examples of this kind of salts are
CH3COONH4,(NH4)2CO3
METHODS OF PREPARATION OF SALTS
 The following methods are adopted to prepare the
salts

Simple
displacement

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Direct
Decomposition SALTS combination

Neutralisation
NEUTRALISATION
 Soluble salts can be prepared by action of dilute acids
on insoluble bases, hydroxides and carbonates

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NEUTRALISATION BY TITRATION
 Soluble salts can be prepared by action of dilute acids
on soluble hydroxides and carbonates (Soluble salts of
potassium, Sodium and ammonium

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SIMPLE DISPLACEMENT
 Soluble salts of active metals like Aluminium,
Magnesium ,Zinc and Iron can be prepared by this
method.
Active Acid Soluble + Hydrogen

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metals (Dilute) salt
Fe + H2SO4 FeSO4 + H2

Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2

Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2

Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2
DIRECT SYNTHESIS
 Soluble and insoluble binary salts can be prepared by
this method
Metallic Nonmetallic Salt Solubility
element element

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2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3 Soluble
2Al + 3Cl2 2AlCl3 Soluble
Fe + S FeS Insoluble

Zn + S ZnS Insoluble

Pb + S PbS Insoluble
DOUBLE DECOMPOSITION-PRECIPITATION
 All insoluble salts are prepared by double
decomposition or precipitation reaction.
Soluble salt + Soluble salt Soluble + Precipitated
solution[1] solution[2] salt insoluble
salt

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Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl 2NaNO3 + PbCl2

CaCl2 + Na2CO3 2NaCl + CaCO3

ZnSO4 + (NH4)2CO3 (NH4)2SO4 + ZnCO3

Pb(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 2NaNO3 + PbSO4


PREPARATION OF INSOLUBLE SALT FROM ANOTHER
INSOLUBLE SALT
 CASE :- Preparation of lead chloride (W Ins ) from
lead oxide ( W Ins)

Following steps to be carried out
1.Convert lead oxide into lead nitrate using dilute

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nitric acid
PbO +2HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2O
2.Lead nitrate solution is then reacted with either
sodium chloride solution or dilute hydrochloric acid to
form insoluble lead chloride
Pb(NO3)2 +2NaCl PbCl2 +2NaNO3
OR
Pb(NO3)2 +2HCl PbCl2+ 2HNO3
PREPARATION OF INSOLUBLE SALT FROM ANOTHER
INSOLUBLE SALT
 CASE :- Preparation of lead sulphate (W Ins ) from
lead carbonate ( W Ins)

Following steps to be carried out
1.Convert lead carbonate into lead nitrate using dilute

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nitric acid
PbCO3 +2HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2O +CO2
2.Lead nitrate solution is then reacted with sodium
sulphate to form insoluble lead sulphate
Pb(NO3)2 +2Na2SO4 PbSO4 +2NaNO3
PREPARATION OF INSOLUBLE SALT FROM ANOTHER
INSOLUBLE SALT
 CASE :- Preparation of lead chloride (W Ins ) from
lead carbonate ( W Ins)

Following steps to be carried out
1.Convert lead carbonate into lead nitrate using dilute

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nitric acid
PbCO3 +2HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2O +CO2
2.Lead nitrate solution is then reacted with either
sodium chloride solution or dilute hydrochloric acid to
form insoluble lead chloride
Pb(NO3)2 +2NaCl PbCl2 +2NaNO3
OR
Pb(NO3)2 +2HCl PbCl2+ 2HNO3
PREPARATION OF SOME SPECIFIC SALTS
 The preparation of following salts can be done by
using various laboratory method
1.Iron (III) chloride
2.Copper(II)sulphate
3.Zinc sulphate

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4.Iron (II)sulphate
5.Lead chloride
6.Calcium carbonate
7.Sodium sulphate
PREPARATION OF IRON(III) CHLORIDE
 It is prepared by synthesis process which involves
following steps
STEPS PROCESS
Step -1 An iron wire coil is kept in combustion tube as shown in figure
and dry chlorine gas is passed through chlorine gas removing air

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from the tube.
Step -2 The combustion tube is heated slowly which results in reaction
between dry chlorine gas and iron. When the iron becomes red
hot (exothermic reaction) the heating is discontinued
Step -3 The Iron (III) chloride which formed volatilizes and condenses
in the receiver as brown scale.As the salt is highly deliquescent
in nature it is kept dry using anhydrous CaCl2

Reaction:- 2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3


The other salts which can be prepared by this method are
AlCl3,ZnS,PbS,AgCl,Fes
PREPARATION OF COPPER SULPHATE
(CUSO4*5H2O)
 It is prepared by action of dilute sulphuric acid on
an insoluble bases like Copper oxide, Copper
hydroxide or copper carbonate
 Rections :-

