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2. Summary of Recognized Training and Responsible
3. Highlights of the Detailed Accounts of the
Recognized Training and Responsible Experience
4. Professional Engineering Solutions to the Problems
Encountered and Practicing of Applications of
Engineering Theories
5. A Civil Engineer & Sri Lankan Society
6. A Civil Engineer & Government Departments –
Personal Point of View
7. Design Overview
8. Engineering Competency & Design
9. Design Practices in Sri Lanka – A Personal
10. Sustainable Development & Engineers
11. Sri Lanka Administration and Engineers
12. Conclusion
Presently I am serving as Divisional Irrigation Engineer,
Vavuniya since this January 2016. This is my third station
in the Irrigation Department. The last two positions were
ITI, Galgamuwa & Director of Irrigation Office, Vavuniya.

I entered to the Faculty of Engineering, University of

Peradeniya in January 2001, following successful
completion of the Advanced Level (G.C.E (A/L))
Examination in August 1999. I successfully completed four
years full time Engineering Course in 2005, specializing in
the field of Civil Engineering. I obtained my Bachelor of
the Science of Engineering degree (B.Sc- (Eng)) with
effect from 26th February 2005.
During my four years of Undergraduate period, I
underwent two Industrial Trainings: General and
Specialized in 2002 and 2003 respectively. The both
Trainings provided me good opportunities to get trained
at building construction sites.

Soon after the completion of Final Examination in

Engineering Part III, I got an appointment as an Instructor
at Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya.
Before I resigned from the post I had served about five
months in Geotechnical Laboratory.
In the next as a fresh graduate, I joined with a
Contractor (M/S V.V. Ramanathan Company (pvt)
Ltd. at Vavuniya in September, 2005 as a Site
Engineer in the construction of Vavuniya Study
Centre, Open University of Sri Lanka. Due to
abnormal situation prevailed in the country at that
time; I was unable to continue in that more than
three months.
But, within a short span of time I could make a
substantial progress starting from setting out of
Grid Lines to completion up to DPC and columns
up to first storey level. A similarity happened again
when I joined at District Secretariat, Kilinochchi in
November, 2005 as a Civil Engineer (On contract
basis).Before I left from the post, I could serve about
four months.
In March, 2006 I had an opportunity to join with an
International Non-Governmental Organization (INGO):
Medicos do Mundo – Portugal at Base Hospital – Point
Pedro, Jaffna as a Project Engineer on short term
contract basis. I had to shoulder huge responsibility of
the projects undertaken by this INGO before my
contract expired on 31st of July 2006.
Soon after this job, I grasped another opportunity with
another INGO: United Nations Office for Project
Services (UNOPS) at Jaffna as a Site Engineer. I had to
bear multi disciplinary responsibility until I resigned
from the post on 30th September 2007 as a Project
Engineer. I joined as a Site Engineer but left as a Project
I flew to Singapore in October-2007, believing that
foreign experience especially from developed
countries is too important for Engineers to get the
international level competency. Singapore provided
me an excellent opportunity to practice as a Civil &
Structural Engineer for the High Rise Building
Projects under the Professional Engineers
(Singapore) until I returned to Sri Lanka in
February, 2011.
After returning to Sri Lanka in 2011, I worked with
Squire Mech Engineering (Pvt) Ltd. & Department
of Buildings (Northern Province) at several major
projects in the capacities of Site Engineer & Project
Engineer (Deputy Project Manager) respectively
before I joined with Irrigation Department through
the appointment of Engineering Service board (ESB)
of Sri Lanka on 15th of May, 2012.
Since I joined the Irrigation Department, I was posted to
Irrigation Training Institute (ITI), Galgamuwa, where
Engineering Assistants of the Department are mould.
And from 15th January, 2013, I was given an additional
post of Additional Divisional Irrigation Engineer (Addl.
DIE), Galgamuwa. I continued in these two posts until I
was transferred to Office of the Director of Irrigation,
Vavuniya on 11th of February, 2015.

