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PSG POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING(SW)

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF AUTOMATIC TMT BENDING MACHINE

PROJECT DONE BY: GUIDED BY:


SRIVISHNUVARDAN .T 13LM23 DR.B.GIRIRAJ ME,PhD.,
ASHWIN.K 14LM04 PRINCIPAL,
SANJAY PRASHANTH.M 14LM20 PSG POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE.
SRIRAM.K.M 14LM22
OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION
ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

TMT BARS

STIRRUPS

BENEFITS

CHALLENGES

LITERATURE SURVEY

OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

CONCLUSION
⊡ ABSTRACT
⊡It is possible to decrease construction lead time with increase of the stirrup
bending rate by automation only. Here an attempt is made to design and
fabrication “automatic TMT bending machine” using the principles of
hydraulics . its use reduces a lot of labour cost, effort and construction lead
time and production of various sizes of stirrup and accuracy increases.
⊡In the construction of any structure major work is done by labour. In
column or beam there are many horizontal and vertical rods to support the
concrete, they are required to be tied together so that they give enough
strength to the structure. Square or any trapezoidal shape stirrups are used
to tie rod together by means of tight wires. In small construction sites
workers bend stirrup using traditional way. There is no other way to make
stirrup with less human effort. And for this reason automation is required
which is the objective of the project presented.

INTRODUCTION
Since many years labour work has been playing an important role in
construction including mixing coarse aggregate-sand-water-cement,
moving sand, leveling the land, digging the foundation
for base of structure, cutting rod in required length,
bending the rod and pouring of concrete mix
in columns and beams.
By using conventional method it is not possible
to increase construction rate and decrease lead time. fig.1
So, Automation in construction system is requires. The TMT rod bending
machine is a stirrup processing equipment mainly used for bending TMT
bar
CONT...
It is widely used in construction like bridge, tunnel and building construction.
A machine which is used to bend the TMT rods with the help of high pressure of
the hydraulic piston and cylinder with very precision movement,The project is
powered by the hydraulic system
TMT BARS
TMT – Thermo Mechanically Treated
TMT Bars are thermo-mechanically-treated through leading world
tempcore based technology for high yield strength.
The process involves rapid quenching of the hot bars through a series
of water jets after they roll out of the last mill stand.
The bars are cooled, allowing the core and surface temperatures to
equalize.

fig.2 figure illustrate the typical manufacturing of TMT rods


SPECIFICATION OF TMT RODS
Table1:chemical properties of TMT rods
CHEMICAL Fe-500 Fe-500D TYPICALMAXIMUM
PROPERTIES VALUE
CARBON % 0.300 0.250 0.250

CARBON 0.420 0.420 0.400


EQUIVALENT %
SULPHUR % 0.055 0.040 0.035

PHOSPHORUS % 0.055 0.040 0.035

CARBON AND 0.105 0.075 0.070


SULPHUR %
NITROGEN( PPM) 120 120 120

PPM-Parts per million ,one PPM=1 milligram of something per liter of water (mg/l)
Table2:Mechanical properties of TMT rods

BIS SPECIFICATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


MECHANICAL Fe 500 Fe 500D TYPICAL MAXIMUM
PROPERTIES VALUE
YIELD STRESS 500 500 500
(N/mm2)
ULTIMATE TENSILE 545 565 600
STRESS(N/mm2)
UTS/YS RATIO 1.08 1.08 1.12
STIRRUPS
Stirrup is nothing but a square, rectangular or trapezoidal shaped rod which is
tied with the structural rod together at specific distance for strength
improvement purpose.
Stirrups is an important reinforced element which acts as shear reinforcement.
Presently, stirrups are manual, which suffers from many drawbacks like ,low
productivity and resulting into severe fatigue in the operator.

