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Traffic

Traffic Flow
TrafficFlow
Flow
Characteristics
Characteristics (2)
Characteristics(2)
(2)
Learning Objectives
• To differentiate between interrupted and
uninterrupted flow facilities
• To define general and linear speed-density
relationships
• To derive, sketch, and apply Greenshield’s
Model of traffic flow
Recap

Spacing
Recap

Clearance
Recap

# vehicles/Distance
Density
Recap…
• Speed (v) – ft/sec or mph
• Flow (q) – veh/sec or vph
• Density (k) – veh/ft or vpm
• Spacing (s) – ft/veh
• Headway (h) – sec/veh
• Clearance (c) – ft/veh
• Gap (g) – sec/veh
Remember, units are critical!
Fundamental Relationships
• q=kv
(veh/hr) = (veh/mi)  (mi/hr)
• h=1/q
(sec/veh) = 1 / (veh/hr)  (3600)
• s=1/k
(ft/veh) = 1 / (veh/mi)  (5280)
Types of Facilities
• Uninterrupted flow
– Freeways
– Multilane highways
– Two-lane highways
Types of Facilities
• Interrupted flow
– Signalized streets
– Un-signalized streets
with stop signs
– Transit lanes
– Pedestrian walkways
General Speed-Density
Relationship
S p.130
V
Free normal flow

forced flow
Traffic
Jam Q
Capacity

K
Density at Jam
Capacity Density
General Speed-Density
Relationship
K p.137
V
Traffic
Free Jam
forced flow

normal flow
Q
Capacity

K
Density at Jam
Capacity Density
General Speed-Density
Relationship
Q p.137
V
Capacity
Free

Traffic V
Jam

K
Density at Jam
Capacity Density
Greenshield’s Model
• Assume a linear relationship between v
and k:
 vf 
v  v f   k
Low Density = High
vf
k 
Speed

 j

High Density = Low


Speed

kj
Greenshield’s Model
Q
vf v0  vf  2
Max flow
q  vf k  k
k 
 j 
qmax

K
K0 Kj
Greenshield’s Model
V

Vf

1/k0=s0
V0

Q
Qmax
Max flow
Example
Assuming a linear v-k relationship, the mean
free speed is 60 mph near zero density, and
the corresponding jam density is 140 vpm.
Assume the average length of vehicles is 20
ft. Find:
– v(k) and q(k)
– Sketch v-k, v-q, and q-k diagrams
– Compute v and k at q=1000 vph
– Compute the average headway, spacings, clearances,
and gaps when the flow is maximum