You are on page 1of 74

INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS AND SAFETY

1
CONTENTS
• Introduction
• Types of hazards
• Recommendations and Suggestions
• Industrial effluent testing and treatment
• Discussion on industrial accident case
studies
• Questions
• References
2
INTRODUCTION

Industrial hazards:

It can be defined as any condition produced by


industries that may cause injury or death to
personal or loss of product or property.

3
Physical

Pollution Chemical

HAZARDS

Electrical Biological

Mechanical

4
Physical Heat
Hazards & Cold

24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 5


Heat and Cold

Burns Foot sore

Heat stroke Immersion foot

Heat cramps

Preventive Measures

A reasonable temp. of 20-250C must be maintained

6
Heat
and
Cold

Physical
Hazards

Noise

7
Noise have two type of effects

 Auditory
 Non auditory effects
 Preventive measures
a. At source:
• Source of noise can be enclosed with an insulation
material or concrete wall.
• Proper maintenance of machinery
b. By distance
c. Personal protection against noise.

8
Equipment noise sources ,level & potential control solutions

Equipment Sound level in Possible noise control


dBA at 3 feet treatments
Air coolers 87-94 Aerodynamic fun blades,↓
revolutions/min ↑ pitch,↓
pressure drop
Compressors 90-120 Install mufflers on intake,&
exhaust, enclosure the
machine with casing,
vibration isolation & lagging
of piping system
Electric motors 90-110 Acoustically lined fan
covers, enclosure

9
Equipment noise sources ,level & potential control solutions

Heater & 95-110 Acoustic plenums, intake mufflers,


furnaces lined & damped ducts

Valves <80-108 Avoid sonic velocities, limit


pressure drop & mass flow,
replace with special low noise
valves

Piping 9-105 Inline silencers, vibration isolation

10
Heat &
Cold

Physical
hazards

Radiation Noise

11
Radiation
Radiation are divided into two groups

Natural Man made


Cosmic rays Medical /dental x-rays isotopes

Environmental (radioactive Occupational exposure


elements e.g. uranium)
Internal (potassium,) Nuclear radioactive fallout
Approx 0.1 rad/yr Miscellaneous
Use of radio active substances
by different industries

12
Effect of hazards
 Somatic
 Genetic
i. Preventive measures
ii. Radiation source should be housed in a building
that shields any surrounding area.
iii. Radiation badges should be worn.
iv. Periodical medical examination.
v. Proper use of lead shields & lead rubber aprons.

13
Heat &
Cold

Fire & Physical


Noise
Explosion Hazards

Radiation

14
Fire & explosion hazards
Causes
Smoking in the factory
Defective heating equipment, electrical equipment &
wiring.
Explosive gas leakage.
Inadequate protection of electric motors
Sparking of electric wires & equipment
Protection & prevention
Types of fire

15
Fire & explosion hazards

Preventive measures
• Prohibition of smoking in manufacturing areas.
• Oxygen present in the inflammable atmosphere may
be ↓by dilution with gases such as nitrogen, co2,steam
or combination of these.
• Hazardous operation should be isolated
• Eliminating the ignition sources
• Using fire resistant material in construction
• Suitable emergency exits
• Adequate venting

16
Fire & explosion hazards
• Automatic sprinklers
• Equipment should design to meet the specifications &
code of recognized authorities., such as ASME
• The design & construction of pressure vessels &
storage tanks should follow ASME codes.
• Inspection

17
Local Inhalation

– Dermatitis – Gas Poisoning


– Eczema
– Ulcers
– Cancer Chemical Hazards

Ingestion

Living tissue may be destroyed by chemical reactions such as


Dehydration
Digestion
Oxidation
18
Source, effect & precautions of chemical hazards

Type/ source of Effect/ organ Precautions to be taken


chemical contaminant affected

Acridines, Dermatitis Cleanliness, removal of people


phenothiazines from the areas as soon as first
sign of skin reaction is observed.