Fig.3 Manual Stirrup bending operation and types of stirrups


BENEFITS OF AUTOMATIC TMT BENDING MACHINE

TMT bending machine is important in the construction industry due to the high-speed
operations and accuracy of bending angles.
Suitable for wide variety of steel bars,tmt,and reinforecement bars used in construction
these specialized tools are capable of bending the toughest rebars.
One of the more demanding task in construction sites,manual rebar bending can slow down
all process in addition to having the potential to cause injury.
Accuracy and high-speed bending- Machine take approximately five seconds to bend any
type of rebar to the required angle.
Quality end result-TMT bending machine comprises of motor that run smoothly preventing
unwanted wears.
Bending components do not damage TMT-manual bending of TMT can sometimes
cause super facial damage to material which end up providing the required structural strength
to reinforced concrete.
Portability-bending machine also available in portable with a carrying handles to offar
greater portability in job site.
LITERATURE SURVEY
1.I Muhammed, S.Ravivishwnath, P Sureshkumar , N. Sarvanan Design and fabrication of hydraulic
rod bending machine, April 2014. Worked on design and fabrication of rod bending machine and they
concluded that Each and every work of human is reduced by a machine, but few areas like construction the
usage of machines for bending rods for stirrups which are used to withstand loads in beams and columns
are not done by machine because the cost of machine is high and need skilled labours to operate it. So this
project is aimed to do bending operation for stirrups using hydraulics and named as hydraulic rod bending
machine. The main objective of our project is to implement the hydraulic rod bending machine in the
construction sites with less cost compared to the existing bending machines, and increasing the
productivity of the stirrups.
2.Vilas Shinde, Darshan Adhav, Suraj Jadhav, Afsar Attar, Sandip Gorde. Design and fabrication of
hydraulic stirrup making machine, May 2016.They worked on Design and Fabrication of Hydraulic Stirrups
Making Machine and they concluded that Since testing the stirrup making machine it is observed that how
much time is required to make single piece of stirrup by effective working. The detail description is given
as below: Loading and unloading combining clamping the bar to fixture it almost takes only 5 to 6 seconds.
Time required to forward and backward stroke is about 10 to 11 seconds during which stirrup is made.
Considering machine ergonomics that is interaction of human operator with machine, it is very easy to
operate it because operating switch is provided at suitable place of machine. Again loading and
unloading is not complicated since not very specialized tooling is used it is very simple structure.
Cont….
3.Mohan Krishna S. A.Hydraulic equipment has wide use in various automobile fields.
These hydraulic instruments are used for lowering and raising chair in Barber shops and
in dental clinics . Hydraulic bending machine is the suitable equipment to bend pipes, rods
and bars. The pipe or rod to be bending is kept between the rollers. With use of hydraulic
jack we implement force on the pipe and bend it to the required angle depending on the
dies used. Hydraulic bending machine is less expensive , flexible and portable
compared to those which are discussed earlier. Hence it is better to replace current
standard machines by hydraulic pipe bending machine.
4.Prashant P. Khandare The aim of this paper is to develop a pipe bending machine
which is useful to bend a pipe in workshop. This project is to design and construct a
portable pipe bending machine. This machine is used to bend steel pipes into curve and
the other curvature shapes. The size of machine is very convenient for portable work. It is
fully made by steel. Moreover it is easy to be carry and use at any time and any place. It
decreases human effort and requires low skill labors for operating the machine. In
this paper they designed manually operated pipe bending machine with use of
gears, motors,pulley, and frame. This bending machine is both manually and power
operated.
FROM LITERATURE REVIEW WE CONCLUDE THAT
There are bending machine such as press brake bending machine, roll bending machine
and a folding machine.
Moreover, the design for the bending machine for TMT bending is to bend a TMT
rods.Other reason regarding to the bending machine design, the bending machine in the
market come with big size and the bending machine is expensive.
The existing bending machine in the market is created for huge capacity for bending a
metal pipe. With the capacity of bending machine that exists in the market, the existing
bending machine is not fulfilling the requirement of the usage.
The requirement of operation of bending machine is simple. Thus it is not suitable to
purchase existing bending machine to be used for simple bending machine operation.
Moreover, the machine is heavy and use up a lot of space.
In addition, the problem will arise when to move and put the bending machine due to
heavy and space.
By addition of rod cutter and linear scale, the productivity can be improved .
By implementing GUI (Graphical User Interface),it can be made more user friendly.
By providing some extra accessories it can be use as an Hydraulic Rod Cutter
using shear principle for cutting the rods of more than 8 mm diameter.
CHALLENGES
Bend a rod in L shape is difficult
Bending too much rod within the time is difficult
The machine cannot be easily carried from one place to another
Simple manual adjustment for different rod length and shapes in production runs.
Machine to be located on high grade steel frame when in use .

