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PENGANTAR

HISTOLOGI

Bagian Anatomi/Histologi
Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter
Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan
Universitas Warmadewa
Histology
• Histology : - histos = tissue
- logos = study
• study of the tissues
how these tissues arranged to
constitute organ
• characteristic of the tissues

Histology is the study of tissues


• defining characteristics of tissues can be seen
using the light microscope
• electron microscopy is needed to see connections
between cells
Tujuan mempelajari Histologi
• Memahami konsep-konsep tentang sel,
jaringan, organ, dan sistem organ yang
menyusun tubuh manusia
• Mahasiswa memiliki kemampuan yang cukup
untuk mengikuti pendidikan kedokteran lebih
lanjut
• Mampu mengembangkan wawasan dan
berkomunikasi secara ilmiah dalam bidang
ilmu kedokteran
• Dapat mengikuti perkembangan ilmu
kedokteran serta mampu menerapkannya
dalam praktek kedokteran di kemudian hari.
Levels of organization
• cells form tissues
• tissues form organs
• organs form organ systems

the human body contains about 100


trillion cells
Aspects of cell diversity
• size and shape
• position in the body
• expressed proteins
– different cytoskeletal proteins
– different secreted proteins
– different receptors
– different enzymes
– different transcription factors
HOW TO LEARN THE TISSUES

• Cut very thin slices called sections


• Microtome
• Suitable for light microscopy
LIGHT MICROSCOPE
• The essential parts of light
microscope
1. Lens system - oculars,objectives
2. Slide stage and condenser
3. Focus adjustment
4. Lamp system
TEHNIK PEMBUATAN SEDIAAN HISTOLOGI :

I. CARA BIASA / RUTIN / PARAFFIN

II. METHODE CELLOIDIN

III. IRISAN BEKU / FROZEN SECTION


Microscopic examination
• Preparation of tissues
– Histologic section is common procedure,
divided into many steps;
– 1. Fixation process uses fixatives
- the tissues cut into small /thin
fragments
- buffered isotonic solution
( 4% formaldehyde)LM
- buffered glutaraldehyde + osmium
tetraoxide EM
Fixation meant
- To end metabolism in the cells
- To prevent the degradation by
enzyme ----autolysis
- To kill pathogenic microorganism
- To make the tissues solid and
dense
2 .Dehydration and clearing
- to extracted water from the
fragment
- a graded series of mixtures of ethanol
( from 70 % to 100 % )
- for clearing --- xylene makes the
tissue transparent

3. Embedding
- a solid medium to facilitate
sectioning
- embedding materials are
paraffin
plastic resin ---in paraffin block
4. The tissues block sectioned by
the microtome
- the sections floated on water
- transferred to glass slides
5. Staining
- combination of hematoxylin and
eosin ( HE )
- hematoxylin stains the cell
nucleus and other acid structures
- eosin stains cytoplasm and collagen
MACAM-MACAM PENGECATAN :

HEMATOKSILIN-EOSIN ( H.E. )
INTI: BIRU
SITOPLASMA DAN SABUT-SABUT : MERAH
MUDA

MALLORY-AZAN ( M.A. )
SEL DAN INTI SEL : MERAH
BAHAN ANTAR SEL DAN JARINGAN IKAT :
BIRU.
VERHOEF van GIESON ( V.v.G )
SABUT-SABUT ELASTIS : HITAM
LAIN-LAIN : KUNING PUCAT
MERUPAKAN PEWARNAAN KHUSUS
UNTUK SABUT ELASTIS

IMPREGNASI PERAK ( Ag. IMPREGNASI )


SABUT-SABUT RETIKULER TAMPAK
SEBAGAI JALA HALUS BERWARNA
HITAM, LYMPHOSIT HITAM.
MERUPAKAN PEWARNAAN KHUSUS
UNTUK SABUT RETIKULER.
PERIODIC ACID SCHIFF ( PAS )
SABUT-SABUT RETIKULER DAN ELASTIS : MERAH
MAGENTA.
TERMASUK PEWARNAAN KHUSUS UNTUK SABUT
RETIKULER.

