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ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Chapter 3: Temperatures in Metal Cutting


During the cutting of metal, high temperatures are
generated in the region of the tool cutting edge.
100
These temperatures have a controlling influence on the 70
rate of wear of the cutting tool and on the friction 50
30
between the chip and tool. 20

Tool life, t (min)


10
Figure 3.1 shows the relationship between tool life, the 7
5
determination of which is discussed in Chapter 4. 3
2
1
3.1 HEAT GENERATION IN METAL 0.7
0.5
CUTTING 0.3
0.2
It has been stated earlier that the rate of energy 0.1
consumption during machining 𝑃𝑚 is given by 1000 1600
Tool temperature (deg K)
𝑃𝑚 = 𝐹𝑐 𝑣 (3.1)
FIGURE 3.1 Experimental tool life and tool temperature results
where 𝐹𝑐 = cutting component of the resultant force for machining heat-resistant steel with a P10 carbide tool.
v = cutting speed
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

Elastic deformation: energy required for the operation is = Heat


generation Chip
stored in the material as strain energy, no heat generated.
Plastic deformation: most energy used is converted into
heat. A C
Tool
In metal cutting, the material is subjected to extremely
B
high strains: Workpiece D
 Elastic deformation forms a very small proportion of Primary deformation Secondary
the total deformation. zone deformation zone
 It is assumed that all the energy is converted into heat. FIGURE 3.2 Generation of heat in orthogonal cutting.
Conversion of energy into heat occurs in 2 principal Where
regions of plastic deformation (Figure 3.2): 𝑃𝑠 = Rate of heat generation in the primary
1) Primary deformation zone (Shear zone), AB deformation zone (shear-zone heat rate)
2) Secondary deformation zone, BC 𝑃𝑓 = Rate of heat generation in the secondly
If the cutting tool is not perfectly sharp, deformation zone (frictional heat rate) = 𝐹𝑓 𝑣0
3) 3rd heat source BD presents due to friction between the 𝐹𝑓 = Frictional force on the tool face
tool and the new workpiece surface (usually small 𝑣0 = Velocity of chip flow = 𝑣𝑟𝑐
unless the tool is severely worn).
Thus If 𝑃𝑓 and 𝑃𝑚 are known, 𝑃𝑠 may be obtained from Eq. (3.2).
𝑃𝑚 = 𝑃𝑠 + 𝑃𝑓 (3.2) 3-2
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

3.2 HEAT TRANSFER IN A MOVING B(𝑥, 𝑦 + 𝛿𝑦) C(𝑥 + 𝛿𝑥, 𝑦 + 𝛿𝑦)


𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝜃
MATERIAL 𝜃+ y 𝜃+ y + x
y 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥
Consider the element ABCD (Figure 3.3), which has unit
thickness and through which the material flows in the x 𝜃 = temperature
direction.
Heat is transferred across the boundaries AB and CD by y Velocity of
 conduction because the temperature gradients in the x material v
direction, and x D(𝑥 + x, y)
 transportation because of the flow of heated material A(x, y) 𝜕𝜃
𝜃+ 𝛿𝑥
across these boundaries. 𝜃 𝜕𝑥
x
Across AB and CD, heat can only be transferred by
FIGURE 3.3 Element through which heated material flows.
conduction because of there is no flow of material across
these boundaries. 𝑘 = thermal conductivity
If the net heat flow into the element is zero (no heating 𝑐 = specific heat capacity
within the element), then ρ = density
𝑣 = velocity of the material relative to the heat source
𝜕 2 𝜃 𝜕 2 𝜃 𝑅 𝜕𝜃
+ − =0 (3.3) In metal cutting, R = ρcv𝑎𝑐 /k, and
𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑥 2 𝑎 𝜕𝑥
𝑣 = cutting velocity
where R = thermal number = ρcva/k, and 𝜃 = temperature 𝑎𝑐 = undeformed chip thickness 3-3
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