Solvents like Handle with care


chloroform, benzene
Vegetable drugs like Dust evolves, Goggles are to be worn
capsicum & affects eye
podophyllum
Long term use of filter Dust explosion Regular cleaning
without cleaning

19
Source, effect & precautions of chemical hazards

Improper use of Contamination Follow established


cleaning agents cleaning procedures

Working with radio Hazards due to Wearing lead coat,


active emitted radiation maintaining pressure
pharmaceuticals of working area
slightly less than
atmospheric pressure

Underground tanks Difficulty in Minimal use of


monitoring underground tanks
interior & exterior

20
PREVENTIVE MEASURES

• Tolerance levels for toxic chemicals set by federal


regulations have to be followed.

• Strict observation of operations of all safety


regulations

21
Biological hazards
• Disease due to biological hazards
 Brucellosis (dairy industry)
 Byssinosis (textile industry)
 Bagassosis (sugar-cane)
 Loco motor disorder
• Preventive measures
Periodic health check up
Personal protection
The manufacturer should also provide
First aid facilities
Initial examination
Facility for vaccination
Routine sanitation programme
22
Mechanical hazards
• Accidents usually take place by the combination of unsafe
condition & carelessness.
• Most of industrial accidents are due to
 Faulty inspection
 Inability of employee
 Poor discipline
 Lack of concentration
 Unsafe practice
 Mental & physical unfitness for job
 Faulty equipment or improper working condition
 Improper training regarding the safety aspects

23
Mechanical hazards
•In order to prevent mechanical accidents factories act
lays down certain requirements
For cranes
End buffers
Indicating lamps
Signals
Proof loading
upto20 tons 25% in excess
20 to 50 tons 5 tons in excess
above 50 tons 10% in excess
24
Mechanical hazards

Preventive Building
measures planning

25
Building planning
• Floors must be of unskid/non-slippery type.

• Enough space for employees to work.

• Passages between working places.

• Proper arrangements of temperature control; like fans,


A.C., heaters.

26
Building planning
Building
planning

Preventive
measures

Safe
material
handling

27
Safe material handling
• Careless handling of heavy materials and components
should be avoided.

• Full use of mechanical material handling equipment.

• All material handling equipments should be repaired


and maintained properly.

• Containers employed to transport liquids should not


be defective or leaking.
28
Personal protective devices

• Protection of head by using hard hats/helmets.

• Protection of ears by using earmufffs and plugs.

• Protection of face by using face masks, face


shields.

29
Electrical hazards
• Shocks
• Sparking
• Fire
• Wiring faults

Preventive measures
 Proper maintenance of wiring & equipment
 High voltage equipment should be properly enclosed
 Good house keeping
 Water should not be used for dousing electric fire
 Worker should avoid working in electric circuits or
equipment in wet clothing or shoes.
30
Pollution hazards
• Types
a. Air pollution
b. Water pollution
c. Thermal pollution
d. Sound pollution

Air pollution
• Sources
 Automobiles
 Industries
 Domestic
31
Preventive measures
i. Those suitable for removing particulate matter
a. Ventilation
 Exhaust ventilation
 Plenum ventilation
b. Air purifying equipment
ii. Those associated with removing gaseous pollutants
Water pollution
1. Types of water pollutants
 Physical
 Chemical
 Physiological
 Biological 32
Preventive measures
2. Problems of water pollution
3. Preventive measure
a. Control of water pollution
i. Physical treatment
 Storage
 Filtration
ii. Chemical treatment
iii. Biological treatment
b. Treatment of industrial waste
Primary treatment
Secondary treatment
Tertiary treatment
33
Preventive measures

c. Thermal pollution
• Effects
 Damage to aquatic environment
 Reduction in assimilative capacity of organic waste

• Various off stream cooling systems


i. Wet cooling towers
ii. Dry cooling towers
iii. Cooling ponds
iv. Spray ponds
34
Recommendations & suggestions

Proper treatment & disposal methods for effluents


should be adopted

An awareness program should be organized

Measures for increase efficiency of the water use

35
Classification of signs according to use –
(1) Danger signs.

The DANGER header is used when there is a hazardous


situation which has a high probability of death or severe
injury. It should not be considered for property damage
unless personal injury risk is present.

