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SURVEYING

Surveying is an art of making


measurements on or near the surface of
the earth and using these measurements
for preparation of plans or maps etc. which
will bring out the natural and artificial
features of land in their correct horizontal
and vertical positions.
OBJECTIVE OF SURVEYING
The object of surveying is to prepare a map or plan
to show relative position of points or the object on
the surface of the earth.

The map or plan is draw to some suitable scale. It


shows the boundaries of districts, state and countries
too.

 It is also include details of different engineering


features such as building, roads, railways, dams,
canals etc.
USES OF SURVEYING
Surveying may be use for the following properties

i. To prepare cadastral map


ii. To prepare an engineering map
iii. To prepare the contour map
iv. To prepare military map
v. To prepare geological map, archeological
map etc.
 Distances
 Horizontal
 Vertical (Leveling)
 Angles
 Horizontal
 Included
 Deflection
 Azimuth/Bearing
 Vertical
 Elevation
 Depression
PRIMARY DIVISION OF SURVEYING

 We know that the shape of surface of earth is spherical.

 Thus, the surface is obviously curved. Surveying is


primarily divided into two types considering the curvature
of earth’s surface.

1. PLANE SURVEYING

1. GEODETIC SURVEYING
PLANE SURVEYING

o The curvature of the earth is not


taken into account, as the surveys
extent over small areas.

o The degree of accuracy required in


this type of surveying is comparatively
low.

o If the area of survey is less than


150sq.km is considered as plane.

o Plane surveys are done for


engineering projects on large scale
such as factories, bridges, dams,
highways, railways, etc., and also for
establishing boundaries.
Plane surveying & Geodetic surveying
GEODETIC SURVEYING

o The type of surveying that takes into


account the true shape of the earth.
These surveys are of high precision
and extend over large areas.

o Also called trigonometrical


surveying, it is necessary to take into
account the curvature of the earth,
since large distances and areas are
covered.

o The geodetic surveying deals in


fixing widely spaced control points,
it is carried out by great
trignometrical survey dependent of
India.
Difference between plane surveying and geodetic
surveying
NO. Plane surveying Geodetic surveying
1. The earth surface is considered as a The earth surface is considered as a
plane surface. curved surface
2. The curvature of earth surface is The curvature of earth surface is
ignored. taken in account.
3. Line joining any two points is Line joining any two points is
considered to be straight. considered to be curve.
4. The triangle formed by any three The triangle formed by any three
points is considered as a plane points is considered as a spherical
triangle. triangle.
5. The angle of triangle is considered as The angle of triangle is considered as
plane angle. spherical angle.
6. Carried out for a small area<150km2 Carried out for a large area >150km2
PRINCIPLES OF SURVEYING
1. Location of a point with respect to two known
points in the field

2. Working from whole to part


Always work from the whole to the part
To locate a new station by at least two
measurements from fixed
Classification of
Surveying

Based on
Based on Based on Based on
nature of
Instrument Methods Purposes
field
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON NATURE OF SURVEY
 LAND SURVEY
 Topographic survey
 Cadastral Survey
 City Survey

 MARINE SURVEY

 ASTRONOMICAL SURVEY
 LAND SURVEY

 Topographic survey
 To determine the natural features of a country such as river,
streams, lakes, woods, hills etc., and artificial features such
as roads, railways, canals,

 Cadastral Survey
 Fixing of property lines, the calculation of land area or
transfer of land property from one owner to another
 To fix boundaries of municipalities and of state and federal
jurisdictions

 City Survey
 Construction of streets, water supply systems, sewers and
other works
 LAND SURVEY

 MARINE SURVEY

 Water bodies for purpose of navigation, water supply, harbor works


or for determination of mean sea level

 Work consists in measurements of discharge of streams, making


topographic survey of shores, banks, taking and locating soundings to
determine the depth of water and observing the fluctuations of the
ocean tide

