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training program
created by: anika fire tech private limited
Understanding of FIRE
The Fire Triangle

Fire Safety, at its most basic, is based upon

the principle of keeping fuel sources and
ignition sources separate.
The Fire Triangle
Three things must be present at the same time to
produce fire:

1. Enough OXYGEN to sustain combustion

2. Enough HEAT to reach ignition temperature
3. Some FUEL or combustible material
Together, they produce the CHEMICAL REACTION
that is fire

Take away any of these things and the fire

will be extinguished.
Fuel Classifications
 Fires are classified according to
the type of fuel that is burning.
 If you use the wrong type of fire
extinguisher on the wrong class of
fire, you might make matters
 Its very important to understand
the four different fire (fuel)
Fuel Classifications
Class A: Wood, paper, cloth, trash, plastics etc.
— Solids that are not metals.

Class B: Flammable liquids—gasoline, oil, grease,

acetone etc.

Class C: flammable gases.

Class E: Electrical—energized electrical equipment.

as long as it’s “plugged in.”
Stages of Fire
 Stage I : Ignition
At this stage the, fire is relatively small. But unless
controlled swiftly, it will spread and grow increasingly
rapidly. This is the only stage at a fire extinguisher cab be
safely used.

 Stage II: Critical

At this stage, fire begins to move rapidly over large areas, and
large volumes of extinguishing agent are necessary to fight
the growing fire. At this point, only sophisticated sprinkler
systems can be used.

 Stage III: Blaze

At this stage, the fire is out of control and could require
thousands of liters ( Kgs) of extinguishing agent. At the Blaze
Stage, only fully equipped fire brigade stands and putting the
fire out.
Fire Prevention
The Strategy of Preventing
a Fire
 A fire must have three things to ignite
and maintain combustion:
• Fuel
• Heat
• Oxygen
 The basic strategy of fire prevention is
to control or isolate sources of fuel
and heat in order to prevent
If all three are not present in
sufficient quantities a fire will not
ignite or a fire will not be able to
sustain combustion
 Good housekeeping habits are an
important part of a safe workplace.
 Why is good housekeeping important?
• To reduce amounts of flammable and
combustible materials.
• To reduce ignition hazards.
• To ensure safe emergency evacuation of
• To allow for quick emergency response.
General Housekeeping
 Work areas, aisles, walkways, stairways, and
equipment should be kept clear of loose
materials, trash, scraps, etc.
 Never block aisles, fire exits, emergency
equipment, or alarm pull stations with
equipment or materials.
 Avoid build up of combustible trash and waste
such as paper, wood, cardboard, etc.
 Keep use and storage of flammables and
combustibles to a minimum.
 Clean up all spills such as grease, oil, or
water immediately. A delay could result in
Storage Guidelines
 No storage is allowed
in corridors and
stairwells. A
cluttered hallway
could slow down
emergency evacuation.

 Storage must not

exceed a plane of 18
inches below sprinkler
heads or smoke
detectors. Storage
that breaks this plane
may prevent sprinkler A simulated example of how
heads from fully storage can protrude into 18
covering room during a inch plane below sprinkler
Storage Guidelines
Maintain at least a 3ft
All storage
must be at clearance from heating
least 3 ft from surfaces, air ducts,
electrical heaters, and lighting
panels. In some fixtures.
emergency Storage of combustible
situations it materials in mechanical
will be rooms is prohibited.
necessary to
access these
panels quickly.
Fire Safety-Electrical
 Electrical hazards are the cause of
numerous workplace fires each year.
Faulty electrical equipment or misuse
of equipment produces heat and sparks
that serve as ignition sources in the
presence of flammable and combustible
 Examples of common ignition hazards:
• overloading circuits
• use of unapproved electrical devices
• damaged or worn wiring
Electrical Fire Safety
 Extension cords
• Extension cords are only approved for
temporary use. They may only be used for a
period of three days or less. Instead of
using extension cords contact FP&M to
install permanent wiring.
• When using extension cords check for
defaults such as frays, brittleness, or
broken wires.
• Never place extension cords in high traffic
areas where they can be damaged by being
stepped on or run over by equipment.
Electrical Fire Safety
 Multi-plug strips
• Should only be used for office equipment
such as computers, printers, and fax
• Other common items such as microwaves,
refrigerators, and copy machines must be
plugged directly into wall outlets. This is a
requirement of the State Fire Marshal.
• Multi-plug strips should have a fuse or
circuit breaker and be UL approved.
Electrical Fire Safety
 Avoid the following –Never daisy chain or piggy back
improper and multi-plug strips and electrical
hazardous cords (plugging strips and cords
practices: into each other).
• Never use three
prong adapters that
allow a three
pronged plug to plug
into a two prong
• Never use any item
with a damaged or
frayed electrical
cord. Piggy-backed
• Space Heaters are multi-plug strips
not allowed in
campus buildings.
Points To Remember
 Housekeeping Issues
• Keep your worksite clean and free of trash and
• Follow proper storage guidelines.
 Flammable and Combustible Liquids
• Use and store the minimum amounts necessary.
• Follow correct storage guidelines.
 Electrical Fire Hazards
• don’t use unapproved electrical devices.
• Avoid improper uses of multi-plugs.
 Compartmentalization
• Maintain compartmentalization systems.
• don’t wedge or block open doors
Type of Fire Extinguishers
 Water Type – Works on A (Solid) Class of fire only.
 Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers – Works on B (
C (Gas) & Electrical fire.
 AFFF Foam – Works on A (Solid) & B (Liquid) class of
 ABC Type – Works on all class of fire.
 Clean Agent – Works on all class of fire.
How to Use a Fire
it’s easy to remember how to use a fire extinguisher if you
remember the acronym PASS:




How to Use a Fire
Pull the pin…

This will allow you

to discharge the
How to Use a Fire
Aim at the base of the fire…

Hit the fuel.

If you aim at
the flames...

… the extinguishing agent will fly right

through and do no good.
How to Use a Fire
Squeeze the top handle…

This depresses
a button that
releases the
How to Use a Fire
Sweep from side to side…
.. until the fire is
completely out.
Start using the
extinguisher from a
safe distance away,
then slowly move

Once the fire is out, keep an eye on the area

in case it re-ignites.
Rules for Fighting Fires
Fires can be very dangerous and you should
always be certain that you will not endanger
yourself or others when attempting to put out a
for this reason, when a fire is discovered…
• Assist any person in immediate danger to
safety, if it can be accomplished without risk
to yourself.

• Call 101 or activate the building fire alarm.

The fire alarm will notify the fire
department and other building occupants and
shut off the air handling system to prevent
the spread of smoke.

If the fire is small (and Only after having done these 2 things),
you may attempt to use an extinguisher to put it out.However . . . .
Rules for Fighting Fires
. . . before deciding to fight the fire,
keep these things in mind:
• Know what is burning. if you don’t know what’s
burning, you won’t know what kind of extinguisher to

• Even if you have an ABC fire extinguisher, there may

be something in the fire that is going to explode or
produce toxic fumes.

Chances are you will know what’s burning, or at least

have a pretty good idea, but if you don’t, let the fire
department handle it.
Rules for Fighting Fires
. . . before deciding to fight the fire,
keep these things in mind:
• Is the fire spreading rapidly beyond the point where it
started? The time to use an extinguisher is at the
beginning stages of the fire.

• If the fire is already spreading quickly, it is best to

simply evacuate the building.

As you evacuate a building, close doors and windows behind you

as you leave. This will help to slow the spread of smoke and
Rules for Fighting Fires
Do not fight the fire if:
you don’t have adequate or appropriate equipment. If
you don’t have the correct type or large enough
extinguisher, it is best not to try fighting the fire.

You might inhale toxic smoke. When synthetic

materials such as the nylon in carpeting or foam
padding in a sofa burn, they can produce hydrogen
cyanide, acrolein, and ammonia in addition to carbon
monoxide. These gases can be fatal in very small

Your instincts tell you not to. If you are

uncomfortable with the situation for any reason,
just let the fire department do their job.
Rules for Fighting Fires
The final rule is to always position yourself with an
exit or means of escape at your back before you
attempt to use an extinguisher to put out a fire.

In case the extinguisher malfunctions, or something unexpected

happens, you need to be able to get out quickly. you don’t want
to become trapped