I served at DI’s Office Vavuniya until 10th of January 2016

before I took over Vavuniya Division.
2.Summary of Recognized Training and
Responsible Experience
2.1 Recognized Training prior to the Graduation (Vide Rule

Inclusive Dates
Place of
Position Under Whom
Work Duration
From To
Eng. V.Devarajan,
Department of
Buildings, Trainee
07th Oct,2002 28th Dec,2002 2.5
Northern Engineer Chief Engineer,
Division, Jaffna. Northern Division,
Buildings Dept, Jaffna.
Mr. D. Sriyantha I.
Construction Punchihewa, Site
Engineering Trainee Engineer, Municipal
29th Sep,2003 19th Dec,2003 2.5
Company (Pvt) Engineer Dispensary Site,
Ltd. Elvitigala Mawatha,
Inclusive Dates
Place of
Duration Position Under Whom
From To
Department of Dr. A.P.N.
Civil Somaratna, PhD.,
02nd 05th M.S., B.Sc(Eng).,
Engineering, 5.0 Instructor
Mar,2005 Aug,2005
University of Head, Department of
Peradeniya Civil Engineering
Mr. S.
District Thayaparasivam
15th 14th Civil
Secretariat, 4.0
Nov,2005 Mar,2006 Engineer District Engineer,
Eng . N.
Nations Office
for Project 31st 30th
15.0 Site Engineer B.Sc(Eng)., C.Eng.,
Services June,2006 Sept,2007
Senior Site Engineer,
UNOPS, Jaffna.
Inclusive Dates
Place of
Duration Position Under Whom
From To

Structural Er Chan Chee Choon

Castello 06th 28th
6.5 Design Professional
Consultant Mar,2008 Sep,2008
Engineer Engineer, Singapore

Eng. S.
Office of the Kumarathevan
Director of 11th 15th
6.0 Engineer B.Sc(Eng)., C.Eng.,
Irrigation, Feb,2015 Aug,2015
Vavuniya Director of
Irrigation, Vavuniya
Eng . N.
Nations Office
for Project 31st 30th
15.0 Site Engineer B.Sc(Eng)., C.Eng.,
Services June,2006 Sept,2007
Senior Site Engineer,
UNOPS, Jaffna.
Inclusive Dates
Place of
Duration Position Under Whom
From To
Eng. S.
Office of the Kumarathevan
Director of 11th B.Sc(Eng)., C.Eng.,
15th Aug,2015 6.0 Engineer
Irrigation, Feb,2015
(Designs) Director of
Irrigation, Vavuniya
Inclusive Dates
Place of Work Position Under Whom
From To
Er. Lee Mow Woo
Civil & Structural
Structural B.Sc.,M.Eng.,P.Eng.,
Consultants 27th
29th Design C.Eng.,M.I.E.S.,
No:28-14 18.0
Sep,2008 Mar,2010 Engineer M.I.E.M.,M.I.E.Aust.
(General) M.I.Struct.E.,
Plaza, 10
Accredited Checker
Anson Road
WRX Er. William Wu
221, Henderson Director
21st 10th
Road, No: 6.5 Civil Engineer B.Sc.,M.Eng., M.B.A.,
Jun,2010 Jan,2011
04-09 Henderson P.Eng.,
Building, C.Eng.,M.I.E.S.,
Singapore 159557 M.I.Struct.E.,
Inclusive Dates
Place of Work Position Under Whom
From To
Squire Mech
Engineering (Pvt)
Ltd. Engineers Mr. T. Ernest
& Contractors 04th 15th B.Sc., C.Eng
5.0 Site Engineer
No.135/1, Old May,2011 Oct,2011 Construction
Kottawa Road, Manager

Chief Engineer’s
Office, Department Eng. S.
Project Engineer
of Buildings 11th 14th Suntharakumar
6.0 (Deputy Project
(Northern Nov,2011 May,2012 B.Sc., C.Eng
Province), Chief Engineer
Inclusive Dates
Place of Work Position Under Whom
From To

Eng. A. Gunasekara
B.Sc(Eng)., C.Eng
15th 14th Irrigation
8.0 Director of Irrigation
May,2012 Jan,2013 Engineer
Training Institute
(ITI), Galgamuwa.
Irrigation Training
Eng. H.G.M.
B.Sc(Eng)., C.Eng
15th 10th Irrigation
25.0 Director of Irrigation,
Jan,2013 Feb,2015 Engineer
Irrigation Training
Institute (ITI),
Inclusive Dates
Place of Work Position Under Whom
From To

Divisional Additional Eng. Sunil Perera

Irrigation 15th 10th Divisional B.Sc(Eng)., C.Eng
Engineer’s Office, Jan,2013 Feb,2015 Irrigation Director of Irrigation,
Galgamuwa Engineer Kurunagella Range

Eng. S.
Office of the
Director of 15th 10th Irrigation
5.0 B.Sc(Eng)., C.Eng
Irrigation, Aug,2015 Jan,2016 Engineer
Director of Irrigation,

Office of the Eng. S.

