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15-441 Computer Networking

Introduction, Part II
Introduction, Part II

Chapter goal: Overview:


• get context, • what’s the Internet
overview, “feel” of • what’s a protocol?
networking • network edge
• more depth, detail • network core
later in course • access net, physical media
• performance: loss, delay
• approach:
• protocol layers, service models
• descriptive • backbones, NAPs, ISPs
• use Internet as • history today
example • ATM network

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 2


Oops!

I said something outrageously wrong last time!!


Looks like stocks will
keep rising indefinitely!

What was it?

I said that TCP doesn’t provide a data integrity check.


It does.
Lecture #2: 8-30-01 3
Delay in packet-switched networks

packets experience delay • nodal processing:


• check bit errors
on end-to-end path
• determine output link
• four sources of delay at
• queueing
each hop • time waiting at output link
for transmission
• depends on congestion
transmission level of router
A propagation

B
nodal
processing queueing

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 4


Delay in packet-switched networks
Transmission delay: Propagation delay:
• R=link bandwidth (bps) • d = length of physical link
• L=packet length (bits) • s = propagation speed in
• time to send bits into medium (~2x108 m/sec)
link = L/R • propagation delay = d/s

Note: s and R are very


transmission different quantities!
A propagation

B
nodal
processing queueing
Lecture #2: 8-30-01 5
Queueing delay (revisited)

• R=link bandwidth (bps)


• L=packet length (bits)
• a=average packet arrival
rate

traffic intensity = La/R

• La/R ~ 0: average queueing delay small


• La/R -> 1: delays become large
• La/R > 1: more “work” arriving than can
be serviced, average delay infinite!
Lecture #2: 8-30-01 6
Protocol “Layers”

Networks are complex!


• many “pieces”: Question:
• hosts Is there any hope of
• routers organizing the structure
of a network?
• links of various
media
Or at least our discussion
• applications
of networks?
• protocols
• hardware, software

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 7


Organization of air travel

check baggage claim baggage

board at gate; de-plane at gate;


load bags on plane unload bags

runway takeoff runway landing

airplane routing airplane routing


airplane routing

• a series of steps

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 8


Organization of air travel: a different view

baggage check baggage claim

bags (load)
people (load) people (unload)
bags (unload)

runway takeoff runway landing

airplane routing airplane routing


airplane routing

Layers: each layer implements a service or services


• via its own internal-layer actions
• relying on services provided by layer below

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 9


Layered air travel: services

check-in-counter-to-baggage-claim delivery

people transfer: loading bag transfer: belt at


gate to arrival gate check-in counter to
belt at baggage claim

runway-to-runway delivery of plane

airplane routing from source to destination

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 10


Distributed implementation of layer functionality
departing airport

arriving airport
baggage (check) baggage (claim)

gates/bags (load) gates/bags (unload)

runway takeoff runway landing

airplane routing airplane routing

intermediate air traffic sites


airplane routing airplane routing

airplane routing
Lecture #2: 8-30-01 11
Why layering?
Dealing with complex systems:
• explicit structure allows identification, relationship of
complex system’s pieces
• layered reference model for discussion
• modularization eases maintenance, updating of
system
• change of implementation of layer’s service
transparent to rest of system
• e.g., change in gate procedure doesn’t affect rest
of system
• layering considered harmful?

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 12


Internet protocol stack
• application: supporting network
applications
• ftp, smtp, http
application
• transport: host-host data transfer
• tcp, udp
transport
• network: routing of datagrams from
source to destination network
• ip, routing protocols
• link: data transfer between link
neighboring network elements
• ppp, ethernet physical
• physical: bits “on the wire”

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 13


Layering: logical communication

Each layer: application


transport
• distributed network
link
• “entities” physical
implement layer network
functions at application link
each node transport physical
network
• entities perform link
actions, physical
application application
exchange transport transport
messages with network network
link link
peers physical physical

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 14


Layering: logical communication

E.g.: transport data


• take data from application
transport
transport
app
network
• add addressing, link
reliability check physical
info to form ack network
“datagram” application link
transport data physical
• send datagram network
to peer link
data
• wait for peer to physical
application application
ack receipt transport transport
transport
network network
• analogy: post link link
office physical physical

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 15


Layering: physical communication

data
application
transport
network
link
physical
network
application link
transport physical
network
link
physical data
application application
transport transport
network network
link link
physical physical

