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Mixed methods research is a methodology for
conducting research that involves collecting, analyzing and
integrating quantitative and qualitative research. This
approach to research is used when this integration
provides a better understanding of the research problem
than either of each alone (Elham Ahmadnezhad-2009)

Converge data:

Qual Results Quan

Connect data:

Qual Quan Results

Characteristics of Quantitative and
Qualitative Research
INDUCTION Discovery of the problem

DEDUCTION Testing theories and hypothesis

ABDUCTION Uncovering and relying on the best of a set of

explanation for understanding one’s result
Why Mixed Methods?
• Quantitative data can reveal generalizable information for a large group of
people. These data often fail to provide specific answers, reasons,
explanations or examples.

• Qualitative research provides data about meaning and context regarding

the people and environments of study. Findings are often not generalizable
because of the small numbers & narrow range of participants.

• Both methods have strengths and weaknesses. When used together, these
methods can be complimentary.
Two Common Types of
Mixed Research Design

Mixed Method Mixed Model

Research Research
A type of study in which the A type of study in which the research
researcher uses the qualitative mixes both qualitative and quantitative
research approach within a stage of the
paradigm for one phase of the
study or across the stages of research
study and quantitative paradigm for process (Johnson, 2007)
another phase of the study.
Mixed Methods Design Strategies (Creswell, 2003)
1. Sequential Explanatory

Quan Qual
Data & Data & Interpretation
Results Results
Following up
Example of Sequential Explanatory

Explanatory Sequential Mixed Method Design as the Third Research Community of Knowledge Claim
Dhanapati Subedi*
Kathmandu University School of Education, Nepal
This study aimed at explaining the holistic ideas of mixed method design
focusing particularly on philosophical premises, generating research questions,
data collection and analysis process, potential ethical issues, quality of inference
and teaching mixed methodology. This article highlights on the growing interest of
educational researchers on sequential mixed method design in order to collect
and analyze data for legitimize knowledge claim. This article is expected to be
useful to novice researchers who are in quandary to adopt explanatory sequential
mixed method as a research method and it also creates a roadmap in educational
research indicating methodological possibilities for new knowledge claim.
Mixed Methods Design Strategies (Creswell, 2003)
2. Sequential Exploratory

Quan Interpretation
Data & Data &
Results Building Results
Example of Sequential Exploratory

Mixed Methods Research of Adult Family Care Home Residents and Informal Caregivers
Guy C. Jeanty
Carlos Albizu University, Miami, Florida, USA
This study describes a mixed methods approach used to explore
the experiences of adult family care home (AFCH) residents and
informal caregivers (IC). A rationale is presented for using a mixed
methods approach employing the sequential exploratory design with
this poorly researched population. The unique challenges attendant to
the sampling strategy with this population, and an iterative approach of
data collection and data analysis are discussed. A summary of the data
integration process and outcome is presented.
Mixed Methods Design Strategies (Creswell, 2003)
3. Concurrent Triangulation

Data & Interpretation Data &
Results Results
Five Major Purposes or Rationale for Conducting
Mixed Methods
1. Triangulation-Katigbak (2006) cited that triangulation is seeking
convergencies and corroboration of results from different methods and
designs studying the same phenomenon

2. Complementarity-Seeking collaboration, enhancement, illustration and

clarification of the results from one method with results from the other method.

3. Initiation-Discovering paradoxes and contradictions that lead to a reframing

of the research question
Five Major Purposes or Rationale for Conducting
Mixed Methods
4. Development-Using the findings from one method to help inform
the other method

5. Expansion-Seeking to expand the breadth and range of

research by using different methods for different inquiry