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Motor-motor tak

serempak satu fase


Single Phase and Special
Purpose Motors
• Two major types of a single phase motors :
– The universal motors
– Single phase motors.
• Does not produce a rotating magnetic field
• The magnetic field produced remains
stationary in position and pulse with time
• Due to no rotating magnetic field,
conventional induction motor cannot
function, then it need special designs.
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The Universal Motor
Perhaps, the simplest method to the design of a
motor operated on a single phase ac power
source is to take a series dc motor and run it from
an ac power supply.
ind  I A

Fig. Equivalent circuit of an universal motor


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• The induced torque of a dc motor is given by :
Tind  KIA
• If :
– The polarity of voltage applied to a shunt or a
series dc motor is reversed :
• The direction of field flux and armature current are
reversed

• Induced torque produced is still in the same direction

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• Therefore, it is possible to have an
unidirectional torque when a series dc motor
is connected to an ac power supply
• In order a series dc motor to function
effectively, its field poles and stator frame
must be completely laminated, otherwise the
losses would be enormous.
• The motor is called universal motor because it
can run from either an ac or a dc source.
• When the motor is running from an ac source,

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the commutation will be much poorer than it
would be with a dc source

extra sparking happens at the brushes due to


transformer action inducing voltages in the
coils undergoing commutation.

Can shorten brushes life and produce radio


frequency interference

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Fig. Comparison of the torque-speed
characteristic of a universal motor
when operating from ac and dc power
source.
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Application of Universal Motors
• The universal motor is not proper for constant speed
application due to sharply drooping characteristic of a dc
series motor
• advantages
– Compact
– More torque/amper than other single phase motors
• Therefore it is important used for light weight and high
torque
• Example :
– Vacuum cleaner motor
– Drill
– Similar portable tools
– Kitchen appliances

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• The best way to control the speed of universal
motor is by varying the rms input voltage. The
higher the rms input voltage, the greater the
resulting speed of the motor, see Fig 3
• The average voltage applied to such a motor is
varied with one of the SCR or TRIAC circuits.
To such speed control circuits are shown in
Figure 10.4

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Fig 3. The effect of changing terminal voltage
of a universal motor

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Introduction to single phase
induction motors
• A common single phase motor is the single phase
version of the induction motor
• An induction motor with a squirrel cage rotor and
a single phase stator is shown in Figure 10.5
• Suffering a severe handicap :
– Magnetic field doesnot rotate due to only one phase
winding in the stator.
– there is no relative motion between the stator field
and the bars of the rotor and there is no induced
voltage due to relative motion in the rotor, no rotor
current and no starting torque

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• A voltage is induced in the rotor bars by
transformer action (dφ/dt), and since the bars
are short ciruited, then short circuit current
flows in the rotor. However this magnetic field
is lined up with the stator magnetic field, and
it produces no net torque on the rotor :

• Tind  kBRxBS  kBRBS sin 


 kBRBS sin 180  0

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• At stall condition, the motors like a
transformer with a short-circuited secondary
winding, Fig. 10.6
• A single phase induction motor has no
intrinsic torque, it is a serious impediment to
early development of induction motor.
• However, once the rotor begins to run, an
induced torque will be produced in it.

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Starting single phase
• Three major starting technique :
– Split phase windings
– Capacitor-type winding
– Shaded stator pole

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Split phase winding

Fig 10.14 a) Split-phase induction motor


b) the current in the motor starting condition
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• A split-phase motor is a single-phase induction
motor with two stator windings :
– a main stator winding
– an auxilliary starting winding
which are set 90 electrical degree apart along the
stator of the motor, Fig.10.14 and Fig.10.15.
• The auxiliary winding design to be switched
out of the circuit using a centrifugal switch at
some set speed.

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Figure 10.15
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Fig. 10.15
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• The auxilliary winding is designed to have higher
resistance/reactance ratio than the main winding
so making the current in the auxilliary winding
leads the current in the main winding, then the
magnetic field of it, Ba, peaks before the magnetic
field of main winding, Bm, there is a net
counterclock wise rotation in the magnetic field.
The result makes the motor rotating.
• Split phase motors have :
– Moderate starting torque
– A fairly low starting current.
• Example : fans, blowers, centrifugals pumps

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• The direction of rotation of the motor can be
reversed by changing the space angle of the
magnetic field from 90 degree ahead to 90
degree behind by switching the connections of
the auxilliary winding.