Divisional Divisional Kumarathevan
Irrigation To Date 3.0 Irrigation B.Sc(Eng)., C.Eng
Engineer’s Office, Engineer Director of Irrigation,
Vavuniya Vavuniya
2.4 Duration Breakup of Recognized Training and Responsible
•Recognized Training prior to the Graduation
In Civil Engineering Construction : 5 Months

•Recognized Training after the Graduation

In Civil Engineering Construction : 18 Months
In Civil & Structural Engineering Design Works : 12.5 Months
In Teaching of Civil Engineering Subjects (as an Instructor) : 5 Months

•Responsible Experience
In Civil Engineering Construction : 44 Months
In Civil & Structural Engineering Design Works : 24.5 Months
In Other Works (Part time Trainer) : 33.0 Months
10 Years have been sacrificed for the learning Engineering
in the life.
3.2 Recognized Training Prior to Graduation
3.2.1 Industrial Training (General)
Organization: Department of Buildings (Central)
Project : Construction of Proposed Two Storey Main Post Office Complex at
KKS Road, Jaffna.
Position : Trainee Engineer
Duration : From 07th Oct, 2002 – To 28th Dec, 2002 (2.5 months)
Category : Construction
 In my first Industrial Training (General), I got an opportunity to get trained in a
construction of a two storey main Post Office building at Jaffna. It was a Design & Built
project implemented by Department of Buildings.

 Major portion of my training period engaged with the construction of first storey slab
while other works were going parallel.

 Site Engineer guided me to perform following works and then I had completed those to
the satisfaction of them.
3.2.2 Industrial Training (Specialized)

Organization : Engineering Construction Company (Pvt) Ltd

Project : Construction of Municipal Dispensary, Elvitigala Mawatha,
Position : Trainee Engineer
Duration : From 07th Oct, 2002 – To 28th Dec, 2002 (2.5 months)
Category : Construction

In my second Industrial Training (Specialized), I got an opportunity to get trained in a construcion

of a three storey Municipal Dispensary building at Elvitigala Mawatha, Colombo-08. I was under
guidance of the Contractor’s Site Engineer.

Major portion of my training period engaged with the construction of Columns and erection of
false works and form for first storey slab while other works were going parallel.

Site Engineer guided me to perform following works and then I had completed those to the
satisfaction of them.
3.3 Recognized Training after Graduation

3.3.1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya

Position : Instructor
Duration : From 02nd Mar, 2005 – To 05th Aug, 2005 (5 months)
Category : Teaching

During this period, I was demonstrating Soil Mechanics experiments such as Atterberg
Limit Tests, Permeability Tests for 4th semester undergraduates and few other experiments
for first semester under graduates. Also I had contributed to the Geotechnical Design

3.3.2 District Secretariat, Killinochchi

Position : Civil Engineer (On contract basis)
Duration : From 15th Nov, 2005 – To 14th Mar, 2006 (4 months)
Category : Construction
During this period, I was supervising many construction works under purview of District
Secretariat and I had performed following works assigned by the District Engineer.

3.3.3 United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS),

221, Temple Road, Nallur, Jaffna
Position : Site Engineer and then Project Engineer
Duration : From 31st June, 2006 – To 30th Sept, 2006 (15 months)
Category : Construction
During this period, I was getting guidance from a Senior Charted Engineer N.
Suntharamoorthy (Former Provincial Director of Buildings Department, Northern
Province) and under his valuable guidance I could play a significant role for successful
progress of the many projects. I made a significant contribution for the successful
progress and completion of following projects.
1.Proposed housing scheme (300 houses) for people affected by Tsunami at Uduththurai, Jaffna

2. Water and Sanitation Project for internally displaced people (IDPs) under emergency relief
– a collaborative project between Unicef and Unops; two prominent UN agencies
3. Construction of 3 Nos. of two storey school buildings at Point Pedro and Karaveddy:
For these projects I was posted as a Project Engineer for overall supervision of the works.
Followings were my key responsibility areas:

3.3.4 Castello Consultant,

Blk 3, 01 -10
Ang Mo Kio Industrial Park 2A,
Singapore 568050
Position : Structural Design Engineer
Duration : From 06th Mar, 2008 – To 28th Sept, 2008 (6.5 months)
Category : Structural Design
This was my ever first chance to work with structural design consultant as a Structural
Design Engineer under the guidance of Er. Chan Chee Choon, a Singapore Professional
Engineer (PE), and Qualified Person (QP) for structural works. I joined this consultants with
much expectation of qualifying in the field of structural design and my expectation became
substantially fulfilled as I worked hard. I used to work more than 12hrs in the office. I made
significant contribution to the following projects as Structural Design Engineer.