Derivation of 1-D Heat Transfer Equation


By definition, the heat flow through a plate is 
Thermal Potential Difference x  𝑞𝑔𝑒𝑛 = 𝑞𝐴𝑑𝑥

Heat Flow = A
Thermal Resistance T1 𝑞𝑥 
T2 
That is q
𝑞𝑥+𝑑𝑥
𝑘𝐴 𝑇2 − 𝑇1 𝑇2 − 𝑇1 
𝑞=− =− 
∆𝑥 ∆𝑥
𝑘𝐴 x 𝑞𝑖𝑛
𝜕𝑇 dx
𝜕𝑇
or 𝑞 = −𝑘𝐴 (𝑎)  𝑞𝑥 = −𝑘𝐴
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥
where A = area  𝑞𝑔𝑒𝑛 = 𝑞𝐴𝑑𝑥

k = conductivity = 𝑘0 1 + 𝛽 𝑇
𝜕𝑇
Assume that the heat flow through the material (see the  𝑞𝑖𝑛 = 𝜌𝑐𝐴 𝑑𝑥
𝜕𝜏
figure) is equilibrium:
𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇
 𝑞𝑥+𝑑𝑥 = −𝑘𝐴 ቤ = −𝐴 𝑘 + 𝑘 𝑑𝑥
 Energy conducted  Heat generated 𝜕𝑥 𝑥 + 𝑑𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥
+
in the left face within the element
Where 𝜌 = density
 change in  Energy conducted c = specific heat of the material
= +
internal energy out the right face 𝑞=
ሶ energy generated per volume 3-4
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

Since the heat flow is balanced (+ = +), thus For the same conductivity, we have:
𝜕𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝑞ሶ 𝜌𝑐 𝜕𝑇
−𝑘𝐴 + 𝑞𝐴𝑑𝑥
ሶ 2𝐷: + + = (𝑓)
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑦 2 𝑘 𝑘 𝜕𝜏
𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇
= 𝜌𝑐𝐴 𝑑𝑥 − 𝐴 𝑘 + 𝑘 𝑑𝑥
𝜕𝜏 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝑞ሶ 𝜌𝑐 𝜕𝑇
3𝐷: + + + = (𝑔)
𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑧 2 𝑘 𝑘 𝜕𝜏
The above 1D equation can be simplified to
𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇 In the metal cutting operation, there is no heat generated
𝑘 + 𝑞ሶ = 𝜌𝑐 (𝑏)
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝜏 within the element (𝑞=0).
ሶ Thus these equations become:
or
𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜌𝑐 𝜕𝑇
𝜕2𝑇 𝜕𝑇 2𝐷: + − =0 (ℎ)
𝑘 + 𝑞ሶ = 𝜌𝑐 (𝑐) 𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑦 2 𝑘 𝜕𝜏
𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝜏
for the same thermal conductivity k. 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜌𝑐 𝜕𝑇
3𝐷: + + − =0 (𝑖)
𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑧 2 𝑘 𝜕𝜏
Similarly, 2D and 3D cases can also be obtained:
𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇 In the textbook, the 2D case is considered:
2𝐷: 𝑘 + 𝑘 + 𝑞ሶ = 𝜌𝑐 (𝑑)
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝜏
𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 2 𝜃 𝜕 2 𝜃 𝑅 𝜕𝜃
3𝐷: 𝑘 + 𝑘 + 𝑘 + − =0 (3.3)
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑥 2 𝑎𝑐 𝜕𝑥
𝜕𝑇
+𝑞ሶ = 𝜌𝑐 (𝑒) 3-5
𝜕𝜏
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

