Sie sind auf Seite 1von 33

 Subject Title : Engineering Drawing

 Credit Hours : 0+2


 Number of Weeks : 18
 Class : UG-CE-2010
 Webpage for Notes :
www.esnips.com/web/EnggDwgFall2010
 Instructor : Lecturer Muhammad Usman
 Office : Room # 108 NICE Building
 Contact # : 051-9085-4618
 E-mail : concrete_157@hotmail.com
Grading Policy:

 Drawing sheets‡ 70%


 Final Exam 30%

‡ Drawings will be made during the lab hours and will be


submitted for assessment at the end of the lab class.

Around 10 drawing sheets will be prepared during the


semester

All the drawing work done in drawing hall will be


graded work.
General Policies:

 All students should have all the drawing/drafting


equipments with them in every class/lab.

 All Students should have at least two drawing sheets


and ample number of White A4 sheets during every
class/lab.

 The students coming late or after 5 mins of the


commencement of the class, would be marked absent.

 Strict timings will be followed in case of submitting the


drawing sheets, no late submissions will be accepted
Course Summary
S/No Topics
1. Introduction
2. Lines and Lettering
3. Dimensioning
4. Scales
5. Geometric Construction
6. Orthographic Projections
7. Isometric Drawing
8. Building Drawing
To prepare a drawing, you will use manual drafting instruments. In learning
‘drafting‘ - the name given to drawing in architecture and engineering, we will
approach it from the perspective of manual drafting.
Text book:

 Engineering Drawing by Dhananjay A Johle

Referrence books

 Elementary Engineering drawing by N.D. Bhatt

 Civil Engineering Drawing by Gurgharan Singh &


Subash Chander

 Parkinson, A.C. A First year Engineering Drawing.


English language book society (Latest Edition)
What is Drawing
 Drawing is a Fully developed language
 Pictorial Representation of either what exists physically
or what that is still an idea
 It is most convenient to express a new idea by using a
drawing. “A DRAWING IS WORTH A THOUSAND
WORDS “

What is Engineering Drawing


 Engineering Drawing is the UNIVERSAL GRAPHIC
LANGUAGE OF ALL Engineers
 A graphical language that Engineers understand all
over the world irrespective of their native language.
 Communication between “DESIGNER and
MANUFRACTURER”.
 Clear
Conception of Proportion while
Drawing for a certain Purpose.
• Knowledge of dimensions
• Space available on paper for drawing
• Determining Scale of drawing.
• It can be achieved by thorough practice.
 Speed and Accuracy in use of Drawing Tools
• Use of Drawing Instruments.
• Use of skills
• Thoroughness
• Accuracy and Quality.
 Ability to think in three dimensions
• Drawing is drawn on paper which is a two
dimension medium.
• Visualizing a solid by it’s representation on paper.
• Use of 3D models to develop the concepts.
 Powerof Expressing Ideas by Free Hand
Sketching
• Fully dimensioned free hand sketches will be made
• From models to develop the concepts of drawing
with form and proportion
• Fully dimensioned
• Correctly projected
• Bold block outline
• Clear figure work
• Good lettering
• Clear centre line
• Sections of hidden details
• Clear and complete work
 Diligent and patient
 Develops a habit of uniformity and orderly
work
 Clarity and completeness
 Careful finishing of lines and corners
 Respectful to his instruments
 Avoids scribbling
 A tidy person who maintains cleanliness of his
desk , instruments and hands
 An eye for details
 DRAWING BOARD
 TEE SQUARE
 SET SQUARES
 PROTACTOR
 SCALES
 PENCILS H, 2H, 3H WITH CONICALPOINT AND
CHISEL POINT
 DRAWING BOX , COMPASS WITH KNEE JOINT
 DRAWING SHEET
 DRAFTING TAPE
 ACCESSORIES LIKE SHARPNER,RUBBER,
THUMB PINS,SAND PAPER, DUSTER etc.
 Drawing board is
rectangular in shape and is
normally made of strips of
well-seasoned soft wood
about 25 mm thick. Other
materials are also used.

 One of the edges of the


board is used as “working
edge” on which the T-square
is made to slide. It should,
therefore, be perfectly
straight.
 It consists of two parts, the stock and the
blade, joined together at right angle to
each other by means of screws and pins.