•Design of Temporary steel supports for erection of mega steel truss at 78, Shenton way.

•Structural inspection of buildings such as condominiums, Housing Development Board

(HDB) houses and preparation reports and making submission to Buildings Construction
Authority (BCA), Sigapore.

•Glass front façade design for Orchard Central commercial development – shopping centre
Design of 4 storey MSS head quarters at Dammam was an interesting project. The
Structural System was Reinforced Concrete Columns, Beams, & Slab with Pile foundation.

•Aluminum roof- covers design for Condominium development at Ocean Drive – southern
islands planning area.

•Design of 4 Storey MSS Head Quarters Building At Dammam, K.S.A.

9.4 m Long Cantilever
8 9 10
3rd Story / Roof

2.2 m Height RC Beam

RC Wall
2nd Floor – RC Floor

Con 1st Floor – RC Floor

bala Ground Floor - RC


Piling Foundation (Bored)

Structural Framing Layout of MSS Head Quarters Building, Dammam

Example Layout of Glass Facade
Example Layout of Glass Facade - Connections
3.3.4 Office of the Director of Irrigation,
P.O.Box No – 2,
Kandy Road,

Position : Irrigation Engineer

Duration : From 11th Feb, 2015 – To 15th Aug, 2015 (6.0 months)
Category : Design works

In this six month period, I involved in the following types of designs and Estimation.
•Design of Irrigation Canals (Hydraulics and Structural)
•Other various Canal Structures
•Design of Canal Trough made of steel truss for Irattaperiyakulam main canal across
spill way.
•Design of Concrete roads on steep slopes at Pavatkulam bund access road.
•Design of 3 storey building consist of Store, Library, and Conference hall at Office of the
Director of Irrigation, Vavuniya (Architectural and Structural design) – This is the
design works going to be submitted for my Professional Review with this my
experience report.
Figure 3.3.4: Photos of Reinforced Concrete Pavement in construction
3.4 Responsible Experience
3.4.1 Engineers Partnership,
Civil & Structural Consultants,
# 28 – 14 International Plaza,
10 Anson Road,
Singapore 079903
Position : Structural Design Engineer (General)
Duration : From 29th Sep, 2008 – To 27th Mar, 2010 (18.0 months)
Category : Structural Design

In this Civil & Structural Consultants I was working with the guidance of Er. Lee Mow
Woo, Professional Engineer (PE) and Accredit Checker (AC) Singapore. I made a
significant contribution for successful progress and completion of the following projects.

•Proposed new erection of 2- blocks 0f 39- storey condominium housing development (total
623 units), comprising of basement carparks, communal facilities and swimming pool on lot
16618k MK 18 at Bishan street 22 (Bishan planning area)
(1)(Project cost: 183 millions sing. Dollars)
•Proposed condominium development at Bedok Reservior road comprising 8 blocks of 15
storey residential flats (405 units) with basement car park, 1 swimming pool and ancillary
facilities on lot 6183v (PT) MK 28.
(1)(Project cost: 200 millions sing. Dollars)
•Proposed public housing development under design, build and sell scheme comprising
the erection of 4 blocks of 30 storey residential flats (578 units), 1 block of precinct
pavilion and 1 block multi -storey car park with electrical substation on lot 16738k MK
18 at Ang Mo Kio street 52, land parcel Ang Mo Kio PH 1.

•Proposed public housing development comprising the erection of 3 blocks of 40 storey

residential flat (total 480 units) with 1 basement carparks on lot 16852m MK 18 Bishan
PH1 at Bishan street 24 (Bishan planning area).

•Proposed public housing development comprising 7 blocks of 16 storey residential

