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Design Irrigation System II

Asher Azenkot

1
Local Head Losses

The local head loss due to a local


disturbance in water flow is proportional to
the head velocity.
V2
h  K
2g
K - Coefficient

2
Hydraulic Valve Local Head Loss

3
Filter Local Head Loss

4
Metzer drip line

Water flow velocity reduced gradually along


the lateral pipe 5
Local head loss in “head connector”

m3/h
6
Local head loss
Flow rate
Local head loss m

7
Example:

A 12" valve (K = 2.5) is installed in 1,250


meters long pipe (12” and C = 130). What is
the total head loss due to the valve and the
pipe when the water flow rate is = 100, 200
and 400 m3/h.
The pipe cross section area is:

  0.32
A12"   0.07m 2
4

8
Continue:
Q m3/h 100 200 400
Velocity 0.39 0.78 1.57
2
V /2g 0.01 0.03 0.13
Local head loss 0.02 0.08 0.31
J ‰ 12” pipe 0.6 2.2 7.8
Head loss in pipe 0.8 2.7 9.8
Total head loss 0.82 2.78 10.11
% local head loss 2.5 2.96 3.1

9
Continue:

If an 8" valve is replaced the 12", what will


be the new total head loss?
Q m3/h 100 200 400

Local head loss (8") 0.1 0.4 1.55

Head loss (12” Pipe) 0.62 2.38 8.75

Total head loss (m) 0.72 2.78 10.2

% local head loss 16.1 16.8 17.7


10
Lateral Pipes
A lateral pipe is characterized by a continuous
decline in water discharge along the pipe. The flow
rate starts at Qu (m3/h) at the upstream end and
ends up with a q1 (m3/h) downstream. (Lateral pipe
is abide by: 1. A same size of pipe, 2. even distance
between outlets, 3. a same outlet (sprinkler or
emitter)
The flow rate. of the head loss is done in two step
calculation
1. The head loss is calculated by assuming the pipe is
2. The outcome is multiplied by the coefficient F

Qu = n*q
D 3q 2q q

Sl
95 m
11
Coefficient F
Plastic later Al lateral

n F1 F2 F3 F1 F2 F3
5 0.469 0.337 0.41 0.457 0.321 0.396
10 0.415 0.35 0.384 0.402 0.336 0.371
12 0.406 0.352 0.381 0.393 0.338 0.367
15 0.398 0.355 0.377 0.385 0.341 0.363
20 0.389 0.357 0.373 0.376 0.343 0.36
25 0.384 0.358 0.371 0.371 0.345 0.358
30 0.381 0.359 0.37 0.368 0.346 0.357
40 0.376 0.36 0.368 0.363 0.347 0.355
50 0.374 0.361 0.367 0.361 0.348 0.354
100 0.369 0.362 0.366 0.356 0.349 0.352
1. F1 to be used when the distance from the lateral inlet to the first outlet is Sl
meters.
2. F2 to be used when the first outlet is near the lateral inlet.
3. F3 to be used when the distance from the lateral inlet to the first outlet is Sl/2
meters. 12
Characteristics of a Lateral pipe
 The sprinkler pressure along the lateral pipe
decline faster along the first 40% of the length
than afterwards (figure 2).
 The sprinkler flow rate along the lateral pipe
declines faster along the first 40% of the
length (figure 1).
 The location of the sprinkler (or emitter) with the
average pressure and flow rate is 40% away from the
lateral’s inlet.
 Three quarter of the lateral head loss takes
place along the first two fifth sections (40%).
13
Fig. 1: Flow rate reduction in a plain pipe
and in a lateral with sprinklers.
2 25

1.9 20

1.8 15

1.7 10

1.6 5

1.5 0
0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 132 144 156
sprinkler flow 1.9 1.88 1.86 1.84 1.83 1.82 1.81 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.79 1.79 1.79
% reduction 100 98.7 97.6 96.8 96.1 95.6 95.2 94.9 94.6 94.5 94.5 94.5 94.5
line flow 23.75 23.75 21.84 19.96 18.11 16.26 14.43 12.61 10.8 8.99 7.19 5.39 3.59 1.79

sprinkler flow line flow

14
Fig. 2: Head loss and percent of head loss
120 120
Sprinkler pressure m

100 100

% of head loss
80
80
60
60
40
40 20
20 0
0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 132 144 156
pressure (m) 40 38.5 37.2 36.1 35.2 34.4 33.9 33.4 33 32.8 32.6 32.5 32.5 32.5
Pres Red 100 96 93 90 88 86 85 84 83 82 82 81 81 81
% of reduction 0 20 37 52 64 75 81 88 93 96 99 100 100 100
% of length 0 8 15 23 31 38 46 54 62 69 77 85 92 100
Plain line 100 96 92 88 84 80 76 72 68 64 60 56 52 48
pressure (m) Pres Red % of reduction Plain line

15
16
17
18
Head loss Calculation Along lateral
 Select a suitable sprinkler or emitter with a
required Hs, qs and sl from a catalogue (figure 3).
 The number of sprinklers (n) along the lateral is
determined by (L/sl).
 The discharge rate at the lateral inlet is
determined by (Qu = n x qs ).
 The lateral diameter (D) should comply with
maximum head loss of 20%.
 The head loss along a lateral (Qu, q, D and L) is
computed by:
o Assuming the lateral pipe is plain and.
o The outcome is multiplied by F factor.