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Cu(OH)2 +H2SO4 CuSO4 +2H2O
CuO + H2SO4 CuSO4 +H2O
CuCO3 + H2SO4 CuSO4 + CO2+H2O
CuSO4 + 5H2O CuSO4*5H2O
 The preparation consists of following steps
STEPS PROCESS
Step -1 Take dilute H2SO4 in a beaker and add to it excess of
black copper(II)oxide or blue copper hydroxide or
greenish blue copper carbonate and slowly heat the
content till no more residue is left .In case of Copper

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carbonate wait until no more CO2 is given off.
Step -2 Filter the bluish green solution obtained in step-1 to
remove solid matter
Step -3 Evaporate the filtrate in an evaporating dish till the
point of crystallization. In this step hot saturated
solution of copper sulphate is obtained
Step -4 The saturated solution obtained in the above step-3 is
cooled when blue coloured crystals of CuSO4*5H2O
separates out. Filter and dry the crystals between the
folds of filter paper
PREPARTION OF FERROUS SULPHATE AND
ZINC SULPHATE
 This salt is prepared by action of dilute H2SO4 on
active metals like Zinc ,Iron
 Reaction :-

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For preparation of ZnSO4*7H2O [White vitriol ]
Zn(s) +H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2
ZnSO4 +7H2O ZnSO4*7H2O

For preparation of FeSO4*7H2O [Green vitriol]


Fe(s) +H2SO4 FeSO4 + H2
FeSO4 +7H2O FeSO4*7H2O
STEPS PROCESS
Step -1 Take dilute H2SO4 in a beaker and add to it excess of
iron filling or zinc granules and slowly heat the content
with stirring till the effervescences of hydrogen gas
ceases and no more zinc or iron dissolves

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Step -2 Filter the solution obtained in step-1 to remove residual
iron fillings or zinc granules
Step -3 Evaporate the filtrate in an evaporating dish till the
point of crystallization. In this step hot saturated
solution of Iron sulphate or Zinc sulphate is obtained
Step -4 The saturated solution obtained in the above step-3 is
cooled when light green coloured crystals of
FeSO4*7H2O separates out or white coloured crystals
of Filter ZnSO4*7H2O and dry the crystals between
the folds of filter paper
PREPARATION OF LEAD CHLORIDE
 This salt is prepared by double decomposition
(Precipitation) method of two soluble salt to produce
water insoluble salt
 Reaction :-
Pb(NO3)2 +2NaCl PbCl2 +2NaNO3

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STEPS PROCESS
Step -1 Prepare the solution of Pb(NO3)2 by dissolving crystals of the salt in
distilled water
Step -2 Add to it dilute HCl or aqueous solution of NaCl with slow stirring when
white ppt of PbCl2 is formed
Step-3 Filter off the precipitate and washed repeatedly with cold water

Step-4 The white ppt is transferred in evaporating dish and dissolved in


minimum quantity of boiling water
Step -5 The solution of PbCl2 in hot water is cooled when needle shape crystals of
lead chloride separates out
Step-6 Filter and dry the crystals between the folds of filter paper
PREPARATION OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE
 This salt is prepared by double decomposition
(Precipitation) method of two soluble salt to produce
water insoluble salt
 Reaction :-
CaCl2 +Na2CO3 CaCO3 +2NaCl

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STEPS PROCESS

Step -1 Prepare the solution of CaCl2 by dissolving the salt in hot distilled water

Step -2 Add to it aqueous solution of Na2CO3 with slow stirring when white ppt
of CaCO3 is formed

Step-3 Filter off the precipitate and washed repeatedly with cold water

Step-4 Dry the precipitate between the folds of filter paper


PREPARATION OF SODIUM SULPHATE
 This salt is prepared by action dilute acid on a
soluble base like NaOH.
 As both the reactants and products are soluble
titration is conducted to determine the completion of
neutralisation reaction [ The amount of acid required

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to neutralize the known amount of base
 Reaction :- 2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O
STEPS PROCESS
Step -1 Take dilute H2SO4 in burette and fill it up to zero
mark. Pipette out 25ml of NaOH solution in conical
flask .To this add 1-2 drops of phenolphthalein
indicator the solution in conical flask will turn pink in
colour

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Step -2 Add dilute H2SO4 drop wise from the burette to the
conical flask containing NaOH. At the end point the
pink colour in the flask just changes to colourless at
this point stop addition of H2SO4 from burette and
transfer the content in to an evaporating dish
Step -3 The solution is evaporated to the point of
crystallization. Cool the hot saturated solution to
crystallize Na2SO4*10H2O crystals. Filter and dry it
between folds of filter paper
WATER OF CRYSTALLISATION
 It is the definite amount of water molecules held by
the single molecule of the solid with the help of lose
chemical bonds is called as Water of crystallization.
 The salts containing definite amount of water of
crystallization is called as hydrated salts.

