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Selection of Materials and

Shape

… when choosing among different


materials with different shapes
and when the design is one in
which shape matters…
Introduction
 The concept of performance
indices extended to include
SHAPE.
 Maximize the performance by
choosing the materials and
shape in which the materials
are available or feasible

The best material-shape combination depends


on the mode of loading.
Mode of Loading and Shape
 In axial tension, shape
not important
 In bending, I-beam or
hollow box are better
than solid sections
 In torsion, circular tube
is the best
 A shape factor () is
defined for each mode of
loading
Shape Factor
 A shape factor is a dimensionless number which
characterizes the efficiency of a section shape in a
given mode of loading
 Shape factor does not depend on scale
 Be is the shape factor for elastic bending; Tf is for
failure due to torsion. Two other shape factors Te and
Bf are similarly defined.
 The factors reflect the load bearing capacity of the
shaped material compared with a solid cylindrical bar
with the same cross-sectional area
 They all equal to 1 for solid circular section
Derivation of Shape Factor for
Elastic Bending
 r 4 A2 
 Elastic bending I xx 
 y 2 dA
sec tion
 I 0 
 4
 
4 
 Displacement for 3-point bending 
Fl 3
C1 EI
 Stiffness, Ssection  F 
C1 EI
for shaped section
 l3
and C1 EI 0
S circular  3 for solid circular section
l
 Shape factor  e  Ssection I 0 4I
  2
B
S circular I A
Derivation of Shape Factor for
Bending Strength
 Failure load for bending of beam with
I f
shaped section Ff section  C2
ym l
 Failure load for bending of beam with
I0  f
circular section Ff circular  C2
 ym 0 l
 Ratio of the two strengths:
F  4 1 2 I r 4 4 r 3 A03 2
f sec tion

F  A ym
 
 3 2   Bf
1
2

I0
 ym 0

r

4
 12
4
f circular

Shape factor 16I 2


  Bf  3 2
A ym
Other Shape Factors
2K
For elastic torsion   2 where K is a
e
 T
A
modified polar moment of area (J)

4 Q 2
For torsional strength Tf  3 where Q = J/rm
A
 For buckling of column, n 2 2 EI
the Euler load Fc 
l2
The shape factor is, again, the ratio between
the moments of area, i.e. equal to Be
Performance Indices which
include Shape
 The procedure is similar to that without
consideration of shape, with one extra
step to bring in the shape.
 Shape factor has no effect on the
choice of materials for Axial tension
loaded components
Performance Indices which
include Shape - Elastic
Bending
 Aim: Stiff light beam
4I
 m = Al & B  e

A2
Bending stiffness S B  C1EI
2
C1 A
  E Be 3
l3 4 l
 Eliminate A, gives
12 12
 4l S B 
5
  2
m     e 
 C1   B E 
 Comparing beams with different
sections and materials  B E 
e 12

M1 

Performance Indices which
include Shape - Elastic
Twisting
 Aim: light stiff shaft
 m = Al
KG G e A2
 Torsional stiffness ST 
l

2
T
l
 Eliminate A gives
12
  
 
2
m  2l ST  e 
3 12

 T G 

M2 
 G
e
T
12


Performance Indices which
include Shape - Failure of
Beam
 Aim: light strong beam
I f 16I 2
 Failure load f 2 y l & B
F  C  f
 3 2
A ym
m
 Replace (I/ym) by Bf
Ff 
C2
4 12
l
 B
f
A 
3 12
f
23
 4 F f l    3 2 
12 23

 Eliminate A gives m  l 


 C
 2   B  
   f 1 2 

 
f
f 13
 2f 3

B
M3

Performance Indices which
include Shape - Failure of
Shaft
 Aim: light strong shaft
4 Q 2
f
Tf  3 f 
A 2

 Failure load T f  Q f 
 T
f 12 32
A
f
4 12

23
 3 2 
Eliminate A gives 
m  4 T f
12

23
l 
 

  f 1 2 
 T 
 
f
f 13
 2f 3

T
M4

Shaped Materials on Materials
Property Charts

 E
e 12


E 
e 12

By rearranging, M1
B B
    e
B

 The equation means the material, when


structured, behaves like a material with
modulus E* and density *
E* 
E 
*  e
 Be B
 Introducing shape moves the material
along a line of slope 1 on the chart
Shaped Materials on Materials
Property Charts - Elastic
Bending
• The material move
from below the
selection criteria
line to above
• The effective
performance of the
shaped materials is
improved
Shaped Materials on Materials
Property Charts - Bending
Failure
 Similarly, by rearranging

M3 
 
B
f 13
 23
f

 f  B 
f 23

   B
f

 The shaped behaves like a material with


f 
 *f  f *  f
B B
Shaped Materials on Materials
Property Charts - Bending
Failure