19
Fig. 3 - Naan 233

20
Head loss in drip lateral pipe

 A modified Hazen-Williams head loss equation:


6 L N  q 1.85
H L  2.78  10  F  4.87  ( )
D C
HL = head loss along a lateral drip line
L = lateral length (m)
D = internal diameter (m)
N = number of emitters
q = average emitter flow rate (m3/h)
C = Hazen-Williams coefficient (130 - 120 for
polyethylene pipe with ID < 16 mm)
F = 0.37 for more than 20 emitters
21
Hydro P.C. & Hydro P.C.N.D - 1.2* L/H MAXIMUM
RECOMMENDED DRIPLINE LENGTH (m)
PIPE DIAMETER -16/13.8 (OD/ID)

Pressure Slope Emitter Spacing (m)

(m) % 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 1 1.25 1.5
0 65 92 117 140 161 181 201 236 278 315
10 2 71 104 135 166 195 223 251 305 371 434
4 76 113 150 186 221 256 290 357 439 519
0 75 107 135 162 186 209 231 273 321 365
12 2 81 117 152 185 217 248 278 337 408 476
4 85 126 165 204 241 279 314 386 473 558
0 83 118 149 179 206 232 256 302 355 405
14 2 88 128 165 201 235 268 301 363 438 510
4 92 136 178 219 258 298 335 410 501 590
0 90 127 161 193 223 251 278 327 385 438
16 2 94 137 176 214 250 286 319 385 464 539
4 98 144 188 232 273 314 354 431 525 617
0 95 135 172 206 238 267 296 349 411 468
18 2 100 144 186 226 264 301 337 405 486 566
4 104 152 198 243 286 328 370 450 546 641
0 101 143 181 217 251 282 312 369 434 494
20 2 105 151 195 237 276 314 352 423 508 588
4 109 159 207 253 298 341 384 467 566 663
0 105 149 190 228 263 296 327 387 455 519
22 2 109 158 203 246 287 327 366 439 526 611
4 113 165 214 262 308 354 397 482 585 684
0 110 156 198 237 274 309 342 403 475 540
24 2 114 164 211 256 298 339 378 455 545 630
4 117 171 222 271 319 365 410 497 601 702
0 114 161 205 246 284 320 354 419 493 561
26 2 118 169 218 264 308 350 390 469 561 650
4 121 176 229 279 328 375 421 510 618 720
0 117 167 212 254 294 331 366 433 510 581
28 2 121 175 224 272 317 361 402 482 578 668
4 125 181 235 287 337 385 432 523 631 737
0 121 172 219 262 303 342 378 447 526 600
30 2 125 179 231 279 325 370 413 495 591 684
4 128 186 241 294 345 394 442 535 646 752

22
Number Of Mamkad spinklers

23
Mamkad mini-sprinkler nozzles

24
Example:

A flat field, 360 x 360 m, is irrigated with a hand


moved aluminum lateral pipe (C = 140). The water
source to the lateral pipe is from a sub-main,
which crosses the center of the field. The
selected sprinklers are Naan 233/92 with a nozzle
size of 4.5 mm, pressure of 25 m (hs) and flow
rate (qs) of 1.44 m3/hr. The space between the
sprinklers is 12 meters apart, and the location of
the first sprinkler is 6 meters away from lateral
inlet. The riser height is 0.8 m and diameter of
3/4".

25
Answer:

lateral 360 m

Submain
The number of sprinklers on the lateral is
180
n  15sprinklers
12
The length of the lateral (l) is
l = (14 sprinkler x 12 m apart) + 6 m = 174 meters
26
Continue

The inlet flow rate of the lateral is


Qu = 15 (sprinklers) x 1.44 m3/h = 21.6 m3/h
The maximum allowed head loss (20%) throughout the field

20
h   25  5meters
100

For a plain 2" aluminum pipe - the hydraulic


gradient out of Hazen Williams is: J = 188.9

27
Continue:

The head loss in a 2" (plain) aluminum pipe is as follow

h J  L 188.9 174
J 1,000  h    32.9m
L 1,000 1,000

The F factor for 15 sprinklers is F15 = 0.363


11.9m  5m
h f  h  F15  32.9  0.363  11.9m

For a 3" aluminum pipe - the hydraulic gradient


out of a table or ruler is: J = 26.2‰
28
Continue:

The head loss in a 3" (plain) aluminum pipe is as follo

J  L 26.2 174
h    4.6meters
1,000 1,000

The F factor for 15 sprinklers is F15 = 0.363

h f  h  F15  4.6  0.363  1.66meters


1.66  5m
The difference 5 - 1.66 = 3.34 meters head loss
which will be used as the head loss for the sub-
main pipe. 29
A Lateral Inlet Pressure

P=?
D 3q 2q

Qu = n*q Sl

30
A Lateral Inlet Pressure

The pressure head at the lateral inlet (hu) is


determined by:
3
hu  hs   h f  riser  lh
4
hu - lateral inlet pressure head
hs - pressure head of selected sprinkler
hf - head loss along lateral
riser – the length (height) of the riser
lh - local head loss (incurred between laleral
pipe and sprinkler)
31
Local head loss
Flow rate
Local head loss m

32
Example:
Following the previous example, what is the inlet pressu
hf = 1.66 meters
riser height = 0.8 meters
hs = 25 meters
3
hu  hs   h f  riser
4
3
hu  25   1.66  0.8  27 m  2.7atmosphere
4

33
Inlet pressure in case of a Lateral pipe
Laid out on a Slop
The inlet pressure of a lateral pipe which laid
out along a slope is as follows:
3 z
hu  hs   h f  riser 
4 2
hu - the lateral inlet pressure
hs - pressure head of selected
sprinkler
hf - head loss along lateral
riser - riser height
Z
 - adjustment for an upward
2

slope
Z
2
- adjustment for an downward
slope 34
Example:
Following the previous example, but this time
with: a. 2% downward slope, or b. 2% upward
slope.
The difference elevation
2 between the two ends
 Z  174 
is as follows:  3.48meters
100
a. 2% downward slope

3 z
hu  hs   h f  riser 
4 2
3 3.48
hu  25   1.66  0.8   25.3m
4 2
35
Cont.

