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Nokia Academy

MIMO for LTE

TD-LTE Air Interface

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2
MIMO for LTE

Transmission Modes in 3GPP


Antenna Mapping and Precoding
Transmission Diversity
Spatial Multiplexing
Examples
Advanced MIMO techniques

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5
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output MIMO Principle (1/2)
Signal from jth Tx antenna
Sj
T1 R1

MIMO
Input T2 R2 Output
Processor
• •
• •
• •
MxN
Tm MIMO Rn
system
• MIMO: Multiple-Input Multiple Output
• M transmit antennas, N receive antennas form MxN MIMO system
• huge data stream (input) distributed toward m spatial distributed antennas; m parallel bit
streams (Input 1..m)
• Spatial Multiplexing generate parallel “virtual data pipes”
• using Multipath effects instead of mitigating them

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6
Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO)

Rx Tx

• Switched Diversity
• Equal Gain Combining
• Maximum Ratio Combining

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Multiple Input Single Output (MISO)

Tx Rx

• Space-Time Transmit Diversity

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8
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)

Tx Rx

• Improved Transmission Reliability


• Increased Coverage or Range
• Reduced UE Power Consumption

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MIMO Techniques

Data Stream 1

Tx Rx

Data Stream 2

• Space-Time Coding (STC) – 1 Data Stream


• Spatial Multiplexing – 2 Data Streams

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10
Single User MIMO

Data Stream 1

UE

Data Stream 2

eNodeB
• Improved Performance (STC), or
• Improved Throughput (SM) for Single UE

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11
Multi-User MIMO

UE

UE
eNodeB
• Improved Number of UEs
• No Increase in System Bandwidth

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12
MIMO Principle (2/2)
Signal from jth Tx antenna Signal at ith Rx antenna
Sj h1,1
Yi
T1 hn,1 h2,1 R1
h1,m
h1,2 MIMO
h2,2 P
r
Input T2 hn,2 h2,m aR2 o Output
c
e
• • s
• • s
• hn,m • o
r
Tm MxN Rn
MIMO

h1,1 h1,2  h1,m • Receiver learns Channel Matrix H


h2,1 h2,2  h2,m • inverted Matrix H-1 used for
H= 





recalculation
  
m of original input data streams 1..m
hn,1 hn,2  hn,m
yi   hi , j  s j  ni ni: Noise at receiver

j 1
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13
Transmission Modes in 3GPP (1/2)

3GPP MODE 1
•Single antenna port; port 0 3GPP Mode 3
•1 TX antenna transmitting always •Open loop spatial multiplexing
on port 0 •Multiple antennas transmitting different
signals
•No feedback from the UE used
3GPP MODE 2 •Improves user data rate
•Transmit diversity
•Multiple antennas transmit same 3GPP Mode 4
signal
•Closed Loop spatial multiplexing
•Improves SINR
•Multiple antennas transmitting different
signals
•Feedback from the UE used
•Improves user data rate

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14
Transmission Modes in 3GPP (2/2)

3GPP MODE 5
•Multi user MIMO
•Multiple antennas transmitting to
different UEs in the cell
3GPP Mode 7
• Increase sector capacity
•Single Antenna port; port 5
3GPP Mode 6 •Beamforming
•Closed-loop Rank=1 precoding • UE specific reference signals are
generated for feedback
•Beamforming
•UE signals back the suitable
precoding for the beamforming
operation

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15
MIMO for LTE

Transmission Modes in 3GPP


Antenna Mapping and Precoding
Transmission Diversity
Spatial Multiplexing
Examples
Advanced MIMO techniques

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16
LTE DL: Baseband Signal Generation

Split into
several streams
if needed
Weighting data
streams for
Code words
transmission
Antenna
layers ports

Modulation Resource OFDM signal


scrambling element generation
mapper
mapper
Layer Precoding
mapper
Modulation Resource OFDM signal
scrambling Modulation
mapper element generation
mapper
mapper

Source: 3GPP TS 36.211 V8.6.0

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17
Antenna Mapping

LAYERS = different streams used by spatial ANTENNA PORT = defined by specific


multiplexing reference signals
Mapping of symbols onto antenna ports

Antenna mapping

Up to NL
LAYERS

Maximum of two Layer


CODEWORDS Precoding NA
mapper ANTENNA
PORTS

RANK

1 CODEWORD = 1 Transport Block RANK = number of layers transmitted


which is coded (input)

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18
MIMO for LTE

Transmission Modes in 3GPP


Antenna Mapping and Precoding
Transmission Diversity
Spatial Multiplexing
Examples
Advanced MIMO techniques