• In the event of a fire alarm, complete

evacuation of the building will be IMMEDIATE AND

• For other emergencies that may require

partial or total evacuation, Police or other
responsible authority will notify you.
 Primary evacuation routes for each floor of
each building will be the nearest safe
 Elevators should not be used for evacuation.
They may become inoperative or a smoke
hazard may develop.
 All occupants should be familiar with the
evacuation routes, which are posted on each
 Evacuees should meet at designated areas for
accounting reasons.
 “assembly points” to be used during an
evacuation will be identified and included in
the facility evacuation plan.
 Evacuation should begin with those persons not
requiring assistance. This avoids the possibility of the
disabled being injured.
 Position persons with disabilities near a safe stairwell
farthest from danger.
 If possible, designate one person to stay with disabled
and another to notify emergency responders of their
 Elevators will not be used during an emergency
 Flashlights or emergency lights will be useful in case
of electrical power failure.
 Occupants will proceed to the nearest stairwell in an
orderly manner, staying to the right side of the stairs
and exiting the building on the ground floor.
 Close office doors and windows as you leave.
 Occupants should be informed to take personal items
only if there is time.
 Occupants should remain quiet in the evacuation process
in order to hear directions.
In Case of Burns
The main treatment for burns is
covering the affected area in
WATER for Ten – Fifteen minutes.
All burns on people, which bigger
than their own hand, or are
intermediate or deep degree burns
should be sent to the hospital. For
people with burn to mouth and
throat you should give them short
sips of Water.
In Case of Burns
Do Nots of Burns
 Do not burst Blisters or touch the injured
 Do not remove stuck on clothing.
 Do not apply ointments lotions or fats.
 Do not apply stick plasters or cotton wool on
the burn.
 Do not overcool the causality as this can lead
to hypothermia.
 Do not touch the person who has a victim of an
electric shock as you could injure yourself.
 Note: If the person is in contact with high
voltage electricity, you must remain 18 meters
from them and contact emergency service.
Enhancing emergency
response through mock
drill/ Simulation Exercise
Learning objects
 Define the mock drill or exercise
 Need and importance of the mock drill
 Explain the phases to organize mock
drill for earthquake
 Precaution need to taken in organizing
mock drill
 Define requirements for managing
evacuation and rescue operations
 Demonstrate the mock drill
What is Mock Drill ?

Mock drill is a exercise / scenario

organized to assess the level of
preparedness and check the
response procedure pertaining to
any disaster is followed
Why Mock drill or Exercise ?
 To test emergency preparedness level of the

 To correct mistakes of various role players

in the organization.

 To avoid misunderstanding in roles and


 For better coordination among the teams

 To make it accustom so as to react


 To check the proper functioning of instruments

used by disaster response teams.
Phases of
Phase I : alarm
 Earthquake
shaking warning
is given for one
 This will be a pre-
arranged signal
such as siren/bell
which is known to
whole premises.
Phase ii : response
 Duck, cover,
hold & other
response action
will be
performed in
office/ factory.
 If outside go
away from tall
Phase iii : evacuation
 once the “shaking”
warning signal stops,
teachers and students
should Check the
building damage and
take decision to
evacuate the building
following proper
evacuation procedures
 If building is damaged
stay in the building.
Phase iv : assembly
Whole Staff /Visitors/Guests will
assemble at the pre determined
assembly point.
Phase v : head count
 Marshals will
take the
attendance and
check with daily

 Make list of
absentees and
activate the
search and
rescue team
/first aid team
Phase vi : evaluation

An evaluation of the drill must be

conducted to identify problems
encountered during the drill and
how this can be corrected in future
earthquake drills.
 Display the Dos & Don'ts and
Evacuation Plan of your building
with safe and unsafe places.

 Every employee must be oriented

& a movie on mock drill should be

 Observers should be located at

danger places to prevent any
 All staff members must be aware
about assembly point & warning
sign for drills.

 Each area should be checked for

damaged tables & other furniture
which may harm the staff during

 Identify safe & danger zone find

out the solution for danger zone.
 Explain evacuation plan to staff.

 Give specific instructions on what to do

during an earthquake e.g., Duck, Cover &

 Give specific instructions about what to

do as soon as the shaking stops e.g.,
don’t run walk fast.

 Inform staff about evacuation route &

assembly point.
Actual conduction of drill
 Prior to drill identify & assign observer at
various point.

 A bell/siren will be blown for one minute,

which signifies earthquake shaking.

 During the warning all the staff will do Duck,

Cover & Hold.

 As soon as warning signal stops, the marshal

of particular department/ floor will check
the building damage if any and decide to
evacuate the pre determined assembly point

 The marshal will leave the floor in last.

building Evacuation team will
guide in evacuating the building.

 Those who are assumed to be

injured will remain in their place.

 marshal will ensure that all

person have evacuated properly.

 After head counting is done first

aid team will be activated as
First aid team
for your time….

If you have any query/feedback please contact us at:


(an iso 9001: 2008 certified company)
25/4 A, Mandir Lane, Yusuf Sarai,
New Delhi – 110016, India
Phone: 011 – 32049167, 9999557211