flats (total 750 units) with basement car parks, communual facilities & precinct pavilion
at Pungol west contract 3 on lot 2132m Mukim 21 at Pungol place / Pungol field
(Pungol planning area).
Outline of the works I performed;
•Loading calculations.
•Frame analysis
•Pile design
•Column design
•Slab design
•Flat slab / plate design (using SAFE)
•Beam design ( Including Beams with openings & Non – uniform cross
•Retaining wall design
•Pile cap design
•Ecc for piles – overstress and pile cap checking
•Ecc remedial works (Tie beam, strengthening, enlargement etc…)
•Slope stability checking (Using Plaxis software)
•Moderate Steel Structures.
•Steel connections
•Preparation of calculations & structural drawings for BCA submission.
3.4.2 WRX Consultants,
Civil & Structural Consultants,
# 04-09 Henderson Building,
221 Henderson Road,
Singapore 159557
Position : Civil Engineer
Duration : From 21st Jun, 2010 – To 10th Jan, 2011 (6.5 months)
Category : Structural Design
During this period I had to handle a variety of design works under the supervision of
Er. William Wu Ruxin, Professional Engineer (PE) Singapore. Design works ranged for
a long list: Reinforced Concrete, Steel, Stainless, Glass, and Timber.
Layouts of Structural arrangements of TERS
“Design is not just what it looks like and feels like.
Design is how it works.”
3.4.3 Squiremech Engineering (pvt) Ltd,
Engineers & Contractors,
# 135/1, Old Kottawa Road,
Position : Site Engineer
Duration : From 04th May, 2011 – To 15th Oct, 2011 (5 months)
Category : Construction
I was appointed as a Site Engineer in the Construction of Elevated Water Tank with a
two storey office building and a staff quarters at Thondamanaru, Jaffna. The capacity
of the tank was 750 m3 and Total Contract Amount was 63.6 million Sri Lankan rupees.
My duty was the overall site in-charge. During this period I received guidance from
Eng. T. Ernest, Construction Manager.
Excavation of Water tank Foundation (Base) by Excavators
Few Construction stages of the water tank
3.4.4 Department of Buildings,
(Northern Province),
# 40 Racka Lane,
Position : Project Engineer (Deputy Project Manager)
Duration : From 11th Nov, 2011 – To 14th May, 2012 (6 months)
Category : Construction Management
During this period I had extremely involved in the following major projects and many
other medium and small scale projects under the direct guidance of
Eng. S. Suntarakumar, Chief Engineer.

•Construction of Proposed two storey building for Government Agent Bungalow,

Kilinochchi , Total Estimated Cost: 37.9 Million Sri Lankan Rupees
•Proposed three storey Chummary Quarters for District Secretariat Staff, Total Estimated
Cost: 20.2 Million Sri Lankan Rupees
•New District Secretariat Office building (3 Storey) at Killinochchi – Stage-1, Total
Estimated Cost: 215 Million Sri Lankan Rupees
Following photos were taken from these sites during the initial stage of construction:
Photos taken at initial stages of Construction of Bungalow/Quarters/Office
3.4.5 Irrigation Training Institute (ITI),
Irrigation Department

Position : Irrigation Engineer (IE)

Duration : From 15th May, 2012 – To 10th Feb, 2015 (32 months)
Category : Trainer (Lecturer)

During this period I had guidance from Eng. A. Gunasekara, Director of Irrigation
Training Institute (Galgamuwa), and then Eng. H.G.M. Kulasinghe, Director of
Irrigation – ITI. I had exercised following duties regularly to satisfaction of Director of
3.4.6 Divisional Irrigation Engineer’s Office,
Irrigation Department

Position : Additional Divisional Irrigation Engineer (Addl. DIE)

Duration : From 15th Jan, 2013 – To 10th Feb, 2015 (25 months)
Category : Design & Construction Management
During this I was given an additional post of Additional Divisional Engineer,
Galgamuwa. Here I was under the Guidance of Eng. B.A.S.S Perera, Director of
Irrigation, Kurunagella.
I performed following duties to assist the Divisional Irrigation Engineer;
•Design of Canal structures
•Site inspection
•Checking Estimates & Site verification

Following photos were taken at the construction site of a new Culvert (more 5m height)
which was by me across Palukadawella main canal. This new Culvert incorporates
horizontal bracing beams to control the effect of height. The following photos were
taken at this before and after construction.
Photos of Braced Culvert before and after construction
3.4.7 Office of the Director of Irrigation,
Irrigation Department
Position : Irrigation Engineer (IE)
Duration : From 15th Aug, 2015 – To date (5 months)
Category : Design, Construction Management, Procurement & Office

In this post, I received guidance from Eng. S. Kumarathevan, Director of Irrigation-

Vavuniya, to perform my duties satisfactorily.
3.5 Involvement in Charity Works as a Civil and Structural Engineer

I extensively, as much as I could, extend my professional service to the public out of my

duty bounded time. I had served as a mentor for the following construction of Churches
and Private houses in the invitation of Christian priest Fr. Balathas Brian of St. Mary’s
Church Poonakary.
Photos of houses constructed with my Consultancy
4.0 Professional Engineering Solutions to the Problems
Encountered and Practicing of Applications of Engineering

4.1 Rectification of Column Starter Bars on Footing at Stump Level

In 2005, when I was working with M/S V.V. Ramanathan (Pvt) Company Ltd, at the
construction Open University Study Centre in Vavuniya, Architect and Consultant made a
request to change the Orientation of a Column (225 X 300) that was placed at footing level as
shown below;


4 4

Setout Orientation
New Orientation
Then, I proposed to enlarge the Stump to accommodate the cranking of rebar and rebar
were bent to the required positions before Stump Concreting took place. Above the
enlarged Stump Kicker was set out as required and Column continued as wanted.