Compare Eq. (3.3.) and Eq. (h), and substitute R = It is useful to consider the solution of this equation for a
ρcv𝑎𝑐 /k, we get: 1-D case, and this 1-D case is depicted in Figure 3.4.
𝑅 𝜌𝑐 ρcv𝑎𝑐 ρcv Velocity of Heat source P
= = = (𝑗) material v Unit
𝑎𝑐 𝑘 𝑎𝑐 𝑘 𝑘 thickness
where a
𝑘 = thermal conductivity
𝑐 = specific heat capacity 𝜃 = 𝜃𝑠
ρ = density
𝑣 = cutting velocity 𝜃 = 𝜃𝑠 𝑒 𝑅𝑥/𝑎 Temperature
𝑎𝑐 = undeformed chip thickness distribution

Thus the thermal equation becomes x x=0 x


FIGURE 3.4 Temperature distribution in a fast-moving
𝜕 2 𝜃 𝜕 2 𝜃 ρcv 𝜕𝜃 material for a one-dimensional case, where 𝛩𝑠 = P/cv𝑎.
+ − =0 (3.3𝑎)
𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑥 2 𝑘 𝜕𝑥
There is no general closed-form solution for Eq. (3.3) or It can be seen that the temperature at the heat source rises
Eq. (3.3a), but one may use numerical algorithms to solve up very rapidly, reaches its maximum value then becomes
the equation, such as steady.
 finite element method
 finite difference method 3-6
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

𝛷𝑐
3.3 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN 680
METAL CUTTING
Figure 3.5 shows an experimentally determined 𝑎0 = 0.036 in.
(0.91 mm)
temperature distribution during orthogonal metal cutting.
670 730
This is a typical temperature distribution for orthogonal
chip formulation.
750
Point x is moving toward the cutting tool, approaches and Temperatures
o
passes through the primary deformation zone, it is heated in C
until leaves the zone and is carried away within the chip. 𝑥
𝛷𝑡
Point y passes both deformation zones, and it is heated
until it has left the region of secondary deformation zone. 𝑦
𝑧
 It is then cooled as the heat is conducted into the chip
𝑎𝑐 = 0.024 in. 𝛷𝑤
which achieves a uniform temperature throughout. (0.61 mm)
 Thus the maximum temperature occurs along the tool
FIGURE 3.5 Temperature distribution in workpiece and chip
face some distance from the cutting edge.
during orthogonal cutting (obtained from an infrared
Point z remaining in the workpiece is heated by the photograph) for free-cutting mild steel where the cutting speed
conduction of heat from the primary deformation zone. is 75 ft/min (0.38 m/s) , the width of cut is 0.25 in. (6.35 mm),
Some heat is conducted from the secondary deformation the working nmal rake is 30 degrees, and the workpiece
temperature is 611 OC.
zone into the body of the tool. 3-7
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

Thus Eq. (3.5) shows that if 𝛤 is known for a given set of


𝑃𝑚 = 𝚽𝑐 + 𝚽𝑤 + 𝚽𝑡 (3.4) cutting conditions, θ𝑠 may be determined.
where 𝑃𝑚 = total rate of heat generation Several theoretical analyses of the temperature in the
𝚽𝑐 = rate of heat transportation by the chip workpiece and shear zone can be found in the literature.
𝚽𝑤 = rate of heat conduction into the workpiece Figure 3.6 shows the idealized model of cutting process.
𝚽𝑡 = rate of heat conduction into the tool
The chip near the tool is flowing rapidly, it has a much
= Insulated surface
greater heat removal rate than the tool. So 𝚽𝑡 is small.

3.3.1 Temperatures in the Primary Zone


Plane
Denote heat
sources
𝑃𝑠 = the rate of heat generation in the primary zone 𝐶
𝛾𝑛𝑒
𝛤 = the fraction of 𝑃𝑠 conducted into the workpiece A
The remainder [1 – 𝛤] 𝑃𝑠 is transported with the chip. a𝑐 l𝑓
𝜙
𝐵
The average temperature rise θ𝑠 of the material passing
through the primary deformation zone is give by FIGURE 3.6 Idealized model of cutting process
employed in theoretical work on cutting temperatures.
[1 – 𝛤] 𝑃𝑠
θ𝑠 = (3.5)
𝜌𝑐𝑣𝑎𝑐 𝑎𝑤
where a𝑤 = the width of cut 3-8
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

