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Chapter: Tables

and Graphs
Presentation of Data
 After the collection of data and treating them with appropriate
statistical formulas, the presentation follows.
 Common tools for data presentation in quantitative research are
figures, tables, and graphs
 Present one or more sets of data series
 Also shows the results of data analysis through statistical
methods
Some ways of introducing
graphs or tables
1. The pie graph presented in figure 2 shows the total number of
enrolled Grade 11 senior high school students for school year
2014-2015
2. The bar graph in figure 1 presents the level of performance of
senior high school students in different subjects such as English,
Mathematics, Social Science, and Management.
3. Table 9, entitled “Weighted Mean of the Responses of the
Grade-6 Teachers Regarding Clinical Supervision During Post-
Conference”.
4. Table 4, below, shows the weighted mean of the level of validity
of test papers in terms of hierarchy of taxonomy.
Graph
 Shows relation, comparisons, and distributions in a set of data
like absolute values, percentages, or index numbers.
 Information should be presented on the horizontal and vertical
axes in a clear and systematic manner.
 Facts can be indicated in either in ascending or in descending
order.
 Set of related data is referred to as a data series
Basic Types of Graphs
1. Area
 Shows the relationship of different parts to a whole over time
 Best used for four to six data series
Basic Types of Graphs
2. Column
 Shows the differences in individual values vertically
 Also show the differences between values in different time
periods or other data groupings
 Works best with one to three data series
Basic Types of Graphs
3. Bar
 Shows the differences in individual values horizontally
 Not a good choice for showing values in different time periods
 Works better for presenting the results of one to two data series
Basic Types of Graphs
4. Line
 Features values at different points in time
 Usually best to have equal time intervals along the horizontal
axis of the graph
 Can effectively display up to four to six data series
Basic Types of Graphs
5. Pie
 Shows the proportions of each segment of a whole
 Only handles one data series
× The key questions to consider are whether the data is time-
sequenced and how many data series will be shown. By
selecting the appropriate graph type, the particular point or fact
investigated can be better understood by the readers. When
deciding which type of graph should be used, the decision tree in
Figure 12.6 can be consulted in the choice of appropriate graph
for the current situation.
Key Graph Elements
1. Colors
 Enough contrast between the background color and the color of
each data series
 Consistent with the overall color scheme of the slides
2. Depth
 Whether the graph is 2D or 3D
 Simply an aesthetic choice
Key Graph Elements
3. Axes
 All of the mentioned graph types have two axes, except for the
pie graph.
 One is for the data values and the other is for the time scale or
how the data is separated.
 Set the scale of the axes to suit the data being shown
 Make sure that axis labels that indicate the values along each
axis are big enough to be legible
 Must be clear
Key Graph Elements
4. Data Labels
 Clearly indicate the data value in a graph
 Text box that contains the actual data value
 Should be placed close to the graphical representation of the
data point
 Text should be legible and the text color has sufficient contrast
with the color underneath
Key Graph Elements
5. Title
 Should focus on the interpretation of the data, and not on the
data themselves
 Key factor to enable the audience interpreting the graph properly
6. Legend
 If there are more than one data
Tables
 Provide exact values and illustrate results efficiently
 The data are arranged in an orderly display of rows and columns
to aid comparison.
 The readability of both results and analyses of variance is
enhanced.
Must be observed in the
use of table:
1. Precise values are better that rounded-off values for they may
display patterns and exceptions.
2. Comparing numbers downs a column is better than across a row.
3. Column and row averages provide a visual focus that allows easy
inspection of data
Tables can be used in the
following scenarios:
1. A single category is to be presented in different points.
2. An exact value like the weighted mean or frequency must be
emphasized.
3. The data set contains few numbers.
Elements of a Table
1. Title
2. Rows
3. Columns
4. Column labels/ Titles
5. Data
Examples of Tables
Chapter: Analysis
and Interpretation
of Data
× In a research paper, the presentation, analysis, and
interpretation of data are usually placed before the summary of
findings, conclusion, and recommendations.

× This part of the research paper is titled differently depending on


the research format or style adopted by educational institutions.
The presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data are usually
featured in Chapter IV of the research paper but in the APA
format, this section appears under the header, “Results and
Discussion.”
Major Elements of the
Section
1.The presentation of data
 Features the data for easy understanding of the reader.
 Data are usually presented in charts, tables, or figures with
textual interpretation
2. Analysis
 Intelligence and logic of the researcher are required in this part
in which important data are emphasized.
 Basis of the findings of the study
Major Elements of the
Section
3. Interpretation
 Comprehensible statements are made after translating the
statistical data
4. Discussion
 The results or findings of the investigation are compared and
contrasted with those of the reviewed literature and related
studies.
Analysis of Data
× Numbers or figures simply presented will not be easily
comprehended and their significance will not be determined
without a correct analysis. Analysis is the process of breaking a
whole into parts. The researcher must be critical in looking at
details to prove or disprove a certain theory or claim.
Must be considered:
1. The highest numerical value such as scores, weighted means,
percentages, variability, etc.
2. The lowest numerical value such as scores, weighted means,
percentages, variability, etc.
3. The most common numerical values like mode or values that
appear repeatedly.
4. The final numerical value like the average weighted mean, total,
chi-square value, correlation index, etc.
Examples of Analysis
Interpretation of Data
1.Level 1
 Data collected are compared and contrasted
 Allowed to comment on certain shortcomings of the study but
should not concentrate too much on the flaws.
2. Level 2
 Should explain the internal validity of the results as well as their
consistency or reliability.
 Causes or factors that may have influenced the results may also
be described
Interpretation of Data
3. Level 3
 Should explain the external validity of the results, that is, their
generality or applicability to external conditions.
4. Level 4
 Should relate or connect the interpretation of data with
theoretical research or with the reviewed literature
Discussion of Data
1. The flow of the discussion of results or findings is based on how
the problems are stated.
2. The manner or sequence of discussion should include the
following:
a) Discussion of the finding in relation to the results of previous
studies cited in the review of related literature and studies
b) Implications, inferences, and other important information
Chapter: The
Summary of
Findings,
Conclusion and
Recommendations
The Concluding Part
 After the collection of data and collating, presenting, analyzing,
interpreting, and discussing the results, the formulation of the
concluding part of the thesis follows.
 Composed of the summary of findings, conclusions, and
recommendations.
Summary of Findings
Presents in brief and precise terms the following:
a. Restatement of main and sub-problem
b. Reiteration of the type of research, nature and size of sample/s,
and locale of the study
c. Enumerate or express the major findings in one or two
statements, as well as identify whether the null statements or
hypotheses have been rejected or not.
Conclusions
 Contains insights drawn from the findings per sub-problem.
 Summarizes the principal features of the study
 Simply stated, devoid of any elaborated discussion of the
findings
 Each item in the conclusion is a precise statement directly
answering the stated problems.
 Bases for the formulation of the general conclusion of the study
Recommendation
 Identified to serve as practical suggestions for future research in
similar fields
 Envisioned to further improve the pertinent variables of the
investigation undertaken.