The pressure by the last sprinkler is as follows:


hu  h f  Z
25.3  1.66  3.48  27.12m
The head loss between lateral inlet and last sprinkler is:

25.3  27.12  1.82m

36
Cont.

25.3m 27.12m

360 m
P=30.3m
P=28.5m
Sub-main

28.5 – 25.3 m = 3.2 m is taken place along the sub-main pipe.


Therefore, the pressure at the head of the field is 28.5 m.

37
Continue:
b. 2% upward slope
3 z
hu  hs   h f  riser 
4 2
3 3.48
hu  25   1.66  0.8   28.78m
4 2
The total head loss throughout the lateral pipe is:

hd  1.66  3.48  5.14meters


5.14 meters are just the permitted 20% head loss. Therefore,
nothing is left for the sub-main. In this case, pressure
regulators should be installed in every lateral inlets or
selecting a wider pipe. 38
Maximum Permitted Head loss

39
Distribution of water and pressure

40
“The 20% rule”
In order to maintain up to 10% difference in flow
rate between sprinklers or emitter within a sub-plot,
then the pressure difference inside the plot should
be less than 20%.
Q  C  A 2 g  H
or

Q K H
Q - flow rate
C – coefficient, which depends on a nozzle type
A - cross section area of a nozzle
H - pressure head
X - exponent which depends on the flow pattern.
41
Pressure Vs. Flow
Pressure m

Liter/hr

42
O-tif Flow rate Vs. Pressure

Brown 2lph
Black 4lph
Green 8lph
Purple 16lph

Recommended
pressure range
Flow rate

(lph
)

. . . . . . . .
Inlet pressure (kg/cm )

43
3/8" Rondo Nozzles - Flow rate Vs. Pressure

Plastro Red
Plastro Green
Plastro Dark blue
Plastro Blue
Plastro Black
Flow rate

(gph

Pressure (psi)

44
Supertif - flow rate Vs. Pressure

Flow rate (lph)

l/h

l/h

l/h

l/h

l/h

l/h

Inlet pressure (m) 45


Ram & Agriplas Flow rate Vs Pressure

46
Flow rate Vs Pressure

47
Temperature Vs CV (tapes drip-line)

48
Example:

What is the expected difference discharge


between the two ends of a lateral sprinkler?
When the hydraulic gradient along a lateral pipe
is 20%.
The flow rate of a sprinkler is as follows:

QK H

49
Continue:

Two identical sprinklers have a same coefficient:


Q2 K  H2

Q1 K  H1
Q2 H2 H2
 
Q1 H1 H1
H 2  0.8  H1 (20%difference )
Q2 0.8H1
  0.8  0.89  90%
Q1 H1
The difference in flow rate between the two ends is
10% (within 20% rule), once the exponent is 0.5.
50
TUFFTIF Dripper Flow Rate Table

TYPE Q=AxH^B * %DH FLOW RATE (LPH) AT PRESSURE

COLOR (l/h) A B 2m 4m 6m 8m 10m 12m 14m 16m 18m

BLACK (2) 0.615 0.539 19.3 0.9 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.6 2.7 2.9
BLACK (4) 1.3643 0.478 22 1.9 2.6 3.2 3.7 4.1 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.4
GREEN (8) 2.7257 0.465 22.7 3.8 5.2 6.3 7.2 8 8.7 9.3 9.9 10.5
RED (11) 4.3329 0.414 25.8 5.8 7.7 9.1 10.3 11.3 12.1 12.9 13.7 14.4

Q=LPH H=m.
%DH - MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE HEAD LOSS DIFFERENCE.
ALONG A LATERAL (AS PERCENT OF THE WORKING PRESSURE.
TO KEEP FLOW RATE DIFFERENCEC ≤ 10%
OF WORKING FLOW RATE.

51
Tufftif performance chart

20

18

16

14

12 BLACK (2)
FLOW RATE

BLACK (4)
10
GREEN (8)
8 RED (11)
(lph
)

0
0 2m 4m 6m 8m 10m 12m 14m 16m 18m 20m 25m 30m
PRESSURE (m)

52
Example for a micro sprinklers
A polyethylene lateral pipe, grade 4, has 10
micro-sprinklers at 10 meters apart, while the
first is only one half way. The flow rate of the
selected sprinkler is qs = 120 l/h at hs = 20
meters. The riser’s height is 0.15 meter (can be
ignored). What is the required pipe for the
qs=120l/h
lateral pipe? h =20m
0.15 m s

Q=1.2m3/h D = ? mm
10 m
95 m

53
Continue:

n = 10 micro-sprinklers
length (L) = (9 sprinkler x 10 m) + 5 m = 95 meters
F10 = 0.384

10 120
Qu   1.2m / h
3

1,000

54
Continue:
The maximum allowable in the field is as
follows:
20
 20  4meters
100
For a 20 mm polyethylene pipe grade 4 (ID 16.6
mm), the hydraulic gradient found out of a slide
ruler or monograph Q = 1.2 m3/h is J = 18.5%.
95
h  18.5   17.5m
100
h f  h  F10
h f  17.5  0.384  6.74m
6.74 meters is exceeding the allowable 4 meters (20%)
55
Continue:

The hydraulic gradient for a 25 mm P.E. pipe (ID 21.2


mm) and Q = 1.2 m3/h is J = 5.8%.
95
h  5.8   5.5m
100
h f  5.5  0.384  2.1m

The head loss of 2.1 meters is less than the


allowable 4 m (20%). The maximum allowed head
loss along the manifold is 4 m - 2.1 m = 1.9 meters.

