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Strength of materials
Andrew Pytel
Ferdinand L. Singer


1 Simple stress: Normal stresses
2 Simple stress: Shear stress
3 Thin-walled pressure vessels
4 Simple strain: Stress-strain diagram
5 Simple strain: Hooke’s law: Axial and shearing deformations
6 Simple strain: Poisson’s ratio: Biaxial and triaxial deformations
7 Thermal stresses
8 Thermal stresses
Mid Term Exam
9 Torsion
10 Torsion
11 Shear and moment in beams
12 Shear and moment in beams
13 Stresses in beams
14 Stresses in beams
15 Beam deflections
16 Beam deflections

• Assignments, Quizzes, Mid Term and the Final examination will evaluate student


The final grade will be determined by averaging each section and assigning them the
following weights:

Quizzes or mini projects ..12.5%

Mid Term Examination……25%
Final Examination .............50%
Total ............................. 100%

The course consists of a three-hour lecture per week.

Attendance for all lectures is strongly advised.
Any student whose attendance is less than 75% will be dropped
from the course for insufficient participation.
What is Mechanics?

Mechanics is the branch of physical science which deals with the

state of rest or motion of bodies that are subjected to the action of

Mechanics is the study of forces that act on bodies and the resultant
motion that those bodies experience.

With roots in physics and mathematics, Engineering Mechanics is

the basis of all the mechanical sciences.

Physical science is the study of the physical world around you.

Any of several branches of science, such as physics, chemistry, and
astronomy, that study the nature and properties of energy and
nonliving matter.
Applied Mechanics is subdivided into two parts:

Solid mechanics is usually subdivided into further two streams i.e.
a) Mechanics of rigid bodies (i.e. objects that do not get deformed when forces are applied)
Mechanics of rigid bodies is further divided into two parts:
i) Statics
ii) Dynamics
Statics deals with bodies at rest.
Dynamics deals with objects in motion.
b) Mechanics of deformable bodies
The mechanics of deformable solids which is branch of applied mechanics is known by several names i.e. strength
of materials, mechanics of materials etc.

Rigid body

• The term "rigid body" refers to a system with any number of

particles, but which are constrained not to move relative to each
other. That is, a rigid body does not deform.

• All particles in a rigid body remain at a fixed distance from one

another even after applying forces.

• A rigid body is nothing but a solid body of finite size in which change
in original shape (deformation in other words) is not allowed.
Introduction to Mechanics of Materials
Definition: Mechanics of materials is a branch of applied mechanics that deals with
the behaviour of solid bodies subjected to various types of loading.

Compression Tension (stretched) Bending Torsion (twisted) Shearing

Most fundamental concepts in Mechanics of Materials are stress and strain.

Mechanics of materials
The fundamental areas of engineering mechanics are

1. Statics

2. Dynamics

3. Strength of materials (Mechanics of materials)

Statics and dynamics are devoted primarily to the study of the external effects of forces on rigid bodies i.e. bodies for which
the change in shape (deformation) can be neglected.

In contrast, strength of materials deals with the relation between externally applied loads and their internal effects on bodies.
Moreover, the bodies are no longer assumed to be rigid; the deformations, however small, are of major interest.

The purpose of studying strength of materials is to ensure at that the structure used will be safe against the maximum internal
effects that may be produced by any combination of loading.

The main objective of the study of the mechanics of materials is to provide the future engineer with the mean of analyzing
and designing various machines and load-bearing structures.

Both the analysis and the design of a given structure involve the determination of stress and deformations.

An understanding of how bodies respond to applied loads is the main area of emphasis in the Mechanics of materials.
• Stress can be defined as a measure of the internal reaction to an externally applied
force. It is due to the internal resistance of particles inside the body.
• When some external forces are applied to a body, then the body offers internal
resistance to these forces. This internal opposing force per unit area is called 'stress'.
It is denoted by the Greek letter σ (sigma) and its formula is as following


The unit of stress is the units of force divided by the units of area.

In SI, force is measured in newtons (N) and area is measured in

square meters (m2). Thus the units for stress are newtons per square
meter (N/m2). Frequently, one newton per square meter is referred to
as one Pascal (Pa).

In US customary units, force is measured in pounds (lb). With area

measured in square inches, the units for stress are pounds per
square inch (lb/in2), frequently abbreviated as psi.

Since kip is often used to represent kilopound (1 kip = 1000 lb, 2 kips
= 2000 lb etc). ksi is used an abbreviation for 1 kip per square inch
(1000 lb/in2), for example, 8 ksi = 8000 psi.
Area &Volume

Here is a cube which is being cut across. Such a

‘cut-across’ is called a cross section.
Concept of Stress
The fundamental concepts of stress can be illustrated by considering a straight bar with a constant cross-sectional area A that
is loaded by axial forces F at the ends, as shown in the Figure.

The external load causes internal forces called stresses. To investigate the internal stresses produced in the bar by the axial
forces, we make an imaginary cut at section c-c. This section is taken perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bar.

We now isolate the part of the bar to the left of the cut as a free body. The tensile load F acts at the left hand end of the free
body; at the other end are forces representing the action of the removed part of the bar upon the part that remains.
These forces are continuously distributed over the cross section. The intensity of force (that is, the force per unit area) is called
the stress and is commonly denoted by the Greek letter σ (sigma). Assuming that the stress has a uniform distribution over the
cross section (see Figure), we can readily see that its resultant is equal to the intensity σ times the cross-sectional area A of
the bar.

Furthermore, from the equilibrium (balancing of forces) of the body shown in Figure, it is also evident that this resultant must
be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the applied load F. Hence, we obtain
It is a material property which defines the maximum stress a body can
withstand before failure occurs.
It is the resistance offered by a material when subjected to external loading.
So, stronger the material the greater the load it can withstand.
Depending upon the type of load applied the strength can be tensile,
compressive, shear or torsional.