10 views

Uploaded by pengnium

rcc

- Gate Structures
- chapter 7.pdf
- disain fondasi
- OneSteel_DesignBooklet_db1.1
- How2_Slabs_FINAL_v05.07
- Mechanics of Materials Review
- Strength of Materials - i
- Prestressed Concrete - 2 Beam in Bending at Working Load
- Cantilever Beam
- List of Tables
- AE 304_Strength of Materials
- m13l34.pdf
- 162 Abstract Gaspar
- Strength of Mat'l Part 1
- Design of Timber Structures 3 2016
- DesignCalcs Modules
- Strength of Materials
- Bending and S.F Basic
- Assessment of the Out-Of-plane Imperfections of a Steel Tied Arch Bridge
- tut1

You are on page 1of 69

Introduction

Structural concrete members are often subjected to torsional moments in addition to

bending moments and axial or shear forces.

geometry, or structural framing. In complex structures such as helical stairways, curved

beams, and eccentrically loaded box girders, torsional effects dominate the structural

behaviour.

(3D) problem, involving both the shear problem of membrane elements and the warping

of the cross section.

Introduction

The diagonal tension stresses produced by

torsion are very similar to those caused by shear.

But they occur on all the faces of the member;

hence, they have to be added to the stresses

caused by the shear on one face whereas

subtracted from the stresses on the other face.

beams, it is necessary to provide closed stirrups

as well as additional longitudinal reinforcement,

especially at the corners of the faces of the

Torsional failure of columns of Mianyang

beams. Airport Viaduct during the M7.9

Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008

(source: FHWA-HRT-11-029)

Equilibrium and Compatibility Torsion

Primary torsion, also called equilibrium torsion or statically determinate torsion, exists

when the external load has no alternative load path but must be supported by torsion (see

Figs 8.1a and b). For such cases, the torsion required to maintain static equilibrium can be

uniquely determined from statics alone.

occurs due to the requirements of continuity, that is, due to compatibility of deformation

between the adjacent elements of a structure (see Fig. 8.1d). Torsional moments cannot

be found based on static equilibrium alone. The beams in a grid structure also have

compatibility torsion.

Equilibrium and Compatibility Torsion

Disregard to compatibility torsion in the design will often lead to extensive cracking, but

generally will not cause collapse. An internal readjustment of forces will take place and an

alternative equilibrium of forces will be found.

The amount of torsion in a member depends on its torsional stiffness in relation to the

torsional stiffness of the interconnecting members.

Fig. 8.1 Structural elements subjected to torsion (a) Beams

supporting cantilevered canopy slabs (b) Cantilever beam

supporting eccentric load (c) Box-girder bridges (d) Edge

beams in framed structures (e) Circular ring beams

Structures Subjected to Torsion

Fig. 8.2 Structures subjected to torsion (a) Curved continuous beams or box girders in

Bandra–Worli sea link bridge (b) Helicoidal girders

Torsion in Curved Beams

Curved beams (e.g., ring beams under circular water tanks supported by columns) are

subjected to bending and torsion. The magnitude and distribution of the bending and

torsional moments along the circumference are influenced by the number of supports

and the radius of the curved beam.

A typical curved beam circular in plan and supported by eight columns is shown in Fig.

8.3(a) (in the following slide). By considering Fig. 8.3(b), the maximum positive and

negative bending moments and the torsional moments can also be determined.

Torsion in Curved Beams

The critical sections for design are the support sections subjected to

maximum negative and positive bending moments and the sections

subjected to maximum torsion associated with some shear force; at this

section, the bending moment will be zero. Hence, it has to be designed

for combined torsion and shear.

bending moments and torsional moments in a semicircular beam

supported on three equally spaced supports can be similarly

determined.

Torsion in Curved Beams

Fig. 8.3 Beams curved in plan (a) Ring beam supported on eight columns (b) Position of

maximum moments

Torsional Analysis

Elastic Analysis

prismatic circular, non-circular, and thin-walled cross sections. From this

theory, it may be observed that torsion causes shear stresses. In non-

circular sections, there is considerable warping of the cross section and

the plane sections do not remain plane, as shown in Fig. 8.4.

tubular sections are more efficient in resisting torsion. The concept of

shear flow around the thin-walled tube is useful when the role of

reinforcement in torsion is considered.

