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Engr. Ma. Irish Marnel Villalobos
I.1. Why do you think the CPM has
become so popular?

• CPM become so popular because PERT and CPM shows

the critical paths of a given project, critical paths is a set
of activities that will cause a lot of problems if any of this
activity will not finish on date and in one project there is
more than one critical path that change depending on the
actual project.
I.2. What are the important uses of CPM
in construction operations?
• CPM encourages a logical discipline in the planning, scheduling, and
control of projects.
• CPM encourages more long-range and detailed planning of projects.
• All project personnel get a complete overview of the total project.
• CPM provides a standard method of documenting and communicating
project plans, schedules, and time and cost performances.
• CPM identifies the most critical elements in the plan, focusing
management’s attention to the 10 to 20% of the project that is most
constraining on the scheduling.
• CPM provides an easy method for evaluating the effects of technical and
procedural changes that occur on the overall project schedule.
• CPM enables the most economical planning of all operations to meet
desirable project completion dates.
I.3. Do you think most arrow diagrams
are being used correctly?

• Yes, because arrow diagram shows the required order of

tasks in a project or process, it is the best schedule for
the entire project, and potential scheduling and resource
problems and their solutions. The arrow diagram lets
you calculate the “critical path” of the project.
I.4. Some users observe the arrow diagrams take
too much time and effort to prepare, what can you
say about this?
• For me it is really hard to calculate or make the arrow
diagram because we ore they need to determine the
correct sequence of the tasks. It will do this by asking
three questions for each task first which tasks must
happen before this one can begin? , second which tasks
can be done at the same time as this one? And lastly
which tasks should happen immediately after this one?
1.5. How about the non-critical tasks that is not on
the critical path, what’s their significance to the
• Non Critical tack that is not on the critical path, these are
the activities have a certain amount of Float time
available to them. If this activity is delayed, your project
can still finish on time
I.6. Does that mean a lot of effort and redrawing of
the arrow diagram?

• Yes, doing an arrow diagram on your first try is really an

effort because you need to do or exert a lot of energy
and lots of effort to make it, so if you redraw it you need
to check all the activities or tasks that's are in the critical
I.7. In estimating the job duration, should you
include contingencies for such things as bad
• Contingency is a resources set aside time for the project it is
use in case the project is need them so if the project
manager or we have a contingency for the project specially
when the bad weather that we don’t expect our project can
be finish on time, the bad weather will not cause a lot
problem to our project.
I.8. Can arrow diagram be drawn to a time-scaled
• Yes, Arrow Diagram is the compilation of all the activities,
each activity or task involves a time or duration for the
project while the time scale chart it is a gantt-chart or bar
chart that involve all activities and their time for the said
project and also when the activities are already done in
arrow diagram all activities will be doing in a gantt-chart.
I.9. What is the best way to do about doing the
• I think the best why to do doing scheduling is first we need
to Identify the activities, determine the sequence of the
activities, connect or create a network of the activities,
identify the critical path or the longest possible path to
complete all activities and lastly we need to know very
important and valuable component is the CPM update
progress, allowing to track closely the performance and
time used to complete the activities
I.10. Could you differentiate between “even-
oriented” and “activity-oriented” arrow diagram?
• An activity is a physically identifiable part of a project, which
consumes both time and resources. Activity is represented
by an arrow in a network diagram while an event represents
the accomplishment of some task. In a network diagram,
beginning and ending of an activity are represented as
events. Each event is represented as a node in a network
II. Draw the Gantt chart using the Data below and draw
the financial S-Curve showing the weekly cash flow
amount for total duration of 28 weeks: (25%)
Item Description of Work Durations Amount
1.0 Mobilization/Clean-up/Demob 3 weeks ₱ 85,587.50
2.0 Site Works 4 weeks ₱ 57,015.74
3.0 Concrete Works 14 weeks ₱724,036.68
4.0 Masonry Works 6 weeks ₱72,181.16
5.0 Metal Works 5 weeks ₱188,436.20
6.0 Wood Works 8 weeks ₱44,138.84
7.0 Thermal and Moisture Protection 2 weeks ₱167,035.50
8.0 Doors and Windows 6 weeks ₱124,457.00
9.0 Finishes 14 weeks ₱99,987.16
10.0 Plumbing Works 10 weeks ₱162,317.35
11.0 Electrical Works 8 weeks ₱95,596.33
III. The job calls for mowing the owner’s front and rear
lawns. The activities and their duration are shown in
Table I and the activity restraints and logic are
described in Table 2. (50%)
Table 1 — Activity List and Duration

Item Description of Work Durations

A Pick up debris from front lawn 20 mins
B Pick up debris from back lawn 20 mins
C Get lawn mower equipment 10 mins
D Mow the front lawn 40 mins
E Mow the back lawn 30 mins
F Trim the front lawn 60 mins
G Trim the back lawn 30 mins
H Remove lawn mower equipment 10 mins
III. The job calls for mowing the owner’s front and rear
lawns. The activities and their duration are shown in
Table I and the activity restraints and logic are
described in Table 2. (50%)
Table 2 — Activity Restraints and Logic

• (1) Activities A, B, and C have no preceding activities.

• (2) Activity D is a prerequisite or preceding activity of activities A and C.
• (3) Activity E precedes activities B and D.
• (4) Activity F precedes activity D.
• (5) Activity G precedes activities E and F.
• (6) Activity H is a prerequisite or preceding activity of activity 0.
III. The job calls for mowing the owner’s front and rear
lawns. The activities and their duration are shown in
Table I and the activity restraints and logic are
described in Table 2. (50%)
Using the circle notation and numbering all nodes (circles) consecutively:

a) Draw the Network Diagram with all dummy activities (indicated in dotted
lines) and duration of each activity (enclosed in parenthesis below each
arrowhead activity) and the initial node marked #1 and labeled “START’
and final node labeled “FINISH”.
b) Determine the critical path (drawn in bold heavy lines) with quantitative
analysis and interpretation to prove that it is indeed the one critical path.