56
Continue:

The required pressure by the lateral inlet pipe is as follow

3
hu  20   2.1  21.5meters
4

57
Design an Irrigation System
 Option 1 - The rule of 20% is applied to all the
outlets (either sprinklers or drips) on the same
subplot. Any excess pressure over 20% between
the subplots is controlled by flow pressure
regulators.

58
Lay out of drip line without pressure
regulator

59
Drip line inlet without pressure
regulator

60
Design an Irrigation System

Option 2 - The rule of 20% is applied to a


single lateral, and pressure regulators control
the pressure difference between the laterals.

61
Inlet with pressure regulator

62
Design an Irrigation System

 Option 3 - The difference pressure along a


lateral pipe exceeds the 20% head loss by any
desired amount, and the excess pressure should be
reduced by pressure or flow regulators in each
emitters or sprinklers.

63
Example:
Ten micro-sprinklers are installed along a plastic
lateral pipe (grade 4) at 10 m (32.8 ft) apart (the
first sprinkler is 5 meters). The flow rate of the
selected sprinkler is qs = 120 l/h (0.5 GPM), at a
pressure of hs = 20 meters. The riser height is 0.15
m (which can be ignored). What is the appropriate
lateral pipe diameter, if the field is designed and
abided by options 1, 2 and 3?
n = 10, L = 95 m F10 =0.384
10 120
Q  1.2m3 / hr
1,000

64
Continue:

Option 1:
For 20 mm - The hydraulic gradient For a 20
mm P.E. pipe and Q = 1.2 m3/h is J = 18.5%.
95
h  18.5   17.5m
100
h  h  F10  17.5  0.384  6.72m

6.72 meters exceed the allowable 4 meters (20%)

65
Continue:

For 25 mm - The hydraulic gradient For a 25


mm P.E. pipe and Q = 1.2 m3/h is J = 5.8%.
95
h  5.8   5.5m
100
h  h  F10  5.5  0.384  2.11m

The head loss difference 4 - 2.11 = 1.89 m, which


is available for the manifold head loss.

The inlet lateral pressure is:


3
hu  20   2.11  21.58meters  2.15atmosphere
4
66
Continue:
Option 2:
If the allowable pressure variation along the
lateral pipe is 4 meters, then 25 mm P.E. pipe is
too much and 20 mm pipe too small. Therefore, a
combination of the two pipes can be used.

The design procedure for the combined lateral pipe


is:
• Try first D = 25 mm along 35 meters (n = 4) and
D = 20 mm along 60 meters (n = 6)

67
Continue:

Compute the head loss for a pipe D = 25, L = 95


m, n = 10 and Q = 1.2 m3/h (from previous
calculation which it was found 2.11 m)
Compute the head loss for D = 25, L = 60 m, n
= 6 and F6 = 0.458

6  120
Q  0.72m3 / hr
1,000

68
Continue:
From a table or a slide ruler - the hydraulic
gradient for D = 25 mm and Q = 0.72 is J = 2.4%.
60
h  2.4   1.4m
100
h f  h  F6  1.4  0.458  0.64

The head loss for D = 25 mm and 35 meter long


with four sprinklers is
2.11 m - 0.64 = 1.47 meter
L = 35 m L = 60
h = h95 – h60 m
L = 95 m h =
h = 2.11 0.64
mm
69
Continue:

Compute the head loss in D = 20 mm, L = 60


meters, n = 6 and F6 = 0.458 and
6  120
Q  0.72m3 / hr
1,000
From tables or a slide ruler the hydraulic
gradient for D = 20 mm and Q = 0.72 is J =
7.6%. 60
h  7.6   4.5m
100
h f  h  F6  4.5  0.458  2.06m

70
Continue:
The total head loss along the combined 25
and 20 mm lateral is as follows:

h f  h25  h20  1.47  2.06  3.53m

Since 3.5 m is too less than 4.0 meters.


Therefore, it is possible to try a shorter 25 mm
pipe with a length of 25 m and n = 3 and a longer
20 mm diameter pipe along 70 m and n = 7. The
previous procedure should be repeated. The new
head loss is 4.5 meters, which exceeds the limit
of 4 meters - (20% rule).

71
Continue:

The lateral inlet pressure requirement is as follows:

3
hu  20   3.5  22.7m  23m  2.3atmosphere
4

72
Continue:

Option 3:
The lateral pipe is design either with flow or
pressure regulators in every - sprinkler. The
laterals diameter can be reduced to 20 mm or
even further to 16 mm.
In case of 20 mm diameter pipe, the head loss is
6.72 meters (see Option 1). Therefore, the
pressure requirement at the last lateral inlet is:
hu  20  6.72  26.72m  27m  2.7at.
The lateral inlet pressure - the entire head loss is added
to the required sprinkler pressure.
73
Example:

A manifold was installed along the center of a


rectangular field (100 x 100 m). The lateral pipes
were hooked up to the two sides of the manifold
pipe. The difference in elevation between the
center and the end of the field is 2 meters (either
positive or negative). Each lateral pipe has eight
120 l/hr micro-sprinklers at 6 meters apart and the
pressure (hs) is 25 meters. What is the required
diameter of the lateral pipess, if the system is
designed and abides by option 1?

74
Answer:

The lateral's head loss along the two sides of the


manifold should be close enough (in away that
the total head loss due to the difference in
elevation and friction on both sides of the
manifold should be almost the same).
6m

75
Continue:
The maximum head loss between the sprinklers
throughout the field is:
20
 25  5meters
100
For a 20 mm (ID = 16.6 mm) lateral pipe on the two
sides:
n=8 F8 = 0.394

L = (7 sprinklers x 6 m) + 3 m = 45 m
120
Q  8  0.96m3 / hr
1,000

76
Continue:

The hydraulic gradient for Q = 0.96 m3/hr


and D = 20 mm (ID = 16.6 mm) is J =
12.5%
45
h  12.5   5.62m
100
h f  5.62  0.394  2.21

The inlet pressure on the downward slope lateral is:


3 2
hu  25   2.21   25.6m  2.56at.
4 2
77
Continue:

The pressure by the last sprinkler is

h8  25.6  2.21  2  25.4m  2.5atmosphere

The pressure difference between the two ends is

hd  hu  h8  25 .6  25 .4  0.2 m  0.02 at .