Elastic Analysis

Fig. 8.4 Elastic torsional behaviour of rectangular beams (a) Beam subjected to torsion

(b) Warping of the cross section (c) Torsional stress (d) Crack pattern

Elastic Analysis

In the case of compatibility torsion, if the spandrel beam as shown in

Fig. 8.1(d) is uncracked, the torsional moment carried by it may be very

large. As the beam cracks, the torsional stiffness reduces considerably

and the beam will rotate, reducing the torsional moment carried by it.

reinforcement. To solve this problem, Lampert (1973) and Collins and

Lampert (1973) proposed expressions for torsional rigidity of cracked

sections based on their studies.

As per Collins and Lampert (1973) the analysis can also be based on

zero torsional stiffness; such an analysis and the subsequent design

based on flexure and shear, neglecting torsion is satisfactory. However

torsional reinforcement increase ductility & distribute cracks.

Torsion in a Thin-walled Rectangular Tube

Fig. 8.5 Torsion in a thin-walled rectangular tube (a) Thin-walled tube (b) Area enclosed

by shear flow path

Torsional Analysis

Plastic Analysis

The value of stress to be used in the limit states design should be based on plastic

analysis, even though the assumption of fully plasticized section is not justifiable for

materials like concrete.

In plastic analysis, a uniform shear stress over the cross section is assumed, whereas

the elastic analysis shows a non-linear stress distribution, as shown in Fig. 8.4(c).

Plastic Analysis

The ultimate torque can now be easily obtained by using the sand

heap analogy, which is based on the

following principles:

1. Ultimate torque = Twice the volume of sand heap

2. Slope of sand heap = 2 × constant plastic shear stress

manner by dividing them into component rectangles (see Fig. 8.6).

Plastic Analysis

(a) Rectangle (b) T-section (b) L-section (d) I-section

Behaviour of Plain Concrete Members

When a rectangular concrete beam is subjected to pure torsion, a state of pure shear

develops at the top and side faces of the beam, with direct tensile and compressive

stresses along the diagonal directions, similar to the beam subjected to shear.

The principal tensile and compressive stress trajectories form in orthogonal directions

at 45° to the axis of the beam. When the principal tensile stress reaches the value of

tensile strength of concrete, cracks form at the maximum stressed location centre of the

beam (at the middle of wider face).

Behaviour of Plain Concrete Members

These inclined cracks tend to extend around the member in a spiral

fashion, as shown in Figs 8.7(b) and 8.4(d).

Once the crack is formed, the crack will penetrate inwards from the

outer surface of the beam, due to the brittle nature of the concrete and

will lead to a sudden failure of the beam unless torsional reinforcements

are provided.

Stresses Caused by Torsion

Fig. 8.7 Stresses caused by torsion (a) Shear and principal stresses (b) Crack pattern

Behaviour of Beams with Torsional

Reinforcement

The torsional reinforcements come into play only after the cracks form

due to diagonal tensile stresses. As the cracks spiral around the beam,

the best way to provide reinforcement is to have them in the form of

spirals to resist the tensile stresses.

usually torsional reinforcement is provided in the form of a combination

of longitudinal bars at the corners of the beam and stirrups placed

perpendicular to the beam axis. Since the cracks spiral around the

beam, four-sided closed stirrups are required.

Behaviour of Beams with Torsional

Reinforcement

Once the crack is formed, the angle of twist increases without any

increase in the external torque, as the forces are redistributed to the

torsional reinforcement. Then, the cracking extends to the central core

of the member, rendering the central core ineffective. After this, the

failure may take several forms, such as the following:

1. The yielding of longitudinal reinforcement or the stirrups or

yielding of both at the same time

2. The crushing of concrete between the inclined cracks due to

principal compression before the yielding of steel

transverse reinforcements yield prior to the crushing of concrete.

Plastic Space Truss Model

space truss model combines the thin-walled tube analogy

with the plastic truss analogy for shear and leads to simpler

calculations than the skew bending theory.

Design Strength in Torsion

In the case of solid and hollow beams, once cracking has occurred, the

concrete in the centre of the member has little effect on the torsional

strength of the cross section and can be ignored.

Hence, solid members can be considered as equivalent tubes. The solid

rectangular or square beams may be idealized as a thin-walled tube as

shown in Fig. 8.8(a).

Design Strength in Torsion

This hollow trussed tube consists of closed stirrups forming transverse

tension tie members, longitudinal bars in the corners of the stirrups that

act as tension chords, and concrete compression diagonals, which spiral

around the member between the torsional cracks at an angle (which can

take load parallel to but not perpendicular to the torsional cracks), as

shown in Fig. 8.8(b).