The idealized model is assumed that the primary This theoretical relationship between 𝛤 and R tan 𝜙 is
deformation zone could be regarded as compared with experimental data un Figure 3.7, where it
 a plane heat source of uniform strength is seen that the theory has slightly underestimated results
 no heat was lost from the free surfaces of the at high values of R tan 𝜙 (i.e., at high speeds and feeds).
workpiece and ship
 the thermal properties of the work material were 0.7
constant and independent of temperature Weiner2 (theoretical)
Nakayama4 (experimental)
0.6 Brass (𝜙=10o)
Steel (𝜙=20o)
It is assumed that no heat was conducted in the material 0.5 Steel (𝜙=30o)
in the direction of it its motion (x), the Eq. (3.3) can be 0.4
rewritten as

𝛤
0.3
𝜕 2 𝜃 𝑅 𝜕𝜃
− =0 (3.6) 0.2
𝜕𝑦 2 𝑎 𝜕𝑥
0.1
Eq. (3.6) can be solved within the stipulated boundary 0
0.3 1.0 10 30
conditions for the workpiece. R tan 𝜙
An equation expressing 𝛤 (the proportion of 𝑃𝑠 FIGURE 3.7 Effect of Rtan 𝜙 on division of shear-zone heat
conducted into the workpiece) is a unique function of between chip and workpiece, where 𝛤 = the proportion of
Rtan 𝜙 (where 𝜙 is the shear angle). shear-zone heat conducted into the workpiece, R = thermal
number, and 𝜙 = the shear angle.
3-9
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

3.3.2 Temperatures in the Primary Zone where


The maximum temperature in the chip occurs where the 𝜃𝑚 = maximum temperature rise in the chip owing to
material leaves the secondary deformation zone (point C, the frictional heat source in the secondary
Figure 3.1) and is given by deformation zone

𝜃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜃𝑚 + 𝜃𝑠 + 𝜃0 (3.7) 𝑙0 = length of the heat source divided by the chip


thickness (𝑙𝑓 /𝑎0 )
where 𝑅 = thermal number

𝜃𝑚 = temperature rise of the material passing through The average temperature rise of the chip resulting from
the secondary deformation zone the secondary deformation zone 𝜃𝑓 (frictional heat
source) is given by
𝜃𝑠 = temperature rise of the material passing through
the primary deformation zone, given by Eq. (3.5) 𝑃𝑓
𝜃𝑓 = (3.9)
𝜃0 = initial working temperature 𝜌𝑐𝑣𝑎𝑐 𝑎𝑤
where
The solution to Eq. (3.6) obtained by Rapier is 𝜌 = density
𝑐 = specific heat capacity
𝜃𝑚 𝑅 𝑣 = cutting velocity
= 1.13 (3.8)
𝜃𝑓 𝑙0 𝑎𝑐 = undeformed chip thickness
𝑎𝑤 = width of cut
3-10
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting
14
The boundary condition shown in Figure 3.8 are thought
to approximate more closely the real conditions.
12
Shear 𝜕𝜃
plane =0
𝜕𝑦 10
𝑦 𝑅
=∞
Chip 𝑙0
8
𝑎0 𝜃𝑠

𝜃𝑚
𝜃𝑓
𝑥 6
𝑤0 𝑎0

4
𝑙0 𝑎0 𝜕𝜃
=0
𝜕𝑦
Uniformly 2
distributed (𝜃𝑚 + 𝜃𝑠 )
heat source
0
FIGURE 3.8 Revised boundary condition for chip. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
𝑤0
FIGURE 3.9 Effect of width of secondary deformation zone on
An analysis based on the revised model yielded results
chip temperature, where R = thermal number, 𝑙0 𝑎0 = chip-tool
that agreed with experimental data. These results, shown contact length, 𝑤0 𝑎0 = width of secondary deformation zone,
in Figure 3.9, indicate the effect of variations on the 𝜃𝑚 = maximum temperature rise in the chip, and 𝜃𝑓 = mean
width of uniformly distributed heat source. temperature rise in the chip. 3-11
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