78
Continue:

The inlet pressure by the lateral upward is:

3 2
hu  25   2.21   27.65m  2.76at.
4 2

The pressure by the last sprinkler is

h8  27.65  2.21  2  23.4m  2.3at.


The head loss along the upward lateral is
27.65 m - 23.4 m = 4.25 m, which is less than 5 m - 20%
rule 79
Continue:

The pressure requirement for the upward laterals inlet is


27.65 m and for downward laterals inlet is only 25.6 m.
The head loss along the upward laterals is 4.25 m, almost
all the permitted 20% (5 m). Therefore either:
•the upward lateral will be increased to 25 mm or more,
•the manifold can be reallocated to a higher position.
• (or pressure regulators should be installed by the lateral
inlets,)

80
Continue:

When 20 mm lateral pipes are in used, the values of


hu for both sides of the manifold vary by 27.65 - 25.6
= 2.05 m .
To avoid this difference (hu) in the pressure, the
upward 20 mm laterals can be replaced by 25 mm.
The inlet pressure (hu) for 25 mm is 26.5 m. Therefore,
the the difference inlet pressure for both sides of the
manifold will be less, only 26.5 - 25.7 = 0.8 m.
Less expensive alternative is by reallocating the
manifold away from the center of the field to a higher
point. That way, 6 sprinklers will be on the upward
side and 10 sprinklers on the downward laterals.

81
Continue:

Downward laterals:

D = 20 mm n = 10 L = (9 sprinkler x 6 m) + 3 m = 57 m

Q = 1.2 m3/hr F10 = 0.384  J = 18.5%

57
h  18.5   10.53m
100
h f  h  F10  10.53  0.384  4.15m  4.2m

82
Continue:

The difference elevation is as follows:


2 57
 4%  4   2.28m
50 100
The pressure at the lateral inlet is as follows:

3 2.28
hu  25   4.2   27.1m
4 2

83
Continue:

The pressure head by the last lateral sprinkler is

hd  hu  h f  Z  27.1  4.2  2.28  25.2m

The head loss along the downward lateral is

h  hu  hd  27.1  25.2  1.9m

84
Continue:

Upward laterals:

n=6 F6 = 0.405 L = (5 sprinklers x 6) + 3 = 33


m Q = 0.72 m3/hr D=20 mm (ID=16.6mm)  J
= 7.6% 33
h  7.6   2.5m
100
h f  h  F6  2.5  0.405  1.01m  1m

The elevation difference is for a slope of 4% is:


33
4  1.32m
100
85
Continue:

The pressure head at the lateral inlet is:


3 Z 3 1.32
hu  hs   h f   25   1.0   26.51m
4 2 4 2

The pressure head at the last lateral sprinkler is

hd  hu  h f  Z  26.51  1.0  1.32  24.19m

86
Continue:

The head loss along the upward lateral is

h  hu  hd  26.51  24.19  2.32m

The values of hu for both sides are 27.1 m and


26.51 m which is practically the same. The
maximum head loss is 2.3 m, so 2.7 meters are
available as a head loss for the manifold.

87
Design of a manifold pipe

The manifold is a pipe with multiple outlets with


the same space between the outlets, therefore
the manifold is designed the same way as a
lateral.

88
Example:

A fruit tree plot (96 x 96 m) is designed for


irrigation with a solid set system. A manifold is
laid throughout the center of the field. The whole
plot is irrigated simultaneously. The flow rate of
the selected micro-sprinkler is qs = 0.11 m3/hr at a
pressure (hs) of 2.0 atmosphere. The space
between the micro-sprinklers along the lateral is 8
meters (26.24 ft.) and between the laterals is 6
meters (19.68 ft.). What is the required diameter of
the pipes? (The local head loss is 10% of the total
head loss and is taken in account).

89
Answer:

qs=.11m3/h
lateral Ps=20m

6m 8
m

manifold

90
Continue:

The maximum allowable pressure head variation

20
20   4meters .
100

The number of micro-sprinkler on every lateral i

48
6
8

91
Continue:

F6= 0.405 L = (5 sprinklers x 8 m) + 4 m = 44 m


Q = 0.11 m3/hr x 6 sprinklers = 0.66 m3/hr
For 16 mm P.E. lateral pipe (ID = 12.8 mm)
The hydraulic gradient for 16 mm P.E. pipe
(ID=12.8mm) and Q = 0.66 m3/hr is J = 22.3%

44
h  22.3   9.8m
100

92
Continue:

The head loss along 16 mm lateral pipe


(including 10% local head loss) is as follows:

h f  (10%local  head  loss )  h  F6  1.1  9.8  0.405  4.36m

4.36 m head loss exceeds the allowable 4 meter


(20%). So we have to try the head loss for 20 mm
P.E. lateral pipe.