 ASTRONOMICAL SURVEY

 For determination of latitudes, longitudes, azimuth, local time for


various places on the earth by observing heavenly bodies

 To obtain the absolute locations of various points on the earth


CLASSIFICATION BASED ON METHOD OF SURVEY

I. TRIANGULATION

II. TRAVERSING
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON OBJECT OF SURVEY

 ENGINEERING SURVEY

For the determination of quantities or to afford sufficient data for the


designing of engineering works such as roads and reservoirs or those
connected with sewage disposal or water supply

 MILITARY SURVEY

 MINE SURVEY

 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

 ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
 To obtain information about different strata of the earth’s surface for
geological studies.
Geological maps are prepared depicting the details of the strata

Hydrological Maps
Geological Maps
MINE SURVEY
 For exploring mineral wealth, to determine relative positions and
elevation and to guide tunneling and other operations associated with
mining.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY
 To unearth relics of antiquity, civilization, kingdoms, forts, temples, etc
MILITARY SURVEY
 It has a very important and critical applications in the military.
 Aerial surveys are conducted for this purpose.
 To determine the routes and points of strategic importance.
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON INSTRUMENTS USED
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON INSTRUMENTS USED

 CHAIN SURVEYING

 COMPASS SURVEYING

 PLANE TABLE SURVEY

 LEVELLING

 THEODOLITE SURVEY

 TACHEOMETRIC SURVEY

 PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SURVEY

 EDM
CHAIN SURVEYING

 Only linear measurements are


taken with a chain or a tape
 When high accuracy is not
required

Chaining and Taping


COMPASS SURVEYING
 It has very important and
critical application in the
military. Aerial surveys are
conducted for this purpose.
It is conducted to locate
strategic positions for the
purpose of army
operations.

 Horizontal angle are


measured in addition to
chain and tape
PLANE TABLE SURVEY
 A map is prepared in the field while
viewing the terrain after determining the
directions of various lines and taking
measurements with a chain or a tape

 Accuracy is low. Measurement and


plotting s are done simultaneously in the
field
THEODOLITE SURVEY
For measuring horizontal and vertical angles

Micro optic Theodolite Vernier Theodolite


LEVELLING
Determination of relative elevations of various points in the vertical plane

Dumpy level

Tilting level

Level and staff


LEVELLING

Auto level
TACHEOMETRIC SURVEY
 A special type of theodolite known as tachometer is
used to determine Horizontal and vertical distance
indirectly.
PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SURVEY
 Photogrammetric is the sciences of taking
measurement with the help of the photographs taken
by aerial camera from the air craft.
EDM

 In this type of survey, all measurements are made with


the help of EDM instrument.
SURVEYING – CHARACTER OF WORK

1. Field Work

2. Office Work

3. Care and adjustment of the instruments


1. Field Work

 Establishing stations and bench marks as points of reference and thus to


establish a system of horizontal and vertical control

 Measuring distance along angles between the survey lines

 Locating details of the survey with respect to the stations and lines
between stations, details such as boundary lines, streets, roads, building,
streams, bridges, and other artificial feature of survey

 Giving lines and elevations for great variety of construction work such as
building boundaries, roads, culverts, bridges, sewer and water supply
system

 Determining elevation of some existing points or establishing points at


given elevations

 Surveying contours of land areas in which the field work involve both
horizontal and vertical control
 Establishing parallels and perpendicular
 Taking measurement to inaccessible point
Field Notes

 Written record of field work made at time of work is done

 Notes should be legible, concise and comprehensive, written in clear, plain


letters and figures

 Record directly in the field book as observations are made

 use sharp 2H or 3 H pencil

 Make note for each day’s work on the survey complete with a title of the
survey, date, weather condition, personnal of the crew and list of
equipment used

 never erase. If mistake is made , rule one line through the incorrect value
and record the correction above the mistake

 Sign the notes daily


Field Notes

 Numerical Values
 All measurements such as length of lines, offsets, staff reading
and angles or directions.
 Length measured to nearest 0.01m, 342.30m and not 342.3m
 Record angle measurement 8030’20”

 Sketches

 Explanatory Notes
2. Office Work

1. Drafting
2. Computing
3. Designing

3. Care and adjustments of Instruments