FIG.4
OBJECTIVES
The main objective to design a bending machine for TMT
bending is because there is no proper bending machine to
bend a TMT for small scale. The bending machines found in
the market come from variety of types.
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF TMT BENDING MACHINE

Introduction

TMT bars
MODULE1
DESIGN AND SELECTION OF
COMPONENT
Stirrups

Benefits MODULE2
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM FABRICATION
Literature
Redesign survey
CALCULATION FOR FORCE
CONCEPTULIZATION
REQUIRED FOR 6MM,8MM Challenges
ROD

Module1 BASICS STEPS TO


CALCULATION OF OPERATE THE
PISTON DIAMETER MACHINE
Module2
SELECTION OF CORE
COMPONENT TMT bars

STEP BY STEP OF TMT


BENDING MACHINE Conclusion
MODULE 1-DESIGN AND SELECTION OF CORE
COMPONENTS

Fig.5.SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF AUTOMATIC TMT BENDING MACHINE


MECHANICAL DESIGN & CAPACITY CALCULATION
CALCULATION OF FORCE FOR BEND 6MM DIAMETER ROD
σyield = 690 N/mm2 σultimate=732 N/mm2
σb=M*Y/I, Y=D/2, I=(π/64)D4
σB= σyield /fos=690/4
=172.5MPa
σb=(P*i*d/2)/I
172.5=(P*7*6/2)/2
P=522.30N
CALCULATION OF FORCE FOR BEND 8MM DIAMETER ROD

σyield = 678 N/mm2 σultimate=722 N/mm2


σb=M*Y/I, Y=D/2, I=(π/64)D4
σB= σyield /fos=678/4
=169.5MPa
σb=(P*i*d/2)/I
169.5=(P*7*8/2)/2
P=946.18N
DESIGN OF PISTON

Let take,
Maximum force for design of cylinder, F=950 N
Fluid pressure, P = 5 bar = 0.5 N/mm2
Stroke of Piston = 100 mm Total required force = F + Fr
Friction force, Fr = 3-8 % of F
≅ 5 % of F
= 0.05* 950
= 47.5 N
≅ 50 N
∴ Total Force = F + Fr
950 + 50
=1000 N
F=0.7854 * D2 * P
∴ 1000 = 0.7854* D2 * 0.5
∴ Diameter of cylinder, D = 50 mm Thus, Diameter of piston rode,
d = 0.3 to 0.8 D [6] ≅ 0.5 D
∴ d = 25 mm
CORE COMPONENT:
HYDRAULIC POWER PACK
A hydraulic power pack is a drive or transmission system that uses pressurized
hydraulic fluid to drive hydraulic machinery.

PISTON CYLINDER ARRANGEMENT


In ASBM single acting spring return cylinder is used to bend the rod. Forward stroke is
due to air pressure and return stroke is by automatic spring return. Stroke is completely
controlled by a controller.

Fig.6 piston cylinder arrangement and flow of hydraulic fluid


SOLENOID OPERATED DCV
Directional Control Valve (DCV) is one of the most fundamental parts in
hydraulic machinery as well and pneumatic machinery. They allow fluid
flow into different paths from one or more sources. They usually consist
of a spool inside a cylinder which is mechanically or electrically
controlled. The movement of the spool restricts or permits the flow, thus it
controls the fluid flow as shown in figure 6.