4.2 Rectification of missing Starter bar of Staircase Landing beam

In 2005, when I worked in District Secretariat- Killinochchi, during my site visit to

Construction of Circuit Bungalow I had found that Contractor made a mistake that in the
relevant columns, the starter bar for staircase landing beam was not provided. Then, I asked
the contractor’s proposed remedy for the mistake and his response was not appropriate. I
proposed to make Dowel bars from column as shown below and told them to proceed

Column 100 mm depth drilled

hole with bonding agent

4 T 12
4 T 16

Designed Starter Bar Dowel Bar Provided

4.3 Rectified of main rebar of Circular Column
Again at similar site mentioned in 4.2, I observed that circular column with only 4 main
bars. I immediately took action to be rectified and it was changed to 6 Nos.

4.4 Educated technical staff and workforce

In 2005, when I was in District Secretariat- Killinochchi, it was a big problem to find qualified
technical staff and trained skill workforce to execute works. It made me to follow the strategy
that “Give Training and Get Work done”. To educate them I opted to followings;
•Giving demonstration
•Showing photos / pictures / models etc
•Brought them to other places where skilled people are working
Following sketches are few examples for my reference of teaching them (Ex: Method of
using Poker vibrator for Concrete compaction)
How to use the Poker
4.5 Started to improve English Language Proficiency

In 2006, when I joined with an INGO- Medicos do Mundo – Portugal, it was very
challenging to me to manage with the foreign professional due to the language gap.
Anyhow within a short span of time, I could strategically improve my confidence in
English language and got comfortable state in the work. I never stop the strategy of
improving English, it is still continuing.

4.6 Learned to adapt to sudden vigorous changes mentally & physically

In the mid of 2006, it was a turning point in my career that I was appointed by UNOPS as
Site Engineer ( Overall Site In charge) for a huge project consists of 300 houses in Jaffna
peninsula at Uduththurai, a remote costal area. In the interview for this job, I was very
positive and confident which are two qualities made me got this offer. Even though I was
a young Engineer with not much experience, I took over the huge responsibility and
walked with confidence. During this period I had to encounter various local and foreign
people at various capacities.
4.7 Started to practice the method of “Learn and Do”

In 2007, it was another turning point in my career when I started working in Singapore. I got
opportunities to work with Civil and Structural Consultants as a Structural Design Engineer.
When working there, I had to manage with a variety of tasks connected with Structural and
Geotechnical Engineering. This compelled to know and learn new areas and specially soft-
wares used in design works. And eventually I became familiar with computer aided design
programmes such as STAAD-Pro, E-TABS, SAFE, and PROKON etc by self learning.

4.8 Gained the capability to handle massive design projects

In 2009, when I was working with Engineers Partnership (Singapore), one day I was loaded
with more than 300 Nos of beams to be designed in two days. But I couldn’t stay for 2nd day
since I had booked a flight ticket to visit to Sri Lanka. I was in a problem what to do & how to
do. And that time I was hit by a new idea of how to finish this task within a day that is only
left before my flight’s takeoff. All 300 beams were reduced into about 20 groups with similar
geometrical and loading conditions. Thus, I could pass details of 300 beams to the responsible
Draughtsman at the end of the day by just designing about 20 Nos of beams. These all details
got approved soon and sent to construction even without any correction in the design
calculations. This incident enhanced my design confidence and power for judgment.
4.9 Successfully defended a contractor’s case with Client

In 2010, when I was working with WRX Consultants (Singapore), one day I was given a
set of calculations and structural drawings to be analyzed for a severe debate between
contractor and client.

Client: As per contractor’s Professional Engineer’s design, the assumed load is not
matching with our requirement, and therefore design is insufficient. And thus, contractor
has to incur cost.