 The stock is placed adjoining the


working edge of the board and is made
to slide on it as and when required.
 The t-square is used for drawing
horizontal lines. (the stock of the t-square
is held firmly with the left hand against
the working edge of the board, and the
line is drawn from left to right. The pencil
should be held slightly inclined in the
direction of line (i.e. to the right, while
the pencil point should be as close as
possible to the working edge of the
blade.)

 The working edge of the t-square is also


used as a base for set-squares to draw
vertical, inclined or mutually parallel
lines.
A good Quality paper which can stand
rubbing.
 Minimum distortion under seasonal effects.

 DISTRIBUTION OF SPACE
• Marginal Details
• Determination of scale
• Divide the sheet to draw the PLAN, ELEVATIONS
AND CROSS SECTIONS ,Scale Line etc.
 Set squares are used for drawing all
straight lines except the horizontal lines
which are usually drawn with t-square.
Vertical lines can be drawn with the t-
square and the set-square.

 The two set squares used simultaneously


along with the t-square will produce lines
making angles of 15, 75, 105 degrees.

 Parallel straight lines in any position as


well as lines perpendicular to any line
from any given point within or outside it
can be drawn with the two set squares.
 Terms of ruler and
scale are often mixed
up
 Ruler is used to draw
straight lines

 Scale is used to
measure any line or
distance

 What is Scale …

 Engineering scales

Drawing Pencils
1. Large size compass with
interchangeable pencil
and pen legs
2. Lengthening Bar
3. Small bow Compass
4. Large-size divider
5. Small bow divider
6. Inking pen
Planning your drawing
 Before starting your engineering drawing you should plan how you
are going to make best use of the space. It is important to think about
the number of views your drawing will have and how much space you
will use of the paper.

 Try to make maximum use of the available space.

 If a view has lots of detail, try and make that view as large as possible.
If necessary, draw that view on a separate sheet.

 If you intend to add dimensions to the drawing, remember to leave


enough space around the drawing for them to be added later.

 If you are working with inks on film, plan the order in which you are
drawing the lines. For example you don't want to have to place your
ruler on wet ink
 Visible Lines – solid thick lines that represent visible edges or
contours
 Hidden Lines – short evenly spaced dashes that depict hidden
features
 Section Lines – solid thin lines that indicate cut surfaces
 Center Lines – alternating long and short dashes
 Dimensioning
• Dimension Lines - solid thin lines showing dimension
extent/direction
• Extension Lines - solid thin lines showing point or line to which
dimension applies
• Leaders – direct notes, dimensions, symbols, part numbers, etc.
to features on drawing
 Cutting-Plane and Viewing-Plane Lines – indicate location of
cutting planes for sectional views and the viewing position for
removed partial views
3-Dimensional Pictorial Representations
 One-point
 one vanishing point
 Lines that are not vertical
or horizontal converge to
single point in distance
 Two-point or Three-point
 two or three vanishing points
 With two points, vertical or
horizontal lines parallel, but not both
 With three-point, no lines are parallel
 Isometric
 Drawing shows corner of object,
but parallel lines on object are
parallel in drawing
 Shows three dimensions, but no
vanishing point(s)

Source: “Introduction to Engineering”, by Paul Wright


One-point

Two-Point
 Draw object from two / three perpendicular
views

What it looks
like pictorially

/ Orthographic
Isometric
 EVERY STUDENT SHOULD BE IN POSSESSION OF ALL
THE DRAWING INSTRUMENTS AND ACCESSORIES TO
AVOID ANY LOSS OF TIME.
 BORROWING OF ITEMS WILL NOT BE APPRECIATED.
 STUDENTS SHOULD BUY THEIR OWN T-SQUARES.
 STUDENTS ARE ADVISED TO WIND UP THEIR WORK IN
TIME SO THAT THEY ARE NOT LATE FOR SUBMISSION.
 DRAWING SESSIONS WILL BE LONG.NO ONE IS
ALLOWED TO LEAVE WITHOUT PERMISSION.
 LATE COMERS WILL BE MARKED ABSENT.