When the curves in Figure 3.9 are used, 3.3.3 Example


 𝑙0 can be estimated from the wear on the tool face, To illustrate the application of the theories and equations derived
 the width of the heat source can be estimated from a in this chapter, a worked example is now presented. In this
photomicrograph of the chip cross section. example the maximum temperature along the tool face is
estimated for the following conditions during the orthogonal
A typical chip cross section is shown in Figure 3.10; cutting of mild steel:
where the lines of maximum grain elongation are curved, Working normal angle 𝛾𝑛𝑒 = 0
it may be assumed that the material has passed through Cutting force 𝐹𝑐 = 890 N (200 lbf)
the secondary deformation zone. Thrust force 𝐹𝑡 = 667 N (150 lbf)
Cutting speed 𝑣 = 2 m/s (394 ft/min)
Undeformed chip thickness 𝑎𝑐 = 0.25 mm (0.0098 in.)
Width of cut 𝑎𝑤 = 2.5 mm (0.098 in.)
Cutting ratio 𝑟𝑐 = 0.3
Length of contact between chip and tool 𝑙𝑓 = 0.75 mm (0.03 in.)
𝑎0
Solution
𝑤0 𝑎0 The total heat generation rate is given by Eq. (3.1)
𝑃𝑚 = 𝐹𝑐 𝑣 = 890(2) = 1780 J/s (100 Btu/min)
Surface that passed
over the tool face The rate of heat generated by friction between the chip and tool
is given by
FIGURE 3.10 Grain deformation in chip cross section.
𝑃𝑓 = 𝐹𝑓 𝑣0 = 𝐹𝑓 (𝑣𝑟𝑐 )
3-12
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

Since 𝛾𝑛𝑒 = 0 and from Eq. (2.35) & Eq. (2.36), we get 𝑎𝑐
or 𝑟𝑐 = = tan 𝜙 = 0.3
𝑎0
𝐹𝑡 = 𝐹𝑟 sin 𝛽 − 𝛾𝑛𝑒 = 𝐹𝑟 sin 𝛽
𝐹𝑓 = 𝐹𝑟 sin 𝛽 Thus, 𝑅 tan 𝜙 = 41.45 0.3 = 12.43
This results in 𝐹𝑓 = 𝐹𝑡 .
Use Figure 3.7 to find 𝛤 (with 𝑅 tan 𝜙 = 12.43).
Thus
𝑃𝑓 = 𝐹𝑓 𝑣𝑟𝑐 = 667 2 0.3 = 400 J/s (22.8 Btu/min)
0.7
Weiner2 (theoretical)
The heat generation from shearing is given by Eq. (3.2): Nakayama4 (experimental)
0.6 Brass (𝜙=10o)
𝑃𝑠 = 𝑃𝑚 − 𝑃𝑓 = 1380 J/s (78.5 Btu/min) Steel (𝜙=20o)
0.5 Steel (𝜙=30o)
For metal cutting, these parameters are known 0.4
ρ = 7200 kg/m3 -- density of steel

𝛤
0.3
c = 502 J/kgK -- specific heat capacity
k = 43.6 J/smk -- thermal conductivity 0.2

From previous section, the thermal number R is 0.1


0.25 0
𝜌𝑐𝑣𝑎𝑐 (7200)(502)(2)( ) 0.3 1.0 10 30
𝑅= = 1000 = 41.45
𝑘 43.6 R tan 𝜙

Since 𝛾𝑛𝑒 = 0, Eq. (2.33) becomes We get


𝑎𝑐 cos 𝜙 − 𝛾𝑛𝑒 𝛤 = 0.1
𝑎0 = = 𝑎𝑐 co𝑡 𝜙
sin 𝜙
3-13
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