Contractor: Client failed to provide correct loading and thus, we are not responsible for
the mistake.
When I scrutinized the calculations and detailing, I could find that even the design
assumes that all connections are pinned, the detailing was made for rigid connections.
This was a store facility underneath the ground level. I repeated the analysis with the
increased loading and the rigid joints condition; it is found that the structure is in the safe
limit. The revised calculations with the explanation were sent to the client and eventually
client give-up his claim and showed the green signal.
4.10 Prevented an inappropriate remedial proposal and made it effectively

In 2010, when I was working with WRX Consultants (Singapore), I came across another
interesting case where the contractor has cut the Anchor bolts to flush with their Nuts
and Consultants made it a big issue and asked for remedial action. A proposal came with
the idea of welding between bolts and Nuts at flushing surface, but I rejected that
proposal saying it won’t produce the expected result and I proposed to weld between
base plate and bolts. The following diagrams describe what it is.

Steel Column

Base Plate Nut

Anchor Bolt

Bolt Top
Bolt cut off level
Nut top level
Welding Welding

Incorrect Correct

Remedial for Anchor bolts

4.11 Introduced two new columns to change the loading path to relax the Raft
In 2010, when I was working with same consultant mentioned in 4.10, in the design of a 2-
storey corner terrace house on Lot 2795 MK 24 at 01 Jalan Kesoma, it was found that Raft
foundation was under overstress.

Then I introduced 2 new columns strategically to change the loading such that overstress
could be relaxed. And the new analysis by Orion software reflected the favorable expected
4.12 Corrected incorrect bar bending procedure
In 2011, when I was working with Squire Mech Engineering (pvt) Ltd at construction of
elevated water tank (750 m3) in Thondamanaru, I observed that cracks formed in rebar (20 &
25 mm) while it was bent. Following sketch explains what happened there.

Bar bending Pin

Bar bent
Cracks appeared in

I inspected the bar bending table and bending procedures and found that the diameter of
the Pin was small, not matching with the size of bar to be bent. Then, I asked the bar-
bender to increase the Pin size. No more cracks observed after increasing the Pin diameter.

4.13 Made to remove rust on Reinforcement always before Concreting

In the above mentioned (4.12) site was located along the costal line. Formation of rust on
reinforcement was a fast process. Before concreting took place, I always took action to clean
up the rust formed on reinforcement.
4.14 Carried out onsite design to speed up the progress

In the construction site mentioned above in 4.12, if consultant (NW & DB) delayed to
response to our request (RFI), I designed and sent details for their approval. And in this
route, I could get required details comparatively fast.

4.15 Rejected the use of expired paint

In 2012, when I was with Building Department, Killinochi, I found at a site that expired
paint was being used. I asked them stop the work immediately and I informed the Chief
Engineer. Later contractor apologized that he doesn’t know about expiry date for paint
item. And I made sure that quality paint was painted.

4.16 Introduced Bracing for Culvert and saved about 50%

In 2014, when I was with Divisional Irrigation Engineer’s office, I had designed a culvert
with more than 5m height in Palukkadawela main canal. This has reduced the construction
cost immensely. Cost for the same to be constructed by Mass Concrete was about 4.5
million but cost for Reinforced Concrete Braced culvert was less than 2 million. My design
saved about 2 million.
4.17 Made an unrealistic estimate realistic
In 2015, when I was at Office of the Director of Irrigation- Vavuniya, I had received an estimate
for Gravel Road. The quantity of gravel had been calculated as follows;

Cross Section

Volume = Cross section area X Length

But I argue that it impossible to have a Rectangular Cross Section with the Gravel and
Section should be Trapezoidal as shown below.

Later it was amended as per my proposal.

4.18 Designed a box steel truss as a canal trough

In 2015, when I was at Office of the Director of Irrigation- Vavuniya, I was requested to find
a suitable solution for Irataperiyakulam main canal’s spillway crossing that was long
delayed because of unsuitable proposals.
Anyhow I could make my proposal in a short time period and design completed soon and
constructed faster. It issues water to more than 50 ac of paddy field. Long delayed problem

Constructed Steel box truss - Trough

4.19 Rejected irrational design of rigid pavement and made a standard design

In 2015, when I was at Office of the Director of Irrigation- Vavuniya, I received a design of
rigid pavement for checking. It had been proposed on Pavatkulam bund access road, a steep
slope. In their design two conflicting feature were incorporated; 1) Expansion Joints 2)
Provision of Keys

I had amended this design with Stiffener beams with pavement. Later my design was
followed and constructed.

Constructed Rigid Pavement

4.20 Designed a water tank with a single leg

In 2012, I had designed a house water tank with a single column. Space was constrained for
additional columns.

Constructed water tank with single Column

5. A Civil Engineer & Sri Lankan Society
In our society Engineers are mostly seen as people working only in large scale
projects such as high storey buildings, highways, water supply, irrigation
…etc. And they are paid in big scale. And only masons, carpenters, and
similar categories can provide solutions for the peoples’ daily problems.
This trend makes a big gap between Engineers and the Society and both are
loosing the mutual benefits.