93
Continue:

The hydraulic gradient for 20 mm P.E. pipe (ID =


16mm) and Q = 0.66 m3/hr is J = 6.5%

44
h  6.5   2.86m
100
The head loss in 20-mm lateral pipe (including
10 local head loss) is

h f  1.1  2.8  0.405  1.3m

94
Continue:

1.3 m head loss is less than 4 m (20%) and can


be selected as a lateral.
The lateral inlet pressure is:

3 3
hu  hs   h f  20   1.3  21m
4 4
The water pressure at the last micro-sprinkler
on the lateral pipe is, as follows:
h6  hu  h f  21  1.3  19.7m

95
Continue:

Manifold Design:
The number of laterals is

96
(N)   2  (two sides)  32
6
F32 = 0.376 L = (31 laterals x 6 m) + 3 = 93 m
Q = 32 x 0.66 = 21.1 m3/hr

96
Continue:

The hydraulic gradient for 63 mm P.E. pipe (ID = 58.2


mm) and Q = 21.1 m3/hr is J = 7.2%

93
h  7.2   6.69
100

The head loss in 63 mm P.E. pipe (including 10%


local head loss) is as follows:

h f  (10% local head loss )  h  F32  1.1  6.69  0.376  2.76m

97
Continue:

The pressure by the manifold inlet is as follows:


3 Z 3
hum  hul   h f   21   2.76  23.07m
4 2 4

The pressure by the last lateral inlet is as follows:

hd  hum  h f  23.07  2.76  20.31m

The maximum pressure in the entire plot is at


the first lateral inlet 23.07 meters (2.3
atmosphere)
98
Continue:

The minimum pressure throughout the system


is at the last sprinkler on the last lateral, which
is as follows:

20.31 - 1.3 = 19.01 m


The pressure difference between the first and last
sprinkler is as follows:
23.07 - 19.01 = 4.06 m (i.e. just above 4 meters
(20%))

99
Distribution of water and pressure

100
Distribution of water and pressure

p max.

haverage

qaverage
q min
<10%

101
Designing of Irrigation System
 Considerations: soil, topography, water supply and
quality, kind of crops, climate.
o Soil – infiltration rate, field capacity, (the lighter the soil
is - a higher advantage to drip system). ‫המטרה‬
o Topography – the steeper the terrain - a higher
advantage to drip system.
o Water supply – availability (time), pressure and quantity
o Water quality – salinity (chlorine, SAR, B, heavy metal
or any other toxic), hardness, Fe, Mn, total suspended
material and type.
o Crop – as the root system shallower a higher advantage
to micro irrigation system (closing spacing).
o Price – as the expected income is relative higher - a
better water distribution system is an advantage.
o Crop – Layout of the crop and type.
o Climate – evaporation, wind pattern, crop protection
(high or low temperature)
102
Continue:

 Farm schedule.
o Working time.
o Crop related activity – such as chemical application,
harvesting, weeds control and so on.
 Water application:
o Estimate water application depth at each irrigation cycle.
o Determine the peak period of daily water consumption.
o Determine the frequency of water supply.

103
Continue:
 Irrigation system:
o Consider several alternative types of irrigation
systems.

o Determine the sprinklers or emitters spacing,


discharge, nozzle sizes, water pressure. ‫טפטוף המטרה‬
o Determine the minimum number of sprinklers or
emitters (or a size of subplot) which must be operated
simultaneously.

104
Continue:

 Irrigation layout:
o Divide the field into sub-plots according to the crops,
availability of water and number of shifts (in one
complete irrigation cycle).
o Determine the best layout of main and laterals.
o Determine the required lateral size.
o Determine the size of a main pipe.
o Select a pump.

105
Continue

 Prepare plans, schedules, and instructions for a


proper layout and operation.
 Prepare a schematic diagram for each set of sub-
mains or manifolds which can operate
simultaneously.
 Prepare a diagram to show the discharge, pressure
requirement, elevation and pipe length.
 Select appropriate pipes, starting at the downstream
end and ending up by the water source.

106
Combination of pipes

The total head loss along 300 meters PVC (grade 6) pipe is
15 m, with a flow rate of 180 m3/h. Which size of pipes are
required?
Q=180 m3/h

300 m
h=15m

107
Answer

The hydraulic gradient for 160 mm (ID 150.2 mm) is: 3.4%
Therefore, the head loss for 300 m long pipe is: 10.2 m (too
big pipe)
The hydraulic gradient for 140 mm (ID 131.4 mm) is: 6.4%
Therefore, the head loss for 300 m long pipe is: 19.2 m (too
small pipe).
Therefore, a combination of the two can make it.

108
Cont.
Q=150 m3/h

300 m

L 300-L

3.4  L 6.4  (300  L)


15  
100 100
3L  1920  1500
L  140m
140 m 160 mm PVC pipe + 160 m 140 mm PVC pipe

109
Example:

A flat field with two plots, each plot is divided into


six subplots. The selected system for this field is
drip irrigation. The flow rate in each subplot is 21
m3/hr and the pressure requirement to the sub-
main inlets is 25 meters. The interval of water
supply is every three days and only one shift a
day. Therefore, two subplots in each plot must be
irrigated simultaneously. The main pipes are
made of PVC (C = 150) and are buried 0.6 meters
deep. The local head losses is up to 10% of the
longitudinal head losses. The pump pressure is
50 meters and with a flow rate of 84m3/h (local
head loss due primary filter and others pump
attached accessories is 10m). 110
Continue:

1 3 5

D 50m 96m 96m


C B A
2 4 6

1’ 3’
5’
E
C’ B’ A’
2’ 4’ 6
50m 96m 96m
Q=84m3/h F Pump
111
Pressure requirement

Qu=21m3
Hu=25 m

Qu=84m3
Hu=40m
112
Continue:

The sequence of water application is as follow


First day - 1, 5, 1' and 5' plots

Second day - 2, 6, 2' and 6' plots

Third day - 3, 4, 3' and 4' plots

113
Continue:
The diagram for the first and second day of water
supply is:
1 3 5

D Q=21m3/h hu=25.6m
2Q=42m3/h
C B A
2 4 6
L=50m L=192m
250m

1’ 3’
5’
Q=21m3/h
E 2Q=42m3/h C’ B’ A’
2’ 4’ 6
L=50m L=192

F Pump (Q=84m3/H= 50m)


