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Zinc oxide eugenol impression paste

Introduction
1. Rigid impression
2. High degree of accuracy and good reproduction of
surface details.
3. Irreversible set by chemical changes
4. Do not come out of undercuts.
Composition of ZOE impression
Paste 1 : Base paste
1. . Zinc oxide: 87 %
 Function: Reactive ingredient whitch takes part in setting reaction.
2. Olive oil or linseed oil or equivalent: 13 %
Function:
 Acts as a plasticizer
 Aids in masking the action of eugenol as an irretant.
 Inert component used to form paste with zinc oxid
Paste 2: Accelerator paste
1. Oil of cloves or eugenol: 12 %
Function:
Reactive ingredient takes part in the setting reaction.
Composition of ZOE impression
2. Gum or polymerized rosins:50 %
Function:
 Helps to speed reaction.
 Smoother homogenous mix.
 It is possible that rosin enters the reaction because it reinforces the final
product.
3 Filler (Silica type) : 20 % ( kaolin, Talc, Diatomaceous earth)
Inert filler used to form a paste with eugenol.
4 Lanolin: 3 %
5 Resinous balsam : 10 % ( canada balsam and peru balsam )
 Increase flow.
 Improves mixing properties.
6 Accelerator solution (calcium chloride+color) : 5%

7 Other accelerators: Zinc acetate . Primary alcohals, glacial acetic acids


Manipulation
Proportioning and mixing
 The two components are marketed as pastes
contained in separate collapsible metal tubes.
 Equal length of both the pastes should be
dispensed.Variations in the length alters the
setting time varies from 4.75 to 7 minutes.
 Paper pad or glass slab . A stiff stainless steel
spatula with an 8 to 10 cm blade should be used
 Mixing is done for 30 to 40 seconds, until there
are no color streaks in mix and a uniform
consistency is obtained.
 After use the spatula blade can be cleaned by
warming in a flame until the rosin components
softens and the blade can be wiped clean with
paper towel.
 Solvents are available for cleaning the
material.They consists mainly of naphtha, light
cutting oils or a similar substance blended with
suitable aromatic oil,
Setting time
1. Adequate working time is important during impression making.
2. Setting time can be altered to suit clinical
procedures.
3. The type and amount of accelerator used
are by far the most important factor in control of setting time.
4. Altering the length of the paste is not advisable as it alters the
strength of the final product.
Control of Setting time
The Settig time can be decreased by the following:
 A small amount of Zinc acetate.
 Accelerators may be added.
 A small drop of water may be mixed into the paste containing
eugenol.
4. Longer the mixing time shorter the setting time.
5. Increaseing accelerator paste while mixing.
Setting time

The setting time can be increased by the followig:


1. Cooling the spatula and mixing slab may help increase the setting
time , provided the temperature is not below the dew point.
2. By the addition of the certain inert oils and waxes during mixing,
such as olive oil, mineral oil and petrolium.This reduces hardness
of the paste.
3. Increasing base paste while.
Properties
1. Consistency and Flow
 The consistency and flow is of clinical importance.
 The consistency affects the compressibility of tissues.
 Thick consistency or High viscosity can compress the tissues.
 A thin , fluid material records the tissues in a relaxed condition
with little or no compression.
2. Dimensional stability
 The dimensional stability of most of impression pastes are quite
satisfactory.
 A negligible shrinkage ( less than .1 % ) may occur during
hardening
 No signifacant dimensional change subsequent to hardening is to
be expected. Can be preserved for longer periods.
3. The ability to reproduce detail is good.
Uses
Corrective impression material
uses

2. Impression for Relining and rebasing.

3. Bite registration paste.


Advantages

1. Good dimensional stability.


2. Good detail reproduction.
3. Impression surface can be modified by adding in
deficient areas.
4. Easy to manipulate.
5. Long working time , so border molding can be done
while relining dentures.
Disadvantages