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Capacitor-Start Motors
• For some applications, the starting torque
supplied by a split phase motor is insufficient
to start the load on a motor’s shaft.

Capacitor-start motor may be used


• A capacitor is placed in series with the
auxilliary winding of the motor.
• By proper selection of the capacitor size,
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• The magnetomotive force of the starting
current in the auxilliary winding can be made
adjusted to be equal to the magnetomotive
force of the current in the main winding, and
the phase angle can be made lead the current
in the main winding by 90 degree. It will be
obtained a single uniform rotating stator
magnetic field and the motor behave just as
though it were starting from a three phase
power source.
• The starting torque can be more than 300 % of
it’s rated value, Fig. 10.18)
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Permanent Split-Capacitors and Capacitor-
Start, Capacitor-Run Motors

• The starting capacitor does such a good job of


improving the torque-speed characteristic of an
induction motor that an auxiliary winding with a
smaller capacitor is sometimes left permanently in the
motor circuit.
• If the capacitor’s value is chosen correctly, such a
motor will have perfectly a uniform rotating magnetic
field at some specific load, and it behave like a three
phase induction motor at that point. Such design is
called a permanent split capacitor or capacitor-start-
and-run-motor, Fig.10.20
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Fig. 10.20
A permanent
split-capacitor
induction
motor.

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• Performance of Permanent split-capacitor
compared to capacitor start induction motor:
– Simpler then capacitor start motor, no starting
switch is needed
– More efficient and higher p.f at normal load
– A smoother torque

than ordinary single-phase induction motors


However :
• Lower starting torque

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Fig.10.21
A capacitor
start,
capacitor-run
induction
motor

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Shaded-Pole Motors
• A shaded-Pole induction motor is an
induction motor with only a main winding
• Instead of having auxilliary winding, it has
salient pole, and one portion of each pole is
surrounded by short circuited coil called a
shaded coil, Fig 10.22
• When a pole flux varies, it induces a voltage
and current in the shading coils, which
opposes the original change of flux.

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• Shaded pole produces less starting torque
• Much less efficient than others
• Much higher slip than others
Such pole is only used in :
– Very small motors (1/20 hp and less) with very low
starting torque requirements
– Shaded pole motors is the cheapest design

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Comparison of Single Phase Induction
Motors
Single phase induction motors is ranked from best
to worst in terms of their starting and running
characteristics as follows :
1. Capacitor-start, capacitor-run motor
2. Capacitor-start motor
3. permanent split-capacitor motor
4. split-phase motor
5. shaded-pole motor

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Naturally,
• The best motor is also the most expensive
• The worst motor is the least expensive

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Speed Control of Single Phase
Induction Motor
In general, the speed of single motor may be
controlled in the same manner as the speed of
polyphase induction motor
For squirrel cage motor the following technique are
possible :
1. Vary the stator frequency
2. Change the number of poles
3. Change the applied terminal voltage

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The voltage applied to the motor can be varied using one
of three ways :
1. An autotransformer may be used to continually adjust
the line voltage. This is the most expensive method
used only when very smooth speed control is needed
2. An SCR or TRIAC is used to reduce the rms voltage
applied to motor by ac phase control. This approach
chops up the ac waveform. But it increases the
motor’s noise and vibration. Cheaper than
autotransformer and more common.
3. A resistor may be inserted in series with the motor
stator’s circuit. The cheapest, but big power loss in
the resistor, power efficiency is reduced.

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• Other technique is using the stator winding of
the motor as the autotransformer by
providing some taps as shown in Fig.10.25

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• When full voltage is applied to the main
winding, the induction motor operates
normally
• When full voltage is applied to half of the
main winding, double of voltage is applied to
the main winding, the result is the higher the
speed of motor for a given load
• The smaller the fraction of the total coil that
the line voltage is applied, the greater the
total voltage will be across the whole winding
and the higher the speed of the motor,
Fig.10.26
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• This is the standard approach for controlling
the speed of single-phase motors in many
applications such as fans, blower.
• The advantage :
– Quite inexpensive because it needs only taps on
the main motor winding and ordinary
multiposition switch.
– Doesnot consume power as series resistance
would

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