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Topic 3: Pavement Materials

Part 2
Objective of
asphalt mixture

of asphalt

Design of asphalt
concrete mixture
using Marshall
Mix Design

bitumen content.
 Bituminous mix has to be designed properly to obtain
optimum quality.
 Job Mix Formulae
 Carried out in the lab under controlled condition for each type
of mix.
 Plant Mix
 Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)
3.1 Objective of Asphalt Mixture

Develop an economical blend of aggregates and asphalt that meet design requirements.
3.2 Characteristic of Asphalt Concrete Mixture





Skid Resistance


Characteristic of asphalt concrete mixture :
 Durability – it is the resistance against abrasion and
 Stability – it is the resistance of road pavement to
 Void – bitumen mix should have sufficient voids in the total
compacted mix to provide space for expansion of bitumen
and also for slight amount of additional compaction under
traffic loading.
 Flexibility – this property of the mix measures the capability
of the surface in bending, without shearing and cracking.
 Skid resistance – this property of the bitumen mix is its
capacity against skidding.
 Workability – it is measure of ease with which a bituminous
mix can be laid and compacted. This property is a function of
the aggregate grading, shape of particles, texture of particles,
type of bitumen used, and bitumen content.
 Economic
Poorly – performing
asphaltic concrete road
surfacing is attributed to
one or a combination of the
following factors;
1. Poor or inappropriate
mix design.
2. Production of mix
different from what was
designed in the laboratory.
3. Improper production
4. Improper construction
3.3 Marshall Mix Design Method
Design procedure
1. Selection of aggregate to be employed the mix.
2. Selection of aggregate grading.
3. Determination of the proportion of each aggregate required to
develop the design grading.
4. Determination of the specific-gravity of the aggregate blend.
5. Determination of S.G. of the bitumen.
6. Make up trial specimens with varying bitumen contents.
7. Determination of the S.G of each compacted specimen.
8. Make stability test on the specimen.
9. Determination the percentage of voids in each paving
specimen and if the design method in use requires it,
calculate the VMA and percent voids filled with bitumen.
10. Selection of the optimum bitumen content from the
obtained data. (graph).
Lab Mix – Marshall Form

Drum Mix Plant
o Dry the aggregate
and blend it with
asphalt in a
continuous process
and in the same
piece of equipment.
Batch Plant
- Dry & heats the
aggregate, and then
in a separate mixer,
blend the aggregate
& asphalt one batch
at a time.
- produce HMA in
individual batches.
Premix Plantation
 Borneo Premix
Plant. Air Filter
 The only Premix
Plantation in Miri.
 Aggregate supplied
by Sin Yang Quarry.
 Premix Plant called
“Asphaltic Concrete
Mixture Plant”.
 Drum Mix Type.
 Can produce almost
75 tonne/hour.
Basin of Aggregate
• Three different
sizes of aggregate
were mixed in
the basin.
• The basin have
motor that have
3 different speed
(ratio) to release
the aggregates.
• These processes
are controlled by
operated control
Aggregate Conveyer Belt
Operation Control Room
Control Room
Burner Drum
• After being
mixed together,
the aggregate
were rolled in
the burner
• This roller burns
the temperature
of 150˚C
Bitumen Tank
a. Bitumen Tank
b. Bitumen Spray
c. Air Filter b
d. Water Flow to Dust
 After the aggregates had
burned – sprayed with a
bitumen liquid.
 Dust collector – to trap
the dust from being
release to the air.
 Water sprayed to the
roller – only clean dust
will release to the air.
Bitumen Spray/ Mixer Drum
a. Temperature
b. Premix that a
already done
c. Load Out

Premix transfer to
the lorry.

Load Out Conveyer

Premix Discharge
Control Cabin