The average temperature rise θ𝑠 of the material passing through From Figure 3.9,
the primary deformation zone is given by Eq. (3.5)
14
[1 – 𝛤] 𝑃𝑠 [1 – 0.1] (1380)
θ𝑠 = = = 275 o𝐶
𝜌𝑐𝑣𝑎𝑐 𝑎𝑤 (7200)(502)(2)( 0.25 )( 2.5 )
1000 1000 12

The average temperature rise of the chip resulting from the 10


secondary deformation (frictional) zone 𝜃𝑓 is given by Eq. (3.9) 𝑅
=∞
𝑃𝑓 400 𝑙0
𝜃𝑓 = = = 88.5 o𝐶 8
𝜌𝑐𝑣𝑎𝑐 𝑎𝑤 (7200)(502)(2)( 0.25 2.5
)( )

𝜃𝑚
𝜃𝑓
1000 1000
To obtain the ratio 𝜃𝑚 /𝜃𝑓 from Figure 3.9, it is necessary to 6
estimate the values of w0 and R/l0.
4
From Figure 3.8 and given value, the length of contact between
chip and tool 𝑙𝑓 = 𝑙0 𝑎0 = 0.75 mm, thus
2
𝑙𝑓 𝑙𝑓 𝑟𝑐 (0.75)(0.3)
𝑙0 = = = = 0.9
𝑎0 𝑎𝑐 0.25
0
𝑅 41.45 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Therefore the ratio = = 46.06 𝑤0
𝑙0 0.9
We get
For mild steel under unlubricated cutting, it is assumed the
𝜃𝑚
width of the secondary deformation divided by the chip = 4.2
thickness 𝑤0 = 0.2. 𝜃𝑓 3-14
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

Thus temperature rise of the material passing through the 3.3.4 Effect of Cutting Speed on Temperature
secondary deformation zone (θ𝑚 ) is
If the tool forces and the cutting ratio are constants, for the
θ𝑚 = 4.2 θ𝑓 = 4.2 88.5 = 372 o𝐶 conditions used in the preceding example, the relationships
between temperatures and v shown in Figure 3.11 are obtained.
Assume the material is at the room temperature, i.e.,
θ0 = 22 oC 700
600
The maximum temperature along the tool rake face is given by 𝜃𝑚 + 𝜃𝑠
𝜃𝑠

Temperature, oC
Eq. (3.7), i.e., 500
𝜃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜃𝑚 + 𝜃𝑠 + 𝜃0 = 372 + 275 + 22 = 669 o𝐶 400
300
Note: 200
 In the calculations, the thermal properties of the material are 100
assumed to be constant and independent of temperature.
0
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
 With many engineering materials, however, the specific heat Cutting speed v, m/s
capacity (c) and the thermal conductivity (k) vary
considerably with changes in temperatures. FIGURE 3.11 Effect of cutting speed on cutting
temperature (theoretical).
 To obtain more accurate predictions, the relationships
between the thermal properties of the material and It can be seen from the figure:
temperature must be known and used in calculations. 𝜃𝑠 increases slightly with increasing cutting speed v.
𝜃𝑚 + 𝜃𝑠 increases rapidly with increasing cutting speed v.
3-15
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

3.3.5 Prediction of Temperature Distributions in


Machining
Slip line field and finite element modeling of machining Finite element simulation using Johnson-Cook model
Finite element simulation using Zerili-Armstrong model
enable temperature distributions to be determined.