Followings are few common problems I observed in private construction sites

where no qualified people supervised:
1. No cover for reinforcement - their answer was plastering would cover up

2. Inappropriate rebar arrangement and distribution – their answer was we

had done many similar works
3. Lapping length is not effective, it has to be hooked

4. Concrete mix needs to be added plenty of water because curing is not

necessary and compaction is easy
5. Cracks are natural and not due to their fault. And fault may be with the
cement used.
6. A Civil Engineer & Government
Departments – Personal Point of View
In Public service, only Engineers are the working against the power nature,
that is; for example when constructing a retaining wall they have to work
against soil pressure, water pressure, seepage, ……..

Management and Accounts are commence sense.

Engineers have the vector mind while others with the scalar mind.

Engineers are estimating not counting like others.

Engineers have tolerance and factor of safety but others haven’t

Only Engineers works are left out side to be seen by public & others kept on
papers and in books

Engineers work with approximations & judgments while others do not have
nothing to judge except engineers’ work.
Implementation of Engineering Expert Decisions is
Laborious because decision has to go through irrelevant
people to the subjects.
7. Design Overview

Proposed Three Storey Building Facilities at Office of the Director of

Irrigation, Vavuniya

This building was designed & detailed as per following code of practices:
1. British Standard Structural Use of Concrete (BS 8110: 1985)
2. British Standard Loading for Buildings (BS 6399: 1996)

This has Reinforced Concrete frame consisting of columns &beams. Columns

and beams are monolithically connected to form rigid frame. Each first and
second storey is formed by reinforced concrete slabs which is capable acting
as a diaphragm for transferring horizontal loads.

Beams and slabs are monolithically casted.

Individual pad footing foundations are provided.

Design Assumptions & Data:

1. Roof Imposed Load = 1.5 KN / sq.m

2. Roof Finishes = 1.0 KN / sq.m
3. Floor Imposed Load = 3.0 KN / sq.m
4. Staircsae = 4.0 KN / sq.m
5. Wind Speed = 40 m/s
6. Exposure Condition Internal – mild
External – severe
7. Soil Bearing Pressure = 200 KN / sq.m
8. Concrete Grade = 25 N/
9. Concrete Weight = 24 KN / cu.m
10. Rebar Yield strength = 460 N/
Design of Slab:

Slabs were designed as per simplified method set out in BS 8110 : 1085 Clause
In principle a slab should be designed to withstand the most unfavorable
arrangement of loads, however, slabs will normally be able to satisfy this
requirement if they are designed to resist the moments and forces arising
from the single load case of Maximum Design Load on all spans or panels.
Design of Beams:
Beams are as per simplified method set out in BS 8110: 1985 Clause
Simplification of Continuous Beam
As a more conservative alternative sub-frame arrangements, the moments and
shear forces in the beams at one level may also be obtained by considering the
beams as a continuous beams over the supports providing No Restraint to
Critical Loading Arrangement
A) All spans loaded with the maximium design ultimate 1.4 Gk + 1.6 Qk

B) Alternative spans loaded with maximum design ultimate load 1.4 Gk + 1.6
Qk and all other spans loaded with minimum design ultimate load 1.0 Gk
Design of Columns:
Design Method:
Columns are designed as braced columns since the lateral stability of the
whole structural frame is achieved by the masonry infill walls.
Axial Load:
Axial Load of the Column is calculated by area method.
Column Moments:
Column moments are estimated by moment distribution method (Sub frame
8. Engineering Competency & Design
It has gone beyond the alarming stage that Engineers do not practice
design works, instead they have a habit to adopt an old work to the
new works without considering adverse effects.

Engineers not giving important about Designs and going for an

estimate and construction can’t give a solution to the problem.

Ignoring proper design may lead to worse results.

Design practices should become Engineers’ routine works.

Why aren’t we not giving priority to the Research &

Development (R & D)works while other countries do ???
9. Design Practices in Sri Lanka
This is my personal experience recently about a tank bund renovation.
Estimate had been prepared without considering Correct design and
construction sequences.
Anyhow it was later rectified with correct design and construction sequences.
10. Sustainable Development & Engineers
Engineering Design & Planning are two major pillars of the
sustainable development.
11. Sri Lanka Administration & Engineers
Administration Service should be engineered
by Engineers, instead Engineering service can’t
be spoiled by other services.
12. Conclusion:
THANK YOU …..!!!