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DIFFERENCES IN LEADERS & MANAGERS

• LEADERS : ADVOCATES FOR CHANGE


• MANAGERS : ADVOCATES FOR STABILITY
• LEADERSHIP PROCESS : GUIDING AND DIRECTING BEHAVIOR
• SETTING A DIRECTION FOR THE ORGANIZATION
• ALIGNING PEOPLE WITH THE DIRECTION
• MOTIVATING PEOPLE TO ACTION
• FORMAL LEADERSHIP : OFFICIALLY SANCTIONED ( IE. BOSS AT WORK )
• INFORMAL LEADERSHIP : UNOFFICIAL LEADER ( IE. APPOINTED BY WORKERS)

• MANAGEMENT PROCESS : REDUCE UNCERTAINTY AND STABILIZES AN ORGANIZATION


• PLAN AND BUDGET
• ORGANIZE AND STAFF
• CONTROL AND PROBLEM SOLVE
ROLE OF TRAIT THEORY
• PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES
• HEIGHT, WEIGHT, PHYSIQUE, ENERGY, HEALTH, APPEARANCE, AND AGE.
• PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS
• ORIGINALITY, ADAPTABILITY, INTROVERSION, EXTROVERSION, DOMINANCE, SELF-CONFIDENCE, INTEGRITY,
CONVICTION, MOOD OPTIMISM, AND EMOTIONAL CONTROL.

• ABILITIES
• SOCIAL SKILLS, INTELLIGENCE, SCHOLARSHIP, SPEECH FLUENCY, COOPERATIVENESS, AND INSIGHT.
“TRAIT THEORIES HAVE HAD VERY LIMITED SUCCESS”
FOUNDATIONAL BEHAVIOR
• A LEADER USES ONE OF THESE THREE BASIC STYLES WHEN APPROACHING A GROUP OF FOLLOWERS IN A
LEADERSHIP SITUATION.
• AUTOCRATIC STYLE
• USES STRONG, DIRECTIVE ACTIONS TO CONTROL RULES, REGULATIONS, ACTIVITIES, AND RELATIONSHIPS IN THE WORK
ENVIRONMENT.
• DEMOCRATIC STYLE
• USES INTERACTION AND COLLABORATION WITH FOLLOWERS TO DIRECT WORK AND THE WORK ENVIRONMENT
• LAISSEZ-FAIRE STYLE
• ENTAILS A HANDS-OFF APPROACH
CONTINGENCY THEORIES
• FIELDERS THEORY
• THE FIT BETWEEN THE LEADERS NEED STRUCTURE AND THE FAVORABLENESS OF THE LEADERS SITUATION DETERMINES
THE TEAMS EFFECTIVENESS IN WORK ACCOMPLISHMENT
• PATH-GOAL THEORY
• LEADER EFFECTIVENESS IS BASED ON AN EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION
• NORMATIVE DECISION THEORY
• HELPS LEADERS AND MANAGERS DETERMINE THE APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF EMPLOTEE PARTICIPATION IN DECISION
MAKING
• SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY
• LEADERS BEHAVIOR SHOULD BE ADJUSTED TO THE MATURITY LEVEL OF THE FOLLOWERS
FOLLOWERSHIP
• FOLLOWERSHIP- THE PROCESS OF BEING GUIDED AND DIRECTED BY A LEADER IN THE WORK
ENVIRONMENT
• TRADITIONAL VIEW CASTS FOLLOWERS AS PASSIVE WHEREAS MORE CONTEMPORARY VIEWS CASTS THE
FOLLOWER ROLE AS AN ACTIVE ONE WITH POTENTIAL FOR LEADERSHIP
• EFFECTIVE FOLLOWERS ARE IDENTIFIED BASED ON 2 DIMENSIONS:
• 1- ACTIVITY VERSUS PASSIVITY
• 2-INDEPENDENT, CRITICAL THINKING VERSUS DEPENDENT, UNCRITICAL THINKING
5 TYPES OF FOLLOWERS
• ALIENATED FOLLOWERS- THINK INDEPENDENTLY AND CRITICALLY BUT ARE VERY PASSIVE IN THEIR BEHAVIOR. BECOME
DISTANCED FORM THEIR LEADERS AND CAN BE A THREAT TO AN ORGANIZATION
• SHEEP- FOLLOWERS WHO DO NOT THINK INDEPENDENTLY OR CRITICALLY AND ARE PASSIVE IN THEIR BEHAVIOR.
• YES PEOPLE- FOLLOWERS WHO DO NOT THINK INDEPENDENTLY OR CRITICALLY YET ARE VERY ACTIVE IN THEIR BEHAVIOR.
ARE THE MOST DANGEROUS BECAUSE THEY ARE MOST LIKELY TO GIVE A FALSE POSITIVE REACTION.
• SURVIVORS- LEAST DISRUPTIVE AND LOWEST RISK FOLLOWERS IN AN ORGANIZATION. “KNOWN FOR SAMPLING THE WIND”
THEIR MOTTO IS KNOWN AS “BETTER SAFE THAN SORRY”
• EFFECTIVE FOLLOWERS- MOST VALUABLE TO A LEADER. HAVE 4 ESSENTIAL QUALITIES: 1-PRACTICE SELF MANAGEMENT AND
SELF RESPONSIBILITY. 2- COMMITTED TO BOTH THE ORGANIZATION AND A PURPOSE, PRINCIPLE, OR PERSON OUTSIDE
THEMSELVES. 3- INVEST IN THEIR OWN COMPETENCE AND PROFESSIONALISM. 4- COURAGEOUS, HONEST AND CREDIBLE.
5 GUIDELINES FOR LEADERSHIP
• 1- LEADERS & ORGANIZATIONS SHOULD APPRECIATE THE UNIQUE ATTRIBUTES, PREDISPOSITIONS, AND
TALENTS OR EACH LEADER
• 2- LEADERS SHOULD BE CHOSEN WHO CHALLENGE THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, WHEN NECESSARY,
WITHOUT DESTROYING IT
• 3- PARTICIPATIVE, CONSIDERATE LEADER BEHAVIORS THAT DEMONSTRATE A CONCERN FOR PEOPLE
APPEAR TO ENHANCE THE HEALTH AND WELL BEING OF THE FOLLOWERS IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENT
• 4- DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP SITUATIONS CALL FOR DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP TALENTS AND BEHAVIORS
• 5- GOOD LEADERS ARE LIKELY TO BE GOOD FOLLOWERS