Peak cutting temperature (deg C)


850 Finite element simulation using power law model
Finite difference calculation
These are similar in form to the experimentally observed 800 Experimental value
distributions such as that shown in Figure 3.5. 750
700
Quantitative prediction of peak temperatures depends on 650
 appropriate assumptions of material property models 600
and boundary conditions 550
500
Figure 3.12 shows 450
400
 a comparison between predicted peak temperatures 20 30 40 50
and those obtained experimentally for some different Uncut chip thickness (μm)
material property models assumed, FIGURE 3.12 Comparison of experimental peak cutting
 also included is the prediction obtained using an temperature with those predicted by finite element modeling
analytical method. using different material property models.

3-16
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

3.4 The Measurement of Cutting Mercury


slip ring
Temperatures Electrically Steel
connected workpiece
A number of methods have been developed for the
measurements of temperatures in metal cutting:
 Some of these methods can only measure the average
cutting temperatures
 Some can determine the temperature distributions in
the workpiece, chip, and tool near the cutting edge
Millivoltmeter
3.4.1 Work-tool Thermocouple
Insulated
A technique widely used to study cutting temperature is cutting tool with
the wotk-tool thermocouple technique. carbide insert
FIGURE 3.13 Work-tool thermocouple circuit.
The electromotive force (emf) generated at the junction
between the workpiece and tool is taken as a measure. The reading given by this method is the mean
temperature along he chip-tool interface. It can be used
A typical work-tool thermocouple arrangement on a lathe
is shown in Figure 3.13. It is important  To investigate the effects of changes in cutting
conditions on cutting temperatures
 To insulate the thermocouple circuit from the machine
 To obtain relationships between temperature and
 To use the same circuit to calibrate the thermocouple
cutting-tool wear rate 3-17
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

There are a number of sources of error in using the work- Mercury


tool thermocouple: slip ring
Electrically
 The tool and work materials are not idea elements for a connected Steel workpiece
thermocouple. Constantan
wires
 The emf tends to be low and the emf/temperature
calibration to be nonlinear.
 The work-tool thermocouple must be calibrated against
a standard thermocouple.
 Each tool and workpiece material combination must be Millivoltmeter
calibrated separately. Cutting tool
 The emf determined with a stationary tool (for mounted in
dynamometer
calibration) could be different from that obtained for an
equivalent temperature during cutting when the work FIGURE 3.14 Arrangement for measurement of
material is being severely strained. workpiece temperature using the thermocouple technique.

3.4.2 Direct Thermocouple Measurements In these experiments the rig was first run without
Direct thermocouple measurements can be made during cutting, and the reading of the millivoltmeter resulting
cutting. The results in Figure 3.7 were obtained using a from the rubbing action of the constantan wire on the
thermocouple technique illustrated in Figure 3.14. workpiece was noted.
3-18
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

This reading was subsequently subtracted from the 3.4.3 Radiation Methods
readings taken while cutting was in progress.
When the tool-workpiece can be observed directly,
With this method, the temperature at selected points camera and film sensitive to infrared radiation can be
around the end of the tubular workpiece were measured used to determine temperature distributions.
and then used to calculate the proportion of the shear-
Some of the experimental results are shown in Figure 3.7
zone heat conducted into workpiece.
and experimental confirmations of the curves in Figure
Direct measurements of temperatures can be made by 3.9 were obtained by this method.
making a hole in the tool close to the cutting edge and
Miniature electronic photo detectors arranged in a focal
inserting a thermocouple to measure the temperature at a
plane array system enable temperature distributions to be
particular position.
determined with resolutions as low as 5 μm.
This can then be repeated with holes in various positions
to give an estimate of the temperature distributions. 3.4.4 Hardness and Microstructure Changes in
Steel Tools
However, significant errors may occur The hardness of hardened steel decreases after reheating,
 Where the temperature gradients are steep, as the and the loss of the hardness is related to the temperature
holes for the thermocouples may cover a considerable and time of heating.
range of temperature
The hardness decrease is the result of changes in the
 The presence of the holes may distort the heat flow microstructure of the steel. The structural changes can be
and temperature fields in the tool observed using optical and electron microscopes.
3-19
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