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19
Transmission Modes in 3GPP

3GPP MODE 1
•Single antenna port; port 0 3GPP Mode 3
•1 TX antenna transmitting always on •Open loop spatial multiplexing
port 0 •Multiple antennas transmitting different
signals
•No feedback from the UE used
3GPP MODE 2 •Improves user data rate
•Transmit diversity
•Multiple antennas transmit same 3GPP Mode 4
signal
•Closed Loop spatial multiplexing
•Improves SINR
•Multiple antennas transmitting different
signals
Diversity 2x2 MIMO •Feedback from the UE used
•Improves user data rate

eNodeB Same
data
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20 stream
3GPP Mode 1- Transmit Diversity (1)

• Replicas of the same signal sent over several Tx antennas

Number Number Codeword-to-layer mapping


of layers of code i  0,1,..., M symb 1
layer

words

x (0) (i)  d (0) (2i)


2 1
layer
M symb  M symb
( 0)
2
x (1) (i)  d (0) (2i  1)

x (0) (i )  d (0) (4i )  ( 0)


M symb 4 (0)
if M symb mod 4  0
  ( 0)
 
layer
M
 M symb  2 4 mod 4  0
symb (0)
x (i )  d
(1) ( 0)
(4i  1) if M symb
4 1
x ( 2) (i )  d (0) (4i  2) ( 0)
If M symb mod 4  0 two null symbols shall be
appended to d (0) (M (0)  1)
x (3) (i )  d (0) (4i  3) symb

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21
Example Codeword to Layer Mapping Transmit Diversity

Antenna mapping
x0 = d0, d2, d4

d0, d1, d2, d3, d4, d5


Layer
1 CODEWORD mapper 2 LAYERS Precoding

x1 = d1, d3, d5

d0, d1, d2, d3, d4, d5 – 6 elements


of the transport block
(coded and modulated bits)

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22
3GPP Mode 1- Transmit Diversity (2)

 Precoding for transmit diversity (2 antenna ports assumed)

For transmission on two antenna ports p  0,1 the output y(i)  y (i) y (i)
( 0) (1)
 
T

i  0,1,..., M symb
ap
 1 of the precoding operation is defined by

 y (0) (2i )  1 0 j 0 Re x (0) (i)   


 (1)
 y ( 2i )

 1
0  1 0 j  
  Re x (1)
(i )

  
 y (0) (2i  1)
 (1) 
2 0 1 0 j  Im x (0) (i) 
 
 
 y (2i  1) 

1 0  j 0 (1)
  Im x (i )   
For i  0,1,..., M symb
layer
 1with ap
M symb  2M symb
layer

Source: 3GPP TS 36.211 V8.6.0


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23
Example Codeword to Layer Mapping Transmit Diversity

y(0) = Re(d0) + j *Im(d0),


Re(d1) + j*Im(d1)

Antenna mapping
x0 = d0, d2, d4

d0, d1, d2, d3, d4, d5


Layer
1 CODEWORD
2 LAYERS Precoding 2 ANTENNA PORTS
mapper

x1 = d1, d3, d5

d0, d1, d2, d3, d4, d5 – 6 elements y(1) = - Re(d1) + j *Im(d1),


of the transport block
(coded and modulated bits) Re(d0) - j*Im(d0)

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24
Transmit Diversity – Two Antenna Ports

X(0) y(0)
Layer Pre-
mapper coding

X(1) y(1)

Symbols after RE mapping

 
scrambling and modulation OFDM signal
 y (0) (2i)  1 0 j 0 Re x (0) (i) 
 (1)
 y ( 2i )

 1
0
 1 0

 
j   Re x (1) (i) 
 y (2i  1)
(
 (1)
0 )

2 0 1 0


j  Im x (0) (i) 


 y (2i  1) 

1 0 j 
0  Im x (1) (i) 

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25
MIMO for LTE

Transmission Modes in 3GPP


Antenna Mapping and Precoding
Transmission Diversity
Spatial Multiplexing
Examples
Advanced MIMO techniques

TM5121AEN03GLA2 ©2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.