ASAM OSMIK
MERUPAKAN PEWARNAAN KHUSUS UNTUK LEMAK.
BOLA LEMAK DENGAN PEWARNAAN H.E LARUT,
SEHINGGA TAMPAK SEPERTI BENTUKAN CINCIN,
DENGAN PEWARNAAN ASAM OSMIK TAMPAK
SEPERTI BOLA HITAM.
PERIODIC ACID SCHIFF ( PAS )
SABUT-SABUT RETIKULER DAN ELASTIS :
MERAH MAGENTA.
TERMASUK PEWARNAAN KHUSUS UNTUK SABUT
RETIKULER.

ASAM OSMIK
MERUPAKAN PEWARNAAN KHUSUS UNTUK
LEMAK.
BOLA LEMAK DENGAN PEWARNAAN H.E LARUT,
SEHINGGA TAMPAK SEPERTI BENTUKAN
CINCIN, DENGAN PEWARNAAN ASAM OSMIK
TAMPAK SEPERTI BOLA HITAM.
WRIGHT :
PEWARNAAN UNTUK HAPUSAN DARAH DAN SUMSUM
TULANG.
HASIL SAMA DENGAN H.E.
INTI : BIRU / UNGU GELAP
SITOPLASMA : MERAH PUCAT

ARTEFACT :
 BENTUKAN YANG SEBENARNYA TIDAK ADA,
TERJADI KARENA KESALAHAN TEHNIK YANG TIDAK
DAPAT DIHINDARI.
MACAM-MACAM ARTEFACT :

- PENGKERUTAN ( SHRINKAGE )
- ENDAPAN KRISTAL ( PRECIPITATE )
- LIPATAN DAN KERUTAN : PADA WAKTU
PENEMPELAN KE GELAS OBYEK,KURANG
SEMPURNA PEMAPARANNYA.
- RETAK-RETAK YANG SEJAJAR : TERJADI
AKIBAT KOTORAN ATAU TUMPULNYA
PISAU MIKROTOM.
- ADA BAGIAN-BAGIAN YANG HANCUR
KARENA PENEKANAN.
Four fundamental tissues
1. Epithelial tissue
2. Connective tissue
3. Muscular tissue
4. Nervous tissue
The epithelial tissue

Organization of the cells in very


close arrangement one another as a
sheet
Epithelial tissues
• epithelia are linings and coverings
• epithelia have a free surface, an
attached surface, and sit on a
basement membrane
• epithelial cells are joined to their
neighbors
• epithelia are specialized for secretion,
absorption, protection, and diffusion
Three types of epithelia
• squamous: flattened (“squashed”)
– simple: blood vessels, lungs
– stratified: skin, esophagus
• cuboidal: like little dice
– secretion: kidney tubules, thyroid gland,
salivary glands
• columnar: taller than wide
– absorption: intestine
Squamous epithelium

model cell frog skin


Cuboidal epithelium

outer
layer

tubules

mammalian kidney tubules


Columnar epithelium

small intestine
model
Connective tissue
• cells are usually not touching
• may be fluid (blood), hard (bone), poorly
organized (loose connective tissue), well
organized (adipose tissue)
• binds and supports, packing material
• cells in loose connective tissue are
fibroblasts
• fibroblasts secrete protein: collagen
• collagen most abundant animal protein
Composition of Connective
Tissue
• Extracellular Matrix
– Ground Substance
– Fibers
• Cells
– Resident cells
– Transient cells

Gartner & Hiatt Fig 6-3


Cellular Components
Fixed Cells Transient cells
1. Fibroblasts 1. Plasma cells
2. Pericytes 2. Lymphocytes
3. Adipose Cells 3. Neutrophils
4. Mast Cells 4. Eosinophils
5. Fixed macrophage, 5. Basophils
kupffer cells, dust 6. Monocytes
cells, langer-hans 7. Transient
cells macrophages
The extracellular matrix
• all animal cells are surrounded by an
extracellular matrix of proteins and sugars
• another piece of evidence for single origin
of the animals
• main components are collagen and
proteoglycan
Nervous tissue
• neurons = nerve cells
• glial cells are always found in association with
neurons
• glial cells provide myelin wrappings for nerve cells,
which speeds up nervous system activity in
vertebrates
Basic neuron
Muscle tissue
• muscle cells have specialized structural
proteins that permit them to get shorter
• muscle is the most abundant tissue in
triploblastic animals
• skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle share
same contractile proteins
Smooth muscle
Striated muscle

Cardiac muscle
Striated muscle cells
TERIMA KASIH
TERIMA KASIH