These changes provide an effective means of determining The main limitation of this method of temperature
temperature distributions in the steel during cutting. estimation is that it can be used only within the range of
cutting conditions suitable for high-speed steel and when
Microhardness measurements on tool after cutting can be
relatively high temperature are generated.
used to determine constant-temperature contours in the
tool, but the technique is time-consuming and requires
very accurate hardness measurements.
The structural changes in the material takes place
gradually, but it has been observed that for some high- Homework Chapter 3
speed steels distinct modifications occur at approximately
50oC intervals between 600 and 900oC.
Problem 2

This permits temperature measurements with an accuracy Problem 4


of ± 25oC within the heat-affected region.

Metallographic examination of the tool after cutting


makes it possible for temperature distributions in the tool
to be determined, but requires experienced interpretation
of the observed structural changes.
This method has been used to study temperature
distributions in high-seed steel lathe tool and drills 3-20
Chapter 3: Temperatures in
Problem 3 ME4870: Machining – J Lieh
Metal Cutting

Problem 3: During some machining experiments, it was found 𝑃𝑚 0.2𝑃𝑚


Thus 𝑃𝑠 = and 𝑃𝑓 =
that for the range of conditions studied, the following 1.2 1.2
assumptions could be made: 𝑃𝑚 𝐹𝑐 𝑣 𝐹𝑐
Eq. 2.2 : 𝑝𝑠 = = =
a. The heat conducted into the cutting tool was negligible. 𝑍𝑤 𝐴𝑐 𝑣 𝐴𝑐
b. The proportion of the heat generated in the shear zone
conducted into the workpiece was 0.2. (1 − 𝛤)𝑃𝑠 (1 − 0.2)𝑃𝑚
Eq. 3.5 : 𝜃𝑠 = =
c. The maximum temperature rise in the chip due to the 𝜌𝑐𝑣𝐴𝑐 1.2𝜌𝑐𝑣𝐴𝑐
frictional heat source 𝜃𝑚 followed the relation: 0.8𝑝𝑠
𝜃𝑚 = 𝜃𝑓 𝑅 ∴ 𝜃𝑠 =
1.2𝜌𝑐
where 𝜃𝑓 is the mean temperature rise of the chip due to the 𝑃𝑓 𝑃𝑓
frictional heat source, and R is the thermal number. Eq. 3.9 : 𝜃𝑓 = =
𝜌𝑐𝑣𝑎𝑐 𝑎𝑤 𝜌𝑐𝑣𝐴𝑐
d. The heat generated due to friction was equal to 20% of the
heat generated in the shear zone. 𝑃𝑓 𝑅 0.2 𝑃𝑚 𝑅 0.2 𝑝𝑠 𝑅
Given: 𝜃𝑚 = 𝜃𝑓 𝑅 = = =
Derive an expression for the maximum temperature in the chip 𝜌𝑐𝑣𝐴𝑐 1.2 𝜌𝑐𝑣𝐴𝑐 1.2 𝜌𝑐
above the initial workpiece temperature in terms of the specific Eq. 3.7 : 𝜃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜃𝑚 + 𝜃𝑠 + 𝜃0
cutting energy of the workpiece 𝑝𝑠 , the specific heat c, the
density of the workpiece 𝜌, and the thermal number R. Thus, the maximum temperature in the chip above 𝜃0 is

0.2 𝑝𝑠 𝑅 0.8𝑝𝑠 𝑝𝑠 0.8 0.2


Solution 𝜃𝑚 + 𝜃𝑠 = + = + 𝑅
1.2 𝜌𝑐 1.2𝜌𝑐 𝜌𝑐 1.2 1.2
Given in (d): 𝑃𝑓 = 0.2𝑃𝑠
𝑝𝑠 2 𝑅
Eq. (3.2): 𝑃𝑚 = 𝑃𝑠 + 𝑃𝑓 = 𝑃𝑠 + 0.2𝑃𝑠 = +
𝜌𝑐 3 6 3-21