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Human Rights

Population
Population: Human Rights

WHAT ARE HUMAN RIGHTS?

• Fundamental rights that belong to every person, simply by


being a human being.

• Principles
• Universality
• Equality
• Non-discrimination
Population: Human Rights

HISTORY

• World War 2: Nazi atrocities


against specific groups
of people.
• United Nations founded in 1945 to maintain peace and
promote Human Rights
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30 HUMAN RIGHTS

• Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)


Do you know your rights?
Population: Human Rights

FREEDOM OF SPEECH

• Article 19 UDHR:
– “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and
expression; this right includes freedom to hold
opinions without interference and to seek, receive
and impart information and ideas through any
media and regardless of frontiers”
Population: Human Rights

FREEDOM OF SPEECH

• This freedom can be limited:


– Slander
– Hate speech
– Inciting violence
• But only in some cases because the law also
protects people against Government trying to
silence them.
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FREEDOM FROM TORTURE

• Article 5 UDHR:
– “No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel,
inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.”
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FREEDOM FROM TORTURE


• Inflicting severe pain or suffering, whether
mental or physical
• To get information or to punish
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TORTURE EXAMPLE

• The United States used torture on a large scale


against terrorism
suspects, claiming that
suspects had given up
their rights.

• At the same time


their prisoners
were also denied
the Right to a Fair Trial and the Right to be
Considered Innocent until Proven Guilty.
Population: Human Rights

MORE HUMAN RIGHTS

• Life and Liberty / Slavery / Privacy


• Education / Work / Leisure
• Language!
– No discrimination
– Fair trial Dwi’n
siarad
– Free speech Cymraeg!
– Education
Population: Human Rights

CATEGORIES OF RIGHTS

• Absolute Rights can never be limited


– Torture, slavery, discrimination
• Limited Rights can be limited for certain cases
– Liberty
• Qualified Rights can be limited in some
circumstances (state of emergency / war)
– Education, expression
Population: Human Rights

HUMAN RIGHTS AT HOME

• England & Wales: Human Rights Act (1998)


– Same rights as the ECHR, but easier to protect
• UK Court will decide if a right was violated
• After that you could go higher up to the
European Court of Human Rights
– 20,000 cases from 47 countries
– 1500 UK cases per year, 10 guilty verdicts
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HUMAN RIGHTS CONFLICTS IN THE UK

• Security vs Privacy
– Art. 3: Life, liberty and security
Government has to stop terrorists
– Art. 12: Privacy, family, home and correspondence
Government can’t intercept your communication

• Our safety is important, but so are our rights,


so where do we draw the line?
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FUTURE CHALLENGES

• Asylum for refugees: Some people flee


countries with terrible human rights, but they
are not always welcome in other countries
• LGBT rights: Often LGBT individuals are
discriminated against and lack rights
• Gender rights: to equal employment, equal
pay, equal access, etc.