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 All crystalline substances do not contain water of
crystallization
 Examples of certain salts containing water of
crystallization
Common name Chemical name Formula

Washing soda Sodiumcarbonate decahydrate Na2CO3*10H2O


crystals
Epsom salt Magnesium sulphate hepta hydrate MgSO4*7H2O

Potash alum Hydrated potassium aluminium K2SO4*Al2(SO4)3

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sulphate *24H2O
Glauber’s salt Sodium sulphate decahydrate Na2SO4*10H2O

Blue vitriol Copper sulphate pentahydrate CuSO4*5H2O

Green vitriol Ferrous sulphate heptahydrate FeSO4*7H2O

Plaster of paris Calcium sulphate semi hydrate CaSO4*1/2 H2O

White vitriol Zinc sulphate heptahydrate ZnSO4*7H2O

Gypsum Hydrated calcium sulphate CaSO4*2H2O


EXAMPLES OF CRYSTALLINE SUBSTANCES NOT
CONTAINING WATER OF CRYSTALLIZATION

 There are crystalline solids which do not contain


water of crystallization are
Common salt (NaCl)

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Nitre (KNO3)
Sugar (C12H22O11)
Potassium permanganate ( KMnO4)
Ammonium chloride(NH4Cl)
EFFLORESCENCE
 It is the property of some substances to lose wholly or
partly water of crystallisation when their crystals are
exposed to dry air
 The substance possessing this property are called as

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Efflorescent substance
 They become powdery when they lose water of
crystallization and loses its crystalline geometry or
shape.
 Efflorescent substance looses their weight when
exposed to air/atmosphere
 If the temperature of the air is high then rate of
efflorescence is also high as dry air absorbs more
water with increase in temperature and fall in
moisture
EXAMPLES OF EFFLORESCENT SUBSTANCES

Washing soda When washing soda is exposed to dry air it


[Sodium becomes Sodium carbonate mono hydrate
carbonate Na2CO3*10H2O Na2CO3*H2O +9H2O
Decahydrate]

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Glauber’s salt When Glauber’s salt is exposed to air it
[Sodium sulphate becomes powdery anhydrous sodium sulphate
Decahydrate] Na2SO4*10H2O Na2SO4 +10H2O

Epsom salt When Epsom salt is exposed to dry air it


[Magnesium becomes Magnesium sulphate mono hydrate
sulphate Hepta MgSO4*7H2O MgSO4*H2O +6H2O
hydrate]
HYGROSCOPIC SUBSTANCE
 Itis property of certain substances to absorb
moisture (water vapour ) from the atmosphere but
not to dissolve in it is called as hygroscopy and the
substance is called as hygroscopic substance

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 In laboratory these substances are generally used as
drying agents to remove moisture from the gases
 The examples of hygroscopic substances are
Concentrated sulphuric acid (H2SO4)
Phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5)
Quick lime (CaO)
Silica gel
 Hygroscopic substances gains weight when exposed
to air/atmosphere
DELIQUESENCE
 It is the property of water soluble salts to absorb the
moisture from the surrounding and dissolve in it to
form saturated solution is known as Deliquescence
and the substance possessing this property are called
as Deliquescent substance.

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Sr.No Name of the substance Chemical formula
1 Iron(III) chloride FeCl3
2 Anhydrous calcium chloride CaCl2
3 Magnesium chloride MgCl2
4 Zinc chloride ZnCl2
5 Iron(III) nitrate Fe(NO3)3
6 Caustic soda NaOH
7 Caustic potash KOH
8 Zinc nitrate Zn(NO3)2
9 Copper nitrate Cu(NO3)2
oDeliquescence occurs when the vapour pressure of the
salt is much lower compared to atmospheric vapour
pressure. Thus deliquescence is minimum during the
dry season.
oDeliquescent substances gains the weight when

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exposed to atmosphere

oTable salt turns moist and finally forms a


solution on exposure to air during rainy
season although NaCl is not a deliquescent
substance because commercially obtained
table salt contains impurities like MgCl2
which is deliquescent substance
DRYING AGENT AND DEHYDRATING AGENT
 Drying agent are the substances remove moisture
from the other substances and thus act as drying
agent or desiccating agent. Almost all the hygroscopic
substances are desiccating agents.

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Concentrated sulphuric acid (H2SO4)
Phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5)
Quick lime (CaO)
Silica gel
 Dehydrating agent are the substances which can remove water
molecule even from the compounds which represents the
chemical change
Concentrated sulphuric acid (H2SO4)
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DRYING AGENT
AND DEHYDRATING AGENT

DRYING AGENT DEHYDRATING AGENT

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 They removes  They remove
moisture from other chemically combined
substances element of water from
 They are used to dry the compound
gases like  They prepare
Cl2,SO2,HCl etc substances like CO,
 They represent sugar charcoal
physical change  They represent
chemical change