114
Continue:
The diagram for the third day of water supply is:
1 3 5
hu=25.6m
D Q=0m3/h
2Q=42m3/h
C B A
2 4 6
L=146m

1’ 3’
5’ Q=0m3/h
E 2Q=42m3/h C’ B’ A’
2’ 4’ 6
L=146m

F Pump (Q=84m3/h, 40m)


115
Main pipes’ diagram for first and
second day

D C A
E
F 120 m 300 m 192m
84 m3/h 42 m3/h 21m3/h

116
Main pipes’ diagram for third day
(Case 2)

E D B
F 120 m 396 m
84 m3/h 42 m3/h

117
Continue:

The following table presents the the head loss


(including 10%) for local head loss for selected
pipe:
Discharge pipe length 2" 3" 4" 5" 6"
(m3/h) (m)
21 A-C 192 31.7 4.5 1.1 0.4
C-D 50 8.3 1.2 0.3 0.1
42 B-D 146 12.1 3 1
D-E 250 20.7 5.2 1.8

84 E-F 120 8.8 3 1.2

118
Continue:
Case 1: Design system for the first and second day.
hu - 25.6 m (including the depth of the main pipe 0.6 m)
pump pressure - 40 m
Total head loss = 40 - 25.6 = 14.4 m
Head loss for the selected pipe:
A-C 192m Q = 21 m3/hr 3" pipe = 4.5 m
C-D 50m Q = 42 m3/hr 4" pipe = 1m
D-E 250m Q = 42 m3/hr 4" pipe = 5.2 m
The pressure by E is : 25.6 + 4.5 + 1.0 + 5.2 = 36.3 m.
The head loss available for E-F = 40 – 36.3 = 3.7 m

119
Pressure diagram for case 1

31.1m 30.1m 25.6m


A
D 4” 50m 3” 192m
C

36.3m E

40m
F
120
Continue:

For E - F (pump) section:


4" pipe is too small (8.8 m head loss, 6.7%), on the
other hand 5" pipe is too much (3 m head loss,
2.3%). Therefore, a combination of the two is
selected for E-F section.
L( 4") 120  L
1.1(6.7   2.3  )  3.7
100 100

L (4") = 13.7 m

L (5“) = 120 – 13.7 = 106.3 m


121
Case 2

Hu-25.6
B
D 146m3
42 m

42 m3

F
Hu-40m
122
Continue

Case 2: Design system for the third day:


hu – 25.6 m (including the depth of a main pipe 0.6 m)
After pump pressure - 40 m
Maximum head loss = 40 – 25.6 = 14.4 m
Selected pipes –
B-D Q = 42 m3/hr 4" pipe =3m
D-E Q = 42 m3/hr 4" pipe = 5.2 m
The pressure head by E tee is 26.6+3+5.2=33.8 m.
The head loss available for E-F = 40 – 33.8 = 6.2 m
123
Case 2

42 m3 Hu-25.6
H-28.6m
B
D 4” 146m

H-33.8m E

F
Hu-40m
124
Continue
The pressure in case 2 at point E is 33.8 m which is lower than
in case 2 which was 36.3 m (pressure different of 2.5 m). .
Therefore, the pipe for DB should be reduced, in a way that the
pressure at a point D should be a same as case 1 which is
31.2m. H-31.1m 42 m 3
Hu-25.6
B
D 146m

E
A combination of pipes 3” and 4” for DB section with
5.6 m head loss should be selected. 125
Continue

Section DB: the hydraulic gradient for 3” pipe with 42


m3 is 7.5% and for 4” is 1.9%

L3" 146  L
1.1(7.5   1.9  )  5.5
100 100
3” pipe is = 39.75 m and for 4” is 106.25 m

(The actual length should take in account the


commercial pipe length)

126
Case 2

H-31.2m 4” Hu-25.6
3”
106.25m 39.75 m B
D
42 m3

E
In this situation the size of pipes DE and EF are a same as in case
1.
In case 2, the required pipes are smaller than case 1 (DB). (The
selected pipe in case 1 are too small to maintain the pressure
requirement in case 2) 127
Pipe diagram for case 1 & 2

Hu-25.6m
D
4” 106.75m 3” 135.25m
C B A

F
128
Head loss in case 1

For section A – C (192m 21m3/h):


3” 137.4 m - 3.2 m
4” 54.6m - 0.3 m
For section C – D (42m3/h)
4” 50 m -1m
For section D – E (42 m3/h):
4” 250 m - 5.2 m
For section E – F (120m 84m3/h):
4” 13.7 m -1m
5: 106.3 m - 2.7 m
The total head loss from A to F is -13.4 m

129
Pressure diagram for case 1

H-30.1 H-29.1m 25.6m


D 4” 104.6m 3” 137.4m
H-35.3m
C B A

H-39m
F
130
Head loss in case 2

For section D – B (1146m 42m3/h):


3” 39.75 m - 3.3 m
4” 106.25 m - 2.2 m
For section D – E (42 m3/h):
4” 250 m - 5.2 m
For section E – F (120m 84m3/h):
4” 13.7 m -1m
5”: 106.3 m - 2.7 m
The total head loss from A to F is 14.4 m

131
Pressure diagram for case 2

H-31.1 H-28.9m 25.6m

4” 106.25m 3” 39.75m
D
H-36.3m
C B

E
H-40m

Case 2 -‫צריך להוסיף מפה דומה ל‬


F
132
Diagram for E – A’ case 2

H-31.1 H-28.9m 25.6m


4” 104.6m 3” 137.4m
D C B A

25.6m
H-36.3m

E B’
H-40m

F
133
The pipe for E – A’ for case 1

E 42m3/h C’ Q – 21m3/h A’
H-35.3m H-25.6m
50 m 192 m

The head loss E – A’:


35.3 – 25.6 = 9.7 m

The length of E – C’ is 50 m 42 m3/h  for 3” pipe the


head loss is 4.1 m
The length of C’ A’ is 192 m 21m3/h  the required head
loss for this section is: 9.7 – 4.1 = 5.6m
The hydraulic gradient for 2” is 15% and for 3” is 2.1%
and combination of the two will make it.