26
Transmission Modes in 3GPP

3GPP MODE 1
•Single antenna port; port 0 3GPP Mode 3
•1 TX antenna transmitting always on •Open loop spatial multiplexing
port 0 •Multiple antennas transmitting different
signals
•No feedback from the UE used
3GPP MODE 2 •Improves user data rate
•Transmit diversity
•Multiple antennas transmit same 3GPP Mode 4
signal •Closed Loop spatial multiplexing
•Improves SINR •Multiple antennas transmitting different
signals
Spatial multiplexing 2x2 MIMO
•Feedback from the UE used
Data stream 1 •Improves user data rate

eNodeB Data stream


2
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27
3GPP Mode 4 – Closed Loop Spatial Multiplexing
 Codeword to layer mapping:

Numbe Number Codeword-to-layer mapping


r of of code
i  0,1,..., M symb 1
layer
layers words

1 1 x (0) (i)  d (0) (i) layer


M symb  M symb
( 0)

x (0) (i)  d (0) (i)


layer
M symb  M symb
( 0)
 M symb
(1)
2 2
x (1) (i)  d (1) (i)

2 1 x (0) (i )  d (0) (2i) layer


M symb  M symb
(0)
2
x (1) (i )  d (0) (2i  1)
x (0) (i)  d (0) (i) layer
M symb  M symb
( 0)
 M symb
(1)
2
3 2 x (1) (i)  d (1) (2i)
x ( 2) (i)  d (1) (2i  1)
x ( 0 ) (i )  d ( 0 ) (2i )
x (1) (i )  d (1) (2i ) layer
M symb  M symb
( 0)
2  M symb
(1)
2
4 2 x ( 2 ) (i )  d ( 0 ) (2i  1)
x ( 3) (i )  d (1) (2i  1)

Source: 3GPP TS 36.211


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©2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
28
Example Codeword to Layer Mapping Spatial Multiplexing

Antenna mapping
x0 = a0, a1, a2, a3
a0, a1, a2, a3

Layer 2 LAYERS Precoding


2 CODEWORD
mapper
b0, b1, b2, b3

x1 = b0, b1, b2, b3

a0, a1, a2, a3 - 4 elements of the first transport block


b0, b1, b2, b3 - 4 elements of the second transport block
(coded and modulated bits)
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29
Codebook for Precoding

 Codebook with the number of layers = 2


Codebook Number of layers ν
index
1 2
1 1 1 1 0
0   
2 1 2 0 1 
1 1 1 1 1 
1    
2 1 2 1 1
1 1  1 1 1 
2  j
2  2  j  j 
1 1  -
3  
2  j 

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30
Example Codeword to Layer Mapping Transmit Spatial
Multiplexing

Antenna mapping
x0 = a0, a1, a2, a3
a0, a1, a2, a3 y0 = a0 +b0, a1 + b1

Layer 2 LAYERS 2 ANTENNA PORTS


2 CODEWORD Precoding
mapper
b0, b1, b2, b3

y1 = a0 – b0, a1 – b1
x1 = b0, b1, b2, b3

a0, a1, a2, a3 - 4 elements of the first transport block


b0, b1, b2, b3 - 4 elements of the second transport block
(coded and modulated bits)
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31
Spatial Multiplexing

Layer Pre-
mapper coding

Transmission on a single antenna port RE mapping


OFDM signal

Spatial multiplex rank 2

Layer Pre-
mapper coding

Symbols after scrambling and Two data stream


modulation, 2 code words are supported

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32
Differences between Mode 3 and 4

3GPP Mode 3 In case of open loop spatial multiplex


two cases have to be distinguished. If
•Open loop spatial multiplexing the transmitted rank indication (TRI) = 1
the transmission mode corresponds to
•Multiple antennas transmitting different transmit diversity.
signals If TRI >1 large delay CDD is used. The
number of layers is 2, 3 or 4.
•No feedback from the UE used
•Improves user data rate In case of closed loop spatial
multiplexing feedback from the UE it is
used.
The UE feedbacks values of the RI =
3GPP Mode 4 Rank Indicator and PMI = Precoding
•Closed Loop spatial multiplexing Matrix Indicator.
In case of 2 antenna ports the
•Multiple antennas transmitting different codebook consists of 2 matrices, in
signals case of 4 antenna ports there are 16
•Feedback from the UE used entries. A restriction may be signaled
so that only a subset thereof can be
•Improves user data rate used.

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33
Closed Loop MIMO

1 Pilot Channel on All Antenna Ports

Evaluate
2 Codebook
3 Preferred Codebook Index Options

UE
4 Adjusted MIMO Transmission
eNodeB

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34
MIMO for LTE

Transmission Modes in 3GPP


Antenna Mapping and Precoding
Transmission Diversity
Spatial Multiplexing
Examples
Advanced MIMO techniques

TM5121AEN03GLA2 ©2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.