Design Strength in Torsion

After torsional cracking develops, the torsional resistance is provided

mainly by a space truss consisting of closed stirrups, longitudinal bars,

and compression diagonals, as shown in Fig. 8.8(c).

member is large and is in the range of one-sixth to one-fourth of the

minimum width of the rectangular beam.

Fig. 8.8 Thin-walled tube or plastic space truss analogy (a) Thin-walled

tube analogy (b) Space truss analogy (c) Idealized section of the truss

Cracking Torque

In a tube wall, the concrete will crack when the tensile stress exceeds

the tensile strength of concrete. in this situation, concrete is under

biaxial tension and compression.

In the case of compatibility torsion (See Fig. 8.9), the design torsional

moment can be reduced, because there will be redistribution of internal

forces to other adjoining members after cracking. Here the designer can

reduce the design by an amount equal to the cracking torsion, given

by(ACI 318):

Threshold Torsion

• The Threshold Torsion, below which torsion can be

ignored in solid cross-section is (ACI 318):

Cracking Torque

reduced

Consideration of Flanged Beams

For beams cast monolithically with a floor slab, the values Acp and pcp

should be calculated by including the parts of adjacent slabs of the

resulting T- or L-shaped beams (where Acp is the area of the full concrete

cross section and pcp is the perimeter of the full concrete cross section).

The width of the slab that should be included is shown shaded in Fig.

8.10 and should not exceed the projection of beam above or below the

slab or four times the thickness of slab whichever is smaller.

Consideration of Flanged Beams

Area of Stirrups for Torsion

To find out the area of stirrups that is necessary to resist torsion, let us

consider Figs 8.8(b) and 8.11(a). The angle of the cracks is initially taken

at about 45° but may become flatter at higher torques. The ACI code

Clause 11.5.3.6 suggests taking the angle as 45°, as this corresponds to

the assumed angle in the derivation of the equation for designing

stirrups for shear.

member with a rectangular cross section can be found to be the sum of

the contributions of the shears in each of the four walls of the

equivalent hollow tube.

Area of Stirrups for Torsion

To find the torsional resistance, the shear flow or shear force per unit

length of the perimeter of the tube are obtained. Then the shear forces

acting in the right- and left-hand vertical walls of the tube and in the top

and bottom walls of the tube are determined. Assuming that the

stirrups crossing the crack are yielding, the shear in vertical walls are

determined.

Area of Stirrups for Torsion

Tests have shown that the concrete outside the stirrups is relatively

ineffective. Hence, the gross area enclosed by the shear flow path

around the perimeter of the tube after cracking may be defined in terms

of the area enclosed by the centre line of the outermost closed

transverse torsional reinforcement. Required area of stirrup steel:

beam than a smaller one with closely spaced stirrups and longitudinal

steel required for the torsion design.

Stirrups for Torsion

Fig. 8.11 Stirrups for torsion (a) Closed stirrup in rectangular beam (b) Closed stirrup in T-beam section

Transverse Torsional Reinforcement

Fig. 8.12 Area enclosed by centre line of the outermost closed transverse torsional

reinforcement for rectangular, I, L, and box section beams

Area of Longitudinal Reinforcement for

Torsion

The longitudinal reinforcement must be proportioned to resist the

longitudinal tensile forces that occur due to torsion. It is required to

distribute the longitudinal torsional steel around the perimeter of the

cross section.

Longitudinal Steel & Capacity

• The required longitudinal steel is:

Limiting Crack Width for Combined Shear

and Torsion

The space truss analogy assumes that all the torsion is carried by the

reinforcements, without any torsion being carried by the concrete. The

codes often limit the maximum shear stresses (approximately τc,max

= 0.631 fck ) carried by stirrups in order to control the crack width

(where fck is characteristic cube compressive strength of concrete).

This concept is extended in the case of torsion too and an upper limit

of 0.6 fck plus the stress causing shear cracking is specified; this limit is

intended to control the crack width due to shear and torsion.

sum of the squares of nominal shear stresses is used.

Limiting Shear Stress

• The following equation is suggested for solid sections

with specified limit for crack control:

Limiting Crack Width for Combined Shear

and Torsion

Fig. 8.14 Addition of torsional and shear stresses (a) Hollow sections (b) Solid sections

Skew Bending Theory

The skew bending theory assumes that some shear and torsion is

resisted by the concrete and the rest by the shear or torsion

reinforcement. In this theory, the behaviour is studied on the basis of

the mechanism of failure, rather than on the basis of stresses.

