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Acids, bases and salts

4 mks
Acids and bases
Acids Bases
• Sour tasting • Bitter tasting
• Turns blue litmus red • Turns red litmus blue
• E.g. lime, lemon, • E.g. soap, bitter gourd
oranges, tomatoes etc etc

Natural Synthetic

- Litmus - Methyl orange

- Turmeric - Phenolphthalein
- China rose petals
China rose plant
Olfactory indicators
• Substances that change their odour in acids
and bases are called as olfactory indicators.
• E.g. onion, vanilla and clove(oil)
Are plants and animals sensitive to pH?

Effect of acid rain on

plants and animals
Soil pH
pH in our digestive system
pH change as the cause for tooth decay
To prevent this

Do this
Self defense by animals- chemical warfare
Nettle plant and nettle sting rash
Naturally occurring acids
Natural source Acid
Vinegar Acetic acid

Orange Citric acid

Tamarind Tartaric acid

Tomato Oxalic acid

Sour milk (curd) Lactic acid

Lemon Citric acid

Ant sting Methanoic acid

Nettle sting Methanoic acid

Salts and their acids and bases
Salt Formulae Acid Base

Potassium sulphate (N) K2SO4 H2SO4 KOH

Sodium sulphate (N) Na2SO4 H2SO4 NaOH

Calcium sulphate (N) CaSO4 H2SO4 Ca(OH)2

Magnesium sulphate(A) MgSO4 H2SO4 Mg(OH)2

Sodium chloride(N) NaCl HCl NaOH

Copper sulphate (A) CuSO4 H2SO4 Cu(OH)2

Aluminium chloride(A) AlCl3 HCl Al(OH)2

Sodium carbonate(B) Na2CO3 H2CO3 NaOH

Sodium nitrate(B) NaNO3 HNO3 NaOH

Ammonium chloride(A) NH4Cl HCL NH4OH

Chemicals from common salt
• Common salt is formed by the combination of?

• Seawater contains many salts in it along with sodium chloride.

The large crystals of salts are brown due to impurities and this salt
is called rock salt.
Common salt- A raw material for chemicals
• Sodium hydroxide
• Baking soda
• Washing soda
• Bleaching powder
Sodium hydroxide
• When electricity passes through an aqueous solution of sodium
chloride (brine), it decomposes to form sodium hydroxide.
• This process is called as chlor-alkali process.

NaCl + H2O NaOH+ Cl2 + H2

• Chlorine- anode , Hydrogen- cathode

• NaOH is formed at cathode
Important products from chlor-alkali process
Bleaching powder
• Produced by action of chlorine on dry slaked lime Ca(OH)2C

Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 CaOCl2 + H2O

Uses :
• For bleaching cotton and linen in textile industry , wood pulp in
paper factories and washed clothes in laundry.
• As an oxidising agent in chemical industries
• For disinfecting drinking water
Baking soda
Washing soda
Water of crystallization
Plaster of Paris