134
Continue
The hydraulic gradient for 2” is 15% and for 3” is 2.1% and
combination of the two will make it.
L2" 192  L
1.1(15   2.1  )  5.6
100 100

8.2 m 2” pipe, and 183.8 m 3” pipe.


The head loss for E-C’ 3” pipe (42 m3/h is 4.1 m.
The total head loss for E-A’ is 9.7 m.
E C’ A’
42m3/h Q – 21m3/h 2”
3” 8.2m
233.8 m

135
The pipe for E – B’ for case 2

E 42m3/h B’
H-36.3m H-25.6m
146 m

The head loss E – B’:


36.3 – 25.6 = 10.7 m
The length of E – B’ is 146 m 42 m3/h
The head loss for 3” is too much 12.1 m
and for 4” is too small 3 m
A combination of the two will make it, the hydraulic
gradient for 3” is 7.5% and for 4” is 1.9%.

136
The combination pipes for E – B’

L3" 146  L
1.1(7.5   1.9  )  10.7
100 100

3” pipe 124.1 m
4” pipe 21.9 m

137
Diagram for E – A’ for case 2
H-30.1 H-29.1m 25.6m
4” 104.6m 3” 137.4m
D C B A
H-35.3m

B’ 25.6m
E
4” 3” 2” A’
21.9m 211.9m 8.2m
H-39m

F
Since the size of the pipe E-A’ increased, therefore we have to
reconsider the pipe size for EA’ in case 1.
138
Section E-A’ case 1

25.6m
C’
E A’
4” 3” 2”
21.9m 211.9m 8.2m

The head loss E – B’:


35.3 – 25.6 = 9.7 m
The length of E – C’ is 50 m 42 m3/h
The head loss for 4” 21.9 m is 0.5 m
The head loss for 3” 28. 1 m is 2.3 m
The length of C’ – A’ is 192 m 21 m3/h
The head loss for 3” 183.8 m is 4.3 m
The head loss for 2” 8.2 m is 1.4 m
The total head loss is 0.5 + 2.3 + 4.3 + 1.4 = 8.5 m
Therefore, the length of 2” pipe can be extended a little bit by (to
increase the head loss): 9.7 – 8.5 = 1.2 m:

139
Continue
The length of B – A is 96 m with 21 m3/h
The current head loss is:
for 3” 183.8 m is -4.3 m
for 2” 8.2 m is -1.4 m
The total head loss should be increased by 1.2 m
4.3 + 1.4 + 1.2 = 6.9 m
The hydraulic gradient for 2” and 21m3/h is 15% and
for 3” pipe is 2.1%
L2" 192  L
1.1(15   2.1  )  6.9
100 100
The length of 2” pipe is 17.4 m
and 3” pipe is 174.6 m

140
Final Diagram for E – A’
H-30.1 H-29.1m 25.6m
D
4” 104.6m 3” 137.4m
C B A
H-35.3m

C’ B’ 25.6m
E
4” 4” 3” 2” A’
21.9m 202.7m 17.4m

5”
H-39m

F
To overcome the pressure differences, pressure regulator
should be installed by every risers.
141
142
143
To overcome the pressure differences, pressure regulator
should be installed by every risers.
144
‫צריך להוסיף את בחינה של גודל צינורות ’‪ E-A‬עבור ‪case2‬‬
‫אשר נדרש לקטרים אחרים‬ ‫‪145‬‬
Case 2

H-31.2m 4” Hu-25.6
3”
104.6m 41.4 m B
D
42 m3

146
Continue

The pipe selection for F - A is as follows:


A-D 3" 242 meters
D-E 4" 250 meters
E-F 6" 120 meters

147
Continue
The pipe selection for the section E-A' for case 1 is as fo

Hu=38m C’ B’ A’
50 m 192m
E 42m3/h 21m3/h
Hu=25.6

148
Continue

The head loss is


38.0 - 25.6 = 12.4 m
Selection of pipes -
A'-C' Q = 21 m3/hr 2" pipe = 7.7 m
The head loss available for E-C'
38 - 7.7 - 25.6 = 4.7 m

149
Continue
2" pipe is too small (6.5 m), on the other hand
3" pipe is too much (2.4 m). Therefore, a
combination of the two pipes is required for E-
C' section. The two pipes which required for E-
C section are:
L 50  L
1.1(43   130  )  4.7
1,000 1,000

L = 33 m

L(3") = 33 meters and 2" pipe 27 meters

150
Continue
The design for the section E-A' for case 2 is as
follows:
H=38m B’ A’
C’
E
146m
42m3/h

QEB' = 42 m3/hr 2" pipe = 7.7 m


The hydraulic gradient for E-B’ section is 38.0 - 25.6 = 12

151
Continue

2" pipe is too small (18.9 m), on the other hand 3"
pipe is too much (6.9m) Therefore, a mix of the
two is required for F-B', section.
L 146  L
1.1(43   130  )  12.4
1,000 1,000

L = 95

L (3") = 95 m and 2" pipe 51 m

152
Continue:

The selected pipe for E-B' section will be as in


case 2, 95 meters 3" pipe and 51 meters 2"
pipe.
Pressure regulators on some of the risers
should be considered to compensate the total
head loss over 20% (including the head loss
inside each plot).

153