Under the action of bending, the failure is vertical, with the primary

yielding of tension steel in under-reinforced beams and secondary

compression crushing of concrete.

Skew Bending Theory

The effect of adding even a little torque skews the failure surface. The

skewing is in the direction of the resultant moment–torque vector. The

compression face is at an angle θ to the vertical face of the beam cross

section.

This compression failure can occur at the top, sides, or bottom of the

beam as shown in Fig. 8.15. Such a failure surface intersects some of the

stirrups, which essentially provide torsional resistance.

The tension steel may yield first followed by the stirrups. If both yield

before the crushing of concrete, the beam is under-reinforced. If the

concrete crushes before both types of steel yield, it is over-reinforced.

Skew Bending Theory

Beams with large bending moment and small torsion fail with the

compression fibres crushing at the top; this type of failure is termed as

Mode 1 or modified bending failure (Fig. 8.15a). Mode 1 is the most

common type of failure and likely to occur in wide beams, even if the

torsion is relatively high.

If the beam is narrow (D >> b) and deep with equal amounts of top

and bottom steel, the failure may be by crushing at the sides. This

failure is termed as Mode 2 or lateral bending failure (Fig. 8.15b).

If the top longitudinal steel is much less than the bottom steel, the

failure may occur by crushing at the bottom fibre. This type of failure is

termed as Mode 3 or negative bending failure (Fig. 8.15c).

Skew Bending Theory

Large torsion and low flexure may result in Mode 2 and Mode 3

failures. Large moment may force the Mode 1 failure. High shear and

low torsion sometimes result in Mode 4 failure. It is necessary to

investigate these several modes systematically and choose the lowest

capacity for a given beam.

subjected to pure torsion, the three modes will become identical.

cause the beam to fail at a lower strength. The Indian code attempts to

prevent such a possibility and suggests to design the beam using the

concept of equivalent shear.

Skew Bending Theory

Fig. 8.15 Failure modes as per skew bending theory (a) Mode 1 (bending

and torsion) (b) Mode 2 (low shear–high torsion) (c) Mode 3 (low bending–

high torsion; weaker top steel) (d) Mode 4 (high shear–low torsion)

Interaction Curves for Combined Flexure

and Torsion

Torsion is normally accompanied by bending and shear. In general,

flexural and torsional shears are of significance in those regions where

the bending moment is low.

that a quarter circle interaction relationship is acceptable for members

without web reinforcement.

to be flatter than the quarter circle. The behaviour of asymmetrically

reinforced beams may differ significantly from that of symmetrically

reinforced beams.

IS 456:2000 Provisions

Interaction Curves for Combined Flexure

and Torsion

In pure torsion, the additional bottom longitudinal steel available in

asymmetrically reinforced sections does not increase the ultimate

capacity because the weaker top steel is critical. The presence of

bending moment introduces compression in the weaker steel and

increases its resistance to the torsional shear stresses.

ductility of beams with symmetrical or asymmetric longitudinal steel. It

has to be noted that the presence of torsion invariably reduces the

flexural strength of RC members.

Torsion–Flexure Interaction Curves

reinforced members with transverse reinforcement

Interaction Curves for Combined Shear

and Torsion

Fig. 8.17 Torsion–Shear interaction (a) Experimental results (b) Curves in the literature

Indian Code Provisions for Design of

Longitudinal and Transverse Reinforcements

The Indian code provisions are based on the simplified skew bending

theory.

In this approach, the longitudinal and torsional reinforcements are not

calculated separately. Instead, the total longitudinal reinforcement is

calculated based on a fictitious, equivalent bending moment, which is a

function of the actual bending moment and torsion.

equivalent shear, which is a function of the actual shear and torsion.

Indian Code Provisions for Design of

Longitudinal and Transverse Reinforcements

In T-beams, the flanges are neglected and the beam is designed by

considering the rectangular web alone.

Clause 41.2 of the code also states that the sections located at a

distance less than the effective depth, d, from the face of the support

may be designed for the same torsion as computed at a distance d from

the support.

Equivalent Shear and Moment

For the case of pure torsion equal longitudinal reinforcement is

required at the top and bottom of the rectangular beam.

The equivalent B.M. and equivalent Shear are given by IS

456:2000 as (Clause 41.4.2):

Minimum Reinforcement for Torsion

of torsional reinforcement (including both transverse and

longitudinal steel) is required in a member subjected to torsion.

Design of Transverse Reinforcements

The code assumes that both the longitudinal and transverse

steel reach design strength before failure occurs.