1. Burning sensation with eugenol.


(this type of patient, eugenol-free zinc
oxide impression pastes are available. The eugenol
is replaced by an alternative organic acid)
1. Messy to work with.
2. Sticks to Skin and instruments,difficult to clean.
3. Rigid so tends to break off in areas of undercuts.
Non aqueous Elastomeric imp Mat
Or Elastomeric impression materials
INTRODUCTION
 Elastic
 Basiclly synthetic rubbers
 Non equeous
Chemistry
They are liquid polymers converted to rubber at room
temperature by mixing with a suitable catalyst.
They consist of large molecule or polymers that are
joined by cross linking.
The first synthetic rubber like material was produced by
process known as vulcanization or curing.
Classification
Based on chemical composition
 Poly ethers
 Poly sulfides
 Silicones:
 Addition and condensation
 Based on viscosity
 Light body or syringe consistency
 Medium or regular body
 Heavy body or tray consistancy.
 Very heavy or putty consistancy.
BASED ON ADA CLASSIFICATION
 Based on selected elastic properties and dimensional
changes of set materials, as type 1, type tt and type 111.
Polysulfide
 They are the first elastomers to be introduced.
 They are also known as Mercaptan or thiokol.
Available as
Two paste system.
Available viscosities.
1. Light body.
2. Medium bodied.
3. Heavy bodied.
COMMERCIAL NAMES

Permlastic,coeflex, omniflex,( copper oxysulfate activator),


Unelastic (lead dioxide activator )
Composition
 Base Paste
1. Usually white coloured paste
2. Sodium polysulphide polymer 80-85% convert to solid
rubber by oxidatioin
3. Lithophone and titanium dioxide (16-18%)
As filler to provide the required strength, to produce
viscosity and whiteness.
4. ZnSo4, cuco3,zno, Silica
Accelator paste
 Usually brown coloured paste.
1. Lead dioxide o peroxide.
2. Copper oxysulfate (alternative to lead dioxide)(60-
80%):Oxide agents,acts as catalyst for polymerization,on
curing gives dark brown color and unpleasant odor.
3. Dibutyl or Dioctylphthalate 30-35%:plasticizor,to provide
viscosity.
4. Sulfur (.5-3%) to enhance the reaction
5. Caster oil (5-8%)
6. Stearate or oleic acid (retarder) (1-2%) to controle
setting time.
7. Deodorants (traces): to provide a pleasant smell.
Tray Adhesive
 Butyl rubber or styrene acrylonitrile dissolved in a volatile
solvent such as chloroform or ketone.
SETTING REACTION
1 Mercaptan + Lead Dioxide = Polysulfide +H2O.

PROPERTIES
1. Setting time 5 to 8 minutes.
.Colder climate increase setting time.
A drop of water accelerate the reaction
2. Excellent detail reproduction.
3. Dimensional stability.
Curing shrinkage .45% due to continued reaction
Shrinkage due to loss of by product (water)
PROPERTIES
4 Permanent deformation--- 3 to 5 %
Highest among elastomers. Can be produced by rocking
the impression while removal.
The impression should be removed with a single swift pull
to allow elastic recovery.
5.High tear strength-7000gm/cm2
6. Good flexibility of 7%, Allows elastic recovery of the
material.
7.Hydrophobic
8.Can be elecroplated with copper.
9.Toxic effects may be attributed to the lead content.But is
considered unlikely due to the short time of contact of
the impression material with the tissue.
Advantages
 1 long working time.
 2 proven accuracy
 3 High tear resistance
 4 Inexpensive to use
 5 Less Hydrophobic
 6 longer shelf life.
Disadvantages
 Must be poured with dental stones
immediately.
 Potential for significant distortion.
 Odor is offensive.
 Messy and stains cloths.
 Second poured is less accurate.
SILICONES
Polymerisation
The conversion of monomer molecules into polymers may
proceed by either an addition reactionor a condensation
reaction.
Addition polymerisation
An addition reaction simply involves the joining
 together of two molecules to form a third, larger
 molecule. For example, ethylene reacts with
 bromine under the correct conditions to form
 dibromoethane, as follows.
 CH2 = CH2 + Br2 → CH2Br − CH2Br
monomer molecules are added during each stage of the polymerisation
reaction and eventually a long-chain molecule is produced
Condensation polymerization

A condensation reaction involves two molecules


reacting together to form a third, larger molecule
with the production of a byproduct which is normally
a small molecule such as water. A simple
example of a condensation reaction is an esterifi -
cation reaction in which an organic acid and an
alcohol react together to form an ester with the
evolution of water.
CH3CO2H + C2H5OH → CH3CO2C2H5 + H2O
ADDITION SILICONES
(POLY VINYLE SILOXANE)

