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Department of Mechanical Alandi (D), Pune,

Engineering India

Engineering Metallurgy

Dr. Bharat S. Padekar
(PhD IIT Bombay, India & Monash University, Australia)
• System-Part of the universe under study
• Phase- Homogeneous, physically distinct and
mechanically separable part of the system
• Variable- a particular phase exist under various
conditions of temperature, pressure and
concentration– these are called as variable
• Component- elements present in the system
• Alloy- mixture of two or more elements having
metallic properties.
Why Alloys
To impart
• Strength
• Toughness
• Machinability
• Formability / Ductility
• Creep resistance
• Fatigue resistance
• Corrosion Resistance

• Study of equilibrium of phases at different

variables is essential
Mechanical Equilibrium

Stable equilibrium exists when the object is in its lowest energy condition;
metastable equilibrium exists when additional energy must be introduced before
the object can reach true stability; unstable equilibrium exists when no additional
energy is needed before reaching metastability or stability
Pressure Temperature phase diagram of

For alloys we consider pressure as atmospheric and study

the phases

This solubility limit of sugar (C12H22O11) in

water depends on the temperature of the water
Solid solutions
two types:
Hume –Rother’s Rule of solid solubility
• Atomic sizes of solute and solvent differ by less
than 15%.
• Chemical affinity factor
• Relative valency factor (lower valency metal is
having good solubility in higher valency metal)
• Crystal structure factor (Same crystal structure
have greater solubility)
Gibbs Rule

• P = Number of phase
• C = Number of components
• F = Number of Degrees of Freedom
(temperature and pressure)
In metallurgical and materials engineering,
pressure is maintained at one atmosphere and
the Gibbs Phase Rule reduces to
Binary Phase Diagram

Temperature and Composition is freedom (Pressure is atmospheric)

Pb-Sn Binary Phase Diagram

Melting point of Pb = 327 °C, Sn = 232 °C

Ternary Phase Diagram Al-Mg-Zn
AZ91E (Magnesium alloy)
Mg17 Al12

Mg Al
Mg Phase on grain boundary

• Mg – solvent (Base metal)

• Al - Solute
Thank You