The area of two-legged closed stirrups are calculated as (Clause

41.4.3):

Distribution of Torsional Reinforcement

The longitudinal reinforcement for torsion should be placed as close as possible to

the corners of the cross section.

At least one longitudinal bar should be placed at the corners of the stirrups.

The hooks of the closed stirrup should be developed into the core with 135° bends

otherwise the corners of the beam may spall off.

Recommended Closed Stirrups for Torsion

Ineffective Closed Stirrups for Members

under High Torsion

Fig. 8.19 Ineffective closed stirrups for members under high torsion

Design and Detailing for Torsion as

per IS 456 Code

The following design steps are required for the design of flexural and

shear reinforcement as per IS 456:

shear.

Design and Detailing for Torsion as

per IS 456 Code

3. Check for shear. Calculate the equivalent shear stress, τ ve. The value

of τ ve should not exceed the value of τ c,max as given in Table 20 of

the code; if it exceeds, revise the section or increase the grade of

concrete.

5. Check the spacing: It should not exceed x1,

(x1 + y1)/4, and 300 mm

450 mm, provide 0.05 per cent side face reinforcement at each face.

Graphical Methods

Two graphical methods have also been developed as follows:

resultants based on the MCFT (Rahal 2007).

truss model developed by Hsu (1988).

Rahal’s Method

subjected to torsion by idealizing the section as a

hollow tube and by adopting simplified assumptions

regarding the thickness of the hollow tube and the

size of the shear flow zone.

Figure 8.20 gives the relationship between the

reinforcing indices and the normalized shear strength

obtained using the results of the MCFT.

Rahal’s Method

Figure 8.20 shows a curve passing through those points beyond which

concrete crushes before the transverse steel yields (over-reinforced

case). The figure also shows a similar curve for the over-reinforced case

in the longitudinal direction.

The two balanced yield curves divide the graph into four regions. The

relative position of a point of coordinates (reinforcing indices) with

respect to these curves or regions indicates the expected mode of

failure of an element with these reinforcement ratios.

Graphical Methods

Rahal’s Method

As shown in the figure, 4 modes of failure are possible:

Mode 2)

yielding, Mode 4)

yield, Mode 1)

Other Considerations

The following are the other considerations that should be taken into

account:

1. Maximum yield strength of torsional reinforcement

2. High-strength concrete

3. Lightweight concrete

4. Size effect

Thank You!

- Gate StructuresUploaded bygrkvani10
- chapter 7.pdfUploaded bygilbert850507
- disain fondasiUploaded byBudi Utomo
- OneSteel_DesignBooklet_db1.1Uploaded bymystphil
- How2_Slabs_FINAL_v05.07Uploaded byPeter Allott
- Mechanics of Materials ReviewUploaded bylowCL
- Strength of Materials - iUploaded byJoseph
- Prestressed Concrete - 2 Beam in Bending at Working LoadUploaded by4493464
- Cantilever BeamUploaded byjellowis
- List of TablesUploaded byKulal Swapnil
- AE 304_Strength of MaterialsUploaded bykarthip08
- m13l34.pdfUploaded bySoham Roy
- 162 Abstract GasparUploaded byGopan Krishnan
- Strength of Mat'l Part 1Uploaded byNick Decillo
- Design of Timber Structures 3 2016Uploaded byGregor
- DesignCalcs ModulesUploaded byDeepak Garg
- Strength of MaterialsUploaded byNishanthora
- Bending and S.F BasicUploaded byhipreyash
- Assessment of the Out-Of-plane Imperfections of a Steel Tied Arch BridgeUploaded byDhimas Surya Negara
- tut1Uploaded byDivya Prakash
- Advanced Design of Concrete StructuresUploaded byurvish
- Optimization of a Multistorey-building by OptimumUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- MECH466-Lecture-4.pdfUploaded bySaran Arun
- List of ExperimentsUploaded byMayur Jain
- L5 Formula SheetUploaded bydaveasquith
- Course Outline ME 227Uploaded byRajib Debnath
- Design and Analysis of BeamUploaded byCyrus Matutina
- SyllabusUploaded byScott
- B.arch Syl 11Sept2013Uploaded bykrmcharigdc
- 60516568 Question Bank Engg MechanicsUploaded byHeather Johnson

