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Design for Innovative Systems
LINUX basic user guide



•Enabling 1st time LINUX users to do their specific tasks in

LINUX environment

•What this presentation will cover:

• Basic LINUX console commands needed for everyday work
• Invoking apps from console
• Text editors
• Common mistakes

•What this presentation will not cover:

• LINUX OS settings (you will use project defaults)
• Installing apps (IT)
• and many more...
Invoking console

•GUI is makeup, console is life

•Icon on desktop, start menu, or simple right click

General comments/commands

•There is NO RECYCLE BIN; deleted is gone for good

•UNIX/LINUX is case sensitive

• Uppercase and lowercase matters. Everywhere

•man <command>- manual

• Shows built-in manual for command

• Exits (closes) current console

•which <command>
• Shows full path of any command which can be executed in
console, even built-in one
Paths, syntax

•Absolute (full) path

• Full logical path of file/directory
• Starts with /
• Ex /home/me/my_file.txt

•Relative path
• In respect of current directory
• Considers current directory path as first part of full path
• Ex (if your current location is /home) me/my_file.txt

• "." represents current directory; ex ./me/my_file.txt
• ".." represents parent directory; ex me/../me/my_file.txt
• "~" represents user home directory; ex ~/my_file.txt
• "*" wildcard; ex */my_f*le.txt
Commands- directories

•pwd - print working directory

• Prints your current location (not always shown in console)

•cd <path>- change directory

• Moves through directory structure- go to path

•mkdir <path>- make directory

• Creates new directory on given path

•rmdir <path>- remove directory

• Destroys directory on given path (must be empty)

•ls <options> <path>- list

• Lists content of given path
• If path argument is omitted, current dir is assumed
Options- list
Option Description
-a Displays all files.
-b Displays nonprinting characters in octal.
-c Displays files by file timestamp.
-C Displays files in a columnar format (default)
-d Displays only directories.
-f Interprets each name as a directory, not a file.
-f Flags filenames.
-g Displays the long format listing, but exclude the owner name.
-i Displays the inode for each file.
-l Displays the long format listing.
-l Displays the file or directory referenced by a symbolic link.
-m Displays the names as a comma-separated list.
-n Displays the long format listing, with GID and UID numbers.
-o Displays the long format listing, but excludes group name.
-p Displays directories with /
-q Displays all nonprinting characters as ?
-r Displays files in reverse order.
-R Displays subdirectories as well.
-t Displays newest files first. (based on timestamp)
-u Displays files by the file access time.
-x Displays files as rows across the screen.
-1 Displays each entry on a line.
Commands- files
•cp <option> <path1> <path2> - copy
• Copies file from path1 to path2
• If -r option is used (recursive), you can copy entire dir structures

•mv <option> <path1> <path2> - move

• Moves file from path1 to path2
• If -r option is used (recursive), you can move entire dir structures
• Renaming is moving file to same location under different name

•rm <options> <path>- remove

• Removes file on given path
• Option -r will do it recoursively removing entire dir structure
• Option -f will force removing write-protected files
•grep <options> <expression> <path>- globally search a regular
expression and print
• Searches for regular expression in given path and prints in console
Regular expressions

•grep can search for complicated patterns to find what you

need.^ Denotes the beginning of a line
$ Denotes the end of a line
. Matches any single character
The preceding item in the regular expression
* will be matched zero or more times
A bracket expression is a list of characters
enclosed by [ and ]. It matches any single
[] character in that list; if the first character of
the list is the caret ^ then it matches any
character not in the list
\< Denotes the beginning of a word
\> Denotes the end of a word
Grep- options


• -A NUM print also NUM lines after matching one

• -B NUM print also NUM lines before matching one
• -I skip binary files
• -i ignore case
• -I skip binary files
• -n print line numbers

•Any output, of any command can be redirected to file

• > <filename> - overwrite
• > <filename> - append
File permissions

•There are 3x3 permissions

• read write execute
• For creator, user group, everybody
• so max is rwxrwxrwx (777 octal)

•chmod <option> <path>

• Changes permissions
• To add permission use +, to remove - ; eg chmod +w readonly.txt
• -R option is used for recursive

•You will not always be allowed to change permissions

•You can't access file without required permission

Invoking apps
•Simply type app name; Ex ncsim

•Common text edirtors

• nedit
• gedit
• vi

•Any complicated command can be aliased

• Type alias instead of full command
• Syntax
alias <alias name>="full command"
• Whenever console is started preexisting file .alias/.aliases is sourced
to set your aliases- put it there, and they will always work ;)

Type & at the end of app invoke so you can continue using
Few more

•ps command will give you list of active processes

•kill <process number> kills process

• add -9 option for priority
• of course, you need to recognize job

•finger <user ID> gives details on user

•stat <file name> gives details on file ownership/access

•tail <file name> gives end of file on screen

•more <file name> starts printing file on screen

•sed- stream editor

Final warnings

•To exit vi (default editor for many tools, not intuitive)

• press ESC to exit edit mode then type Q! -quit but don't save
• press ESC to exit edit mode then type wQ!- save and quit

•Think twice before using *, recursion or force

•Do not meddle with other people files even if you have