INTRODUCTION
 Introduced after condensation salicones
 They have better properties than condensation silicones.
 Poly vinyl siloxanes.
COMPOSITION
BASE PASTE
1. Poly (methyl hydrogen siloxane)
2. Siloxane prepolymers.
3. Fillers- to give bulk and viscosity
! Putty viscosity 60 to 70 % fillers
! Medium viscosity _ 35 to 75 % fillers.
! Low viscosity – 5 to 15 % fillers.
COMPOSITION
Accelerator pastes
1 Divinyle polysiloxane,
2 Inert oils and fillers – Forms the bulk of the paste.
3 Platinium salt_ catalyst ( Chloroplatinic acid ).
4 Palladium or hydrogen absorber.
5 Retarders.
6 Fillers

Setting Reaction
 Its is an addition polymerization reaction.
 The Vinyl groups of the base paste reacts with the silane group of the
accelerator paste and cross linking occurs.
 There is no formation of byproducts
 If the paste are in improper proportion, hydrogen gas may be evolved
during the setting reactions.
 Palladium is added to absorb hydrogen to prevent dimensional changes.
Precation during Manipulation

 Latex in the rubber gloves reacts with the chloroplatinic acid and retards
setting.
 Vinyl gloves can be used as an alternative.
 Aluminium sulfate and ferric sulfate in gingival retraction cords may
produce retardation and should be avoided.

Properties
 Setting time- 5.9 minutes Mixing time- 45 sec.
 Excellent surface detail reproduction.
 Highest dimensional stability among elastomers
 Lowest curing shrinkage– 0.17 percent.
 Good tear strength--- 3000 gm /cm.
 Extremly hydrophobic. Isolation is required for impression making.
 Low flexisibility---- care should be taken while removing the stone cast.
 Electroplated with coppper and silver.
 Shelf-life – 1 to 2 yrs.
Advantages
 Short Setting time.
 Adequate setting time.
 Extremely high accuracy.
 Minimal distortion on removal.
 Dimensionally stable even after 1 year week.
 If hydrophilic, good compatibility with the gypsum.

DISADVANTAGES
 Hydrogen gas may cause dimensional changes
 Hydrophobic may requires a dry field.
 Expensive especially with the automatic mixing device.
POLYETHER
INTRODUCTION
 It was introduced in Germany in late 1960,s
 It was first elastomer to be developed as impression materials.

AVAILABLE AS
 Two paste system.
 Third Paste containing a thinner is also provided.
 VISCOSITIES,
Light, medium, heavy body and putty consistancy.
Composition
Base Paste
 Imine terminated polymer (polyether) cross-links to form the set material.
 A colloidal silica as the filler gives bulk.
 Glycol Ether act as a plasticisor, Gives bulk and controls viscosity.

ACCELATOR PASTE
 Alkyle aromatic sulfonate initiates cross linkage.
 Colloidal silica ads a filler ----- to form the paste.
 Plasticisor
SETTING REACTION
Polyether +Sulfonic esters-------- Cross linked rubber
 It set by additional polymerization and no byproduct is formed
 It is cured by the reaction between the aziridine rings which are the end of
the branched polyether chain.
 The copolymer of the ethylene oxide and tetrahydrofuran forms the main
reaction.
SETTING REACTION
 The set material is hydrophilic. It can absorb water and swell resulting in
dimensional change. It should not be used in climates with high humadity.

PROPERTIES
1. Setting time 8.3 minutes. Mixing time 30 Sec.
2. Dimensional stability is good.
No by products are formed during the reaction . The material is initially
hydrophilic and can absorb water resulting in distortion.
! Curing shrinkage is about .24 ;percent which is low
! Permanent deformation 1 to 2 percent which is low.
3. Decreased flexibility 3 percent. Tends to become extremely stiff on curing.
4. Hydrophilic moisture control is not critical in impression making.
5. The activator paste can produce allergy if handled frequently.
6. Tear strength ------ 3000 gm/cm.
7. Shelf-life more than 2 yrs.
Advantages
 Short working and setting time.
 Proven accuracy
 Adequate tear strength.
 Hydrophilic– better wetting.
 Long shelf-life.
 Less distortion on removal.
 Good dimensional stability.

DISADVANTAGES
 Stiffness Requires blocking of undercuts.
 Slightly more expensive.
 Multiple casts can not be poured due to stiffness of the material.