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 16


Protocol layering and data

Each layer takes data from above


• adds header information to create new data
unit
• passes new data unit to layer below
source destination
M application application M message
Ht M transport transport Ht M segment
Hn Ht M network network Hn Ht M datagram
Hl Hn Ht M link link Hl Hn Ht M frame
physical physical

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 17


Internet structure: network of networks

• roughly hierarchical
• national/international local
ISP
backbone providers (NBPs)
regional ISP
• e.g. BBN/GTE, Sprint, AT&T,
IBM, UUNet NBP B
• interconnect (peer) with each
other privately, or at public NAP NAP
Network Access Point (NAPs)
NBP A
• regional ISPs
regional ISP
• connect into NBPs
local
• local ISP, company ISP
• connect into regional ISPs

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 18


National Backbone Provider

e.g. BBN/GTE US backbone network

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 19


Internet History

1961-1972: Early packet-switching principles

• 1961: Kleinrock - • 1972:


queueing theory shows • ARPAnet demonstrated
effectiveness of packet- publicly
switching
• NCP (Network Control
• 1964: Baran - packet- Protocol) first host-host
switching in military nets protocol
• 1967: ARPAnet • first e-mail program
conceived by Advanced
• ARPAnet has 15 nodes
Reearch Projects Agency
• 1969: first ARPAnet node
operational
Lecture #2: 8-30-01 20
Internet History

1972-1980: Internetworking, new and proprietary nets


• 1970: ALOHAnet satellite
network in Hawaii Cerf and Kahn’s internetworking
principles:
• 1973: Metcalfe’s PhD thesis
proposes Ethernet • minimalism, autonomy - no
internal changes required to
• 1974: Cerf and Kahn -
interconnect networks
architecture for interconnecting
networks • best effort service model
• late70’s: proprietary • stateless routers
architectures: DECnet, SNA, • decentralized control
XNA define today’s Internet architecture
• late 70’s: switching fixed length
packets (ATM precursor)
• 1979: ARPAnet has 200 nodes
Lecture #2: 8-30-01 21
Internet History

1980-1990: new protocols, a proliferation of networks

• 1983: deployment of • new national networks:


TCP/IP Csnet, BITnet,
• 1982: smtp e-mail protocol NSFnet, Minitel
defined
• 100,000 hosts
• 1983: DNS defined for
name-to-IP-address connected to
translation confederation of
• 1985: ftp protocol defined networks
• 1988: TCP congestion
control
Lecture #2: 8-30-01 22
Internet History

1990’s: commercialization, the WWW


• Early 1990’s: ARPAnet
decomissioned Late 1990’s:
• 1991: NSF lifts restrictions on • est. 50 million
commercial use of NSFnet
(decommissioned, 1995) computers on Internet
• early 1990s: WWW • est. 100 million+ users
• hypertext [Bush 1945,
Nelson 1960’s] • backbone links running
• HTML, http: Berners-Lee at 1 Gbps
• 1994: Mosaic, later
Netscape
• late 1990’s:
commercialization of the
WWW
Lecture #2: 8-30-01 23
ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode nets

Internet: ATM principles:


• today’s de facto standard • small (48 byte payload, 5
for global data networking byte header) fixed length
cells (like packets)
1980’s:
• fast switching
• telco’s develop ATM: • small size good for voice
competing network • virtual-circuit network:
standard for carrying high- switches maintain state for
speed voice/data each “call”
• standards bodies: • well-defined interface
• ATM Forum between “network” and
• ITU “user” (think of telephone
company)
Lecture #2: 8-30-01 24
ATM layers
Where’s the application?
• ATM: lower layer
• ATM Adaptation application
TCP/UDP • functionality only
Layer (AAL):
IP • IP-over ATM: later
interface to AAL
upper layers ATM
• end-system physical
• segmentation/re
assembly application
TCP/UDP ATM
• ATM Layer: cell IP physical
switching AAL
application application
• Physical ATM
TCP/UDP TCP/UDP
physical
IP IP
AAL AAL
ATM ATM
physical physical

Lecture #2: 8-30-01 25


Chapter 1: Summary
Covered a “ton” of You now hopefully
material! have:
• Internet overview
• context, overview,
• what’s a protocol?
“feel” of networking
• network edge, core,
access network • more depth, detail
• performance: loss, later in course
delay
• layering and service
models
• backbones, NAPs,
ISPs
• history
• ATM network Lecture #2: 8-30-01 26