35
Examples of MIMO Usage

Spatial
MIMO type Gain downlink
multiplexing

Transmission +3…5dB downlink


diversity 2x2 link budget due to
MIMO SINR
improvement
Spatial +100% peak data
multiplexing 2X2 rate
MIMO
Transmissio Spatial +300% peak data
n diversity multiplexing 4X4 rate
MIMO

Typically, close to the eNodeB Spatial multiplexing could be used to improve the throughput
At the cell edge Transmission diversity could be used to improve the coverage

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36
Single Antenna Port and DL Reference Signals
DL RS, Normal TCP DL RS, Extended TCP
f=1
f=2 Reference
Signal
f=3

Resource
f=11 Element

f=12
S=0 S=6 S=0 S=5

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37
2 Port DL Reference Signals, Normal TCP
DL RS, Normal TCP

Port 0
R0 Reference
Signal

R0
Port 0

R0

Not used on
R0 this port

R1 Port 1
Reference
Signal
R1
Port 1
eNodeB
R1
Not used on
this port
R1

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38
2 Port DL Reference Signals, Extended TCP
DL RS, Extended TCP

Port 0
R0 Reference
Signal

R0
Port 0

R0

Not used on
R0 this port

R1 Port 1
Reference
Signal
R1
Port 1
eNodeB
R1
Not used on
this port
R1

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39
Antenna Port Layering

eNodeB

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4 Port DL Reference Signals, Normal TCP
Even Slot Odd Slot

Port 0
R0 R0 Reference
Signal

Port 0 R0 R0

R0 R0

Not used on
R0 R0 this port

R1 R1

Port 1
R1 R1 Reference
Port 1 Signal
eNodeB
R1 R1

R1 R1

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41
4 Port RS, Normal TCP – Continued
Even Slot Odd Slot

R2

Port 2
Reference
Port 2 R2 Signal

R2
Not used on
this port

R2

R3

R3
Port 3
eNodeB
R3
Port 3
Reference
Signal
R3

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42
Antenna Port Layering

eNodeB

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43
MIMO for LTE

Transmission Modes in 3GPP


Antenna Mapping and Precoding
Transmission Diversity
Spatial Multiplexing
Examples
Advanced MIMO techniques

TM5121AEN03GLA2 ©2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.


44
Enhanced Multi-antenna Techniques in Downlink
 Extension up to 8-stream transmission
• Rel. 8 LTE supports up to 4-stream transmission, LTE-Advanced supports up to
8-stream transmission
 Satisfy the requirement for peak spectrum efficiency, i.e., 30 bps/Hz
 Specify additional reference signals (RS)
• Two RSs are specified in addition to Rel. 8 common RS (CRS)
- Channel state information RS (CSI-RS)
- UE-specific demodulation RS (DM-RS)
 UE-specific DM-RS, which is precoded, makes it possible to apply non-
codebook-based precoding
 UE-specific DM-RS will enable application of enhanced multi-user
beamforming such as zero forcing (ZF) for, e.g., 4-by-2 MIMO

CSI feedback

Max. 8 streams

Higher-order MIMO Enhanced


up to 8 streams MU-MIMO
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45
LTE-A DL MIMO

• Up to 8-stream transmission (8x2 MIMO)


• single user (SU)-MIMO up to 4-stream transmission
• Additional reference signals (RS):
• Channel state information RS (CSI-RS)
• UE-specific demodulation RS (DM-RS)

4 antenna ports

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46
Enhanced Multi-antenna Techniques in Uplink
 Introduction of single user (SU)-MIMO up to 4-stream transmission
• Whereas Rel. 8 LTE does not support SU-MIMO, LTE-Advanced supports up to
4-stream transmission
 Satisfy the requirement for peak spectrum efficiency, i.e., 15 bps/Hz
 Signal detection scheme with affinity to DFT-Spread OFDM for SU-MIMO
• Turbo serial interference canceller (SIC) is assumed to be used for eNB receivers
to achieve higher throughput performance for DFT-Spread OFDM
 Improve user throughput, while maintaining single-carrier based signal
transmission

Max. 4 streams

SU-MIMO up to 4 streams

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47
LTE-A UL MIMO

• UL transmit diversity for PUCCH


• Single user (SU)-MIMO up to 4-stream transmission (2x4)
• MU – MIMO supported

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48
LTE-A DM-RS

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49
LTE-A MBSFN subframe

• LTE-A can configure MBSFN subframes to schedule non MBSFN data


(PDSCH).

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