- Estimation and Costing Textbook by BN DuttaUploaded bypengnium
- QSEV - Chakraborti- By Www.easyEngineering.netUploaded byRenz Albert Tejadilla
- water tank designUploaded byMoHaMmAd WaHeEd
- Watertank 150113115926 Conversion Gate01Uploaded byRaden Tito Hario Rahadi Tjitrosoma
- Proposal for High Computational Deskto SystemsUploaded bypengnium
- Watertank GSUploaded byVedha Nayaghi
- Drcebm Notes by EasyEngineering.netUploaded bypmali2
- Manual_ConcreteTech.pdfUploaded byBpdplanning Madhucon
- watertank-161204185943Uploaded byzikzak2011
- Ordinance Final Notification (1)Uploaded bypengnium
- Control Surveying rUploaded bypengnium
- PCA Rectangular_Tank Design ExampleUploaded byConrad Otieno
- Design of overhead rcc rectangular tankUploaded byVijayKrupaker
- Water Tank Lecture 130327151102 Phpapp02Uploaded bypengnium
- Design&Drawing of RC-Compiled-M.C.natraj (1)Uploaded bypengnium
- RCC IS 456 :2000Uploaded bypengnium
- reinforced concrete structuresUploaded byWr Ar
- WatreTank4Uploaded byAnonymous 9ltPgg1e6
- Structural Analysis 1 by SS Bhavikatti - By www.EasyEngineering.net_2.pdfUploaded bypengnium
- projectwatertank-161212063655.pdfUploaded bypengnium
- CIVIL ENGINEERING - PRACTICE SETS - EasyEngineering.net.pdfUploaded bypengnium
- estimation and costing textbook by BN Dutta.pdfUploaded bypengnium
- IS 2770 PART 1Uploaded byRajanshahs
- Drcebm Notes by EasyEngineering.netUploaded bypmali2
- Horizontal Curve FormulaeUploaded byKevin Co Obligado
- Manual_ConcreteTech.pdfUploaded byBpdplanning Madhucon
- 1323ijirseUploaded byKarthikeyan Panchatcharam
- Harbour Dock and Tunnel Engineering by R SrinivasaUploaded bydhivyadharshini
- PCA Rectangular_Tank Design ExampleUploaded byConrad Otieno
- estimation set book - local author- By EasyEngineering.net.pdfUploaded bypengnium

- capacity check of bolt.xlsUploaded byRAJESH DHUA
- Lecture Notes on Shear force and bending momentUploaded byCt Kamariah Md Saat
- Design of syphon aqueductUploaded byD.V.Srinivasa Rao
- NORMAL AND SHEAR STRESSES IN OPEN SECTIONSUploaded byEugene Tan
- Workshop Homework Problems Based on SAP2000 by Wolfgang SchuellerUploaded bywolfschueller
- RCC Design of Bus Shelter at VelpuruUploaded byD.V.Srinivasa Rao
- Calculations for GratingUploaded byAhsan Sattar
- Deflection of BeamUploaded bypurushothaman
- reservoir11_683Uploaded byrajarshibose
- F1612.1479757-1Uploaded byThaweekarn Changthong
- ME 3813-Su14Uploaded byxxxtoyaxxx
- Bicycle Design ProjectUploaded byjabirp27
- Biaxial Bending Moment Magnifier MethodUploaded byBhavin Solanki
- Evaluation of Shear Lag in Standard H I SectionsUploaded byaerosanth
- Robustness-Exercise_SOLUTION.pdfUploaded byKay Chan Sotheara
- Analysis of R.C. Building Frame with Raft Foundation Considering Soil Structure InteractionUploaded byIRJET Journal
- IJEIT1412201209_60Uploaded byIgnatius Samraj
- Design of Concrete Structures 2010 Level 4 Semester 1Uploaded byKushan Dhanushka Nanayakkara
- Static Formulae.pdfUploaded byVINOD DAMODARAN
- xid-1576971_1Uploaded byPortia Shilenge
- Press BrakeUploaded byDean
- Ansys Manual for CAMA LABUploaded byPranav Pandey
- Conjugate Beam MethodUploaded byKobina Bondzie
- Crank Shaft DesignUploaded byAnonymous QiMB2lBCJL
- Mechanics Cw 3Uploaded by0808276k
- Barge 180Ft Deck Load Capacity & Strength-Rev1Uploaded byWahyu Codyr
- Str Analysis- MCQUploaded byGovind
- Scissor Lateral Beam ReportUploaded bySehs Hussin
- IFEM.ch12.SlidesUploaded byAfshin Azizkhani
- Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams [SFD.pdfUploaded bySuresh G Kumar