Fig.7. DCV
MICROCONTROLLER:
The Arduino Diecimila is a microcontroller board based on the AT mega
328. It has 14 digital input/output pins, 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal
oscillator , a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset
button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; it is
only needs to connect to a computer with a USB cable or power it with an
AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.

FIG.8 Arduino microcontroller


WIPER MOTOR
In automatic TMT bending machine, a motor is used to feed the rod into
the fixture and it is controlled by Arduino controller in required time interval.
Wiper motor rotates under 12V DC supply and speed achieved is nearly 70
RPM .

Fig.9. Wiper Motor


PROXIMITY SENSOR
Sensor detects metallic objects without touching them. The sensor consists of
an induction loop. Electric current generates a magnetic field, which collapses
generating a current that falls asymptotically toward zero from its initial level
when the input electricity ceases as shown in figure 5.
It is required to detect the presence of rod in 2-3cm vicinity and give signal to
controller.

Fig.. 10 IR sensor
FEED ROTOR
Feed rotor is used to feed rod under the control of controller signals. It
is operated by high torque wiper motor. Moreover it provides straight
motion to rod and prevents curvature of rod.

Fig.11. feed rotor


FIXTURE
Fixture is use to support 6mm or 8mm rods and provides the point of
bending. Fixture needs to be stronger than the rod, as all the strength is
applied on the walls of the fixture. It should be strong enough for
prevent bending against bending force directly acting on it.

Fig.12. fixture
(a) Feeding of the TMT rod
(b) Piston starts bending the
rod
(c) Piston bends one side of
the rod
(d) TMT rod start moving
(e) Piston starts bending other
side of the rod
(f) Piston reciprocates and
feeding of the rod starts
(g) Piston starts bending other
side f the piston
(h) Machine starts bending
other side of the rod
(i) The rod is finished and it is
ready for cutting process

FIG.13-step by step process of TMT bending machine


MODULE 2 -FABRICATION
CONCEPTALIZATION FLOW CHART
WIPER MICROCONTROLLER
MOTOR

SENSING ROD BEND STIRRUP


STEEL ROD FEED ROD
AS PER AS PISTON
INPUT THROUGH
REQUIRED FORWARD
FEED ROLLERS
LENGTH STROKE

As shown in figure, steel rod is inserted in the mechanism which feed


through Feed Rollers using Wiper motor. Using proximity sensors and
programmed microcontroller the piston moves forward/backward, through
this process rod gets bended in form of stirrup.
Cont…
•Rod placed in the initial position and is about to be bent ..
•First bending takes place; when the rod is progressed with
the aid of two rollers in the forward direction by using the
piston cylinder arrangement.
•Rod is advanced in the forward direction and stops the
advancement when sensor senses the rod .
•Piston moves again in the forward direction and second
bending takes place .
•Again the process continues and sensor is activated as per
necessity.
•Finally cutter does it action by cutting finished stirrup
BASIC STEPS TO OPERATE AUTOMATC TMT BENDING MACHINE

PRESS ENTER SHAPE PRESS START


ENTER NO OF
ADUINO OF STIRRUP BUSH
STIRRUPS
RESET REQUIRED BUTTON

CUTTER SENSOR FEED OF ROD


CYLINDER AS PER
CUTS THE SENSES THE
STROKE REQUIRED
ROD ROD
DIAMETER
CONCLUSION
Automatic TMT Bending Mechanism using the principles of hydraulic has been
developed.
This system was incorporated with piston-cylinder arrangement, arrangement of feed
rotors run by wiper motor to feed the rods automatically and an IR sensor to sense the
presence of rod under the controlling action of microcontroller. In this mechanism,
bending of the rod has been taken place by piston-cylinder arrangement while
progressing the rod in the forward direction with the aid of two rollers using wiper
motor. This process continues until the complete stirrup was made and the sensor is
activated as per the necessity.
By using this system, continuous production of stirrup could be achieved and
at the same time a lot of labor cost, effort and construction lead time could be
reduced, from which the society will get direct benefits. This is quite interesting
and this would be indispensable for real time application in the construction fields.