36
2) Caution signs. (i)

The CAUTION header is used to indicate a hazardous


situation which may result in minor or moderate
injury. However, Caution should not be used when
there is a possibility of death or serious injury.

37
(3) Safety instruction signs

General Safety Signs (SAFETY FIRST, BE


CAREFUL, THINK) should indicate general
instructions relative to safe work practices,
reminders of proper safety procedures, and the
location of safety equipment.

38
(4) Biological hazard signs.

The biological hazard warning shall be used to


signify the actual or potential presence of a
biohazard and to identify equipment, containers,
rooms, materials, experimental animals, or
combinations thereof, which contain, or are
contaminated with, viable hazardous agents.

39
Pictograph

Pictograph means a pictorial representation used to


identify a hazardous condition or to convey a safety
instruction

40
Signal Word

Signal word means that portion of a tag's inscription


that contains the word or words that are intended to
capture the employee's immediate attention.

41
Tag
Tag means a device usually made of card, paper, pasteboard,
plastic or other material used to identify a hazardous
condition.

42
Danger Tags
Danger tags shall be used in major hazard situations
where an immediate hazard presents a threat of death
or serious injury to employees. Danger tags shall be
used only in these situations.

43
Caution Tags
Caution tags shall be used in minor hazard situations
where a non-immediate or potential hazard or unsafe
practice presents a lesser threat of employee injury.
Caution tags shall be used only in these situations.

44
Warning Tags
Warning tags may be used to represent a hazard level
between "Caution" and "Danger," instead of the
required "Caution" tag, provided that they have a
signal word of "Warning," an appropriate major
message

45
Biological Hazard Tags
The symbol or design for biological hazard tags shall
conform to the design shown below:

46
Color Coding-Danger Tag

"DANGER" -- Red, or predominantly red, with


lettering or symbols in a contrasting color.

47
Color Coding-Warning Tag

"WARNING" -- Orange, or predominantly orange, with


lettering or symbols in a contrasting color.

48
Biological Hazard Tag
BIOLOGICAL HAZARD -- Fluorescent orange or
orange-red, or predominantly so, with lettering or
symbols in a contrasting color.

49
Industrial effluent testing and treatment
• Effluent is an out flowing of water from a natural body
of water, or from a man-made structure.
• Water pollution or waste water discharge from the
industrial facilities.
REASON For TESTING
• To find out
-Pollution level
-Presence of toxic ingredients
-Color, turbidity, odour and quality of water
-pH and acidity / alkalinity
-Suspended solids and dissolved solids
-Phenolic compounds and oily materials

50
GUIDELINES FOR TESTING EFFLUENTS

• Samples may be collected at specific intervals and


finally can be mixed before analysis.
• Containers made up of glass, polythene or any suitable
plastic material may be used.
• Samples may also be refrigerated to avoid loss of
volatile matter
• Samples could be preserved after adjusting the pH
• O2, CO2, CO may be estimated

51
THE RESULTS OF TESTING ARE REPORTED
AS FOLLOWS:

• Effluents may be expressed as mg/ltr, ppm, %/ltr, and


mcg/ltr
• Acidity / Alkalinity / Oil / Grease / CN / Phenol / Dyes
content should be reported
TESTING OF WASTE WATER (EFFLUENT)
TEST TREATMENT METHOD
pH
Acidic Lime or NAOH
Basic H2SO4
52
THE RESULTS OF TESTING ARE REPORTED
AS FOLLOWS:

Suspended Solids Sedimentation

Oil and grease -grease taps


-skimming
Cyanide
Chlorinated & complex with pyridine -alkaline chlorination
pyroxolