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Basic Indoctrination

Navigation
Key Elements
1) Definitions
2) Basic navigation instruments
3) Pilotage and dead reckoning
4) Navigational aids
5) Aircraft receivers and NAV systems
6) Basic en route instrument procedures
• VOR/DME
• ILS
• Terminal instrument approaches
• Circle to land
7) Navigation (Class I and II) IFR Navigation using GPS/WASS
RNAV Class I Navigation in US Class A Airspace using Area or
Long Range Navigation Systems.
8) RNAV 1 DPs and STARS operations.
Navigation

DEFINITIONS
Navigation – Class 1
Class I navigation requires the aircraft’s position
be “reliably fixed” at least once each hour.

“Reliably fixed” means:


• Station passage of a VOR, VORTAC or NDB.
• A VOR/DME, NDB/DME, VOR intersection,
NDB intersection or VOR/NDB intersection,
provided course guidance is available
Navigation - Class II
Operations conducted on any segment which
takes place outside the usable range of
standard navigation facilities (VOR, VOR/DME,
NDB). These operations normally involve using
long range navigation systems (INS) in areas
approved by Op Specs. These areas contain
route segments that exceed the range of
airways navigational facilities.
Class II Requirements
• Prior to all Class II navigation flights,
Crewmembers must perform a full alignment
of the navigation system.
• A Navigation accuracy check must be
accomplished prior to Class II airspace.
Navigation

BASIC NAVIGATION INSTRUMENTS


Non-directional Radio Beacon (NDB) &
Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)
Operational Errors of ADF
Common pilot-induced errors associated with ADF navigation include

• Improper Tuning & Station • Failure to maintain selected


Identification headings
• Malfunctions of the RMI • Failure to understand ADF
• Dependence on “Homing” Limitations
• Poor Orientation • Over-controlling track
• Careless Intercept Angles corrections
• Over/Undershooting • Failure to keep the heading
predetermined Magnetic indicator set / Magnetic
Bearings Compass
NDB Erroneous Bearing
Information

• Factors which will


cause erroneous
readings include:
– Lightning
– Precipitation Static
– Distant Stations
VHF Omni-Directional Range (VOR)

*The accuracy of course alignment of the VOR is excellent,


being generally plus or minus 1 degree
IAL Information

ENC Information
Line of Sight Signal Transmission
VOR Station Service Volumes
High Altitude VOR Terminal & Low Altitude VOR
VOR Accuracy
Function of VOR
VOR Operational Errors
Typical pilot-induced errors include:
1. Careless tuning and identification of station.
2. Failure to check receiver for
accuracy/sensitivity.
3. Turning in the wrong direction during an
orientation.

to include….
Magnetic Compass
Navigation

INDUCED ERRORS ASSOCIATED


WITH THE MAGNETIC COMPASS
Deviation
The magnets in a compass align with any
magnetic field.

To find the true course that is being flown when the compass course is known:
Compass Course ± Deviation = Magnetic Course ± Variation = True Course
Northerly Turning Error
The Effects of Acceleration Error.
Navigation

PILOTAGE & DEAD RECKONING


Pilotage - Navigation by visual reference to
landmarks.
• Dead reckoning - Navigation of an
airplane solely by means of computations
based on airspeed, course, heading, wind
direction and speed, groundspeed, and
elapsed time.
NAVIGATION

NAVIGATIONAL AIDS
Types of
NAVAIDs

VOR
NDB
DME
TACAN
Distance Measuring
Equipment (DME)
• Distance measuring
equipment (DME) consists of
an ultra high frequency (UHF)
navigational aid with
VOR/DMEs and VORTACs.
Accuracy
Area Navigation (RNAV)
• Area navigation (RNAV) equipment includes
VOR/DME, LORAN, GPS, and inertial
navigation systems (INS).
VOR/DME RNAV
“In its simplest form, VOR/DME RNAV allows the pilot to
electronically move VORTACs around to more
convenient locations.”
To utilize the unit’s RNAV capability, the pilot
selects and establishes a waypoint or a series
of waypoints to define a course
Loran-C Navigation

“LORAN-C absolute accuracy is excellent—


position errors are typically less than .25 NM”
Global Navigation Satellite System
(GNSS)
• Three GNSSs exist today:
• The GPS, a United States system;
• The Russian GNSS (GLONASS); and
• The Galileo, a European system.
“The GPS is a satellite-based radio navigation system. Its
RNAV guidance is worldwide in scope. There are no symbols
for GPS on aeronautical charts as it is a space-based system
with global coverage”
Navigation

BASIC EN-ROUTE INSTRUMENT


PROCEDURES
ILS
• Notwithstanding current & emerging RNAV technology, the ILS is the most
precise and accurate approach NAVAID currently in use throughout the
NAS.

• As with all approaches, the primary navigation responsibility falls upon the
pilot in command
TERMINAL INSTRUMENT APPROACHES
(TERPS)
TERPS criteria have been established for the
following Instrument Procedures:

 Precision Approach (PAR, ILS, MLS),


 Non-Precision Approach (VOR, TACAN, LNAV,
NDB, ASR),
 Approach with Vertical Guidance (LDA, LPV,
VNAV),
 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and for
 Departure Procedures (DP).
CIRCLE TO LAND
Navigation (Class I and II) IFR
Navigation using GPS/WASS RNAV
• WASS / Wide Area Augmentation System
Class I Navigation in US Class A
Airspace using Area or Long Range Navigation Systems

Area navigation (RNAV) equipment includes:

VOR/DME
LORAN
GPS
AND Inertial Navigation Systems
VOR/DME RNAV
VOR/DME RNAV
LORAN
There are two types of accuracy that must be
addressed in any discussion of LORAN accuracy

1 – Repeatable Accuracy

2 – Absolute Accuracy
RNAV 1 DPs and STARS operations

Ops Spec B035

Ops Spec C063


RNAV 1 DPs and STARS operations.
• Non-RNAV DP. Established for aircraft equipped with conventional
avionics using ground-based NAVAIDs. These DPs may also be
designed using dead reckoning navigation. A flight management
system (FMS) may be used to fly a non-RNAV DP if the FMS unit
accepts inputs from conventional avionics sources such as DME,
VOR, and LOC. These inputs include radio tuning and may be
applied to a navigation solution one at a time or in combination.
Some FMSs provide for the detection and isolation of faulty
navigation information.

• RNAV DP. Established for aircraft equipped with RNAV avionics;


e.g., GPS, VOR/DME, DME/DME, etc. Automated vertical navigation
is not required, and all RNAV procedures not requiring GPS must be
annotated with the note: “RADAR REQUIRED.” Prior to using GPS for
RNAV departures, approach RAIM availability should be checked for
that location with the navigation receiver or a Flight Service Station.
AC 90-100A

U.S. Terminal and En Route


Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations

http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/list/AC%2090-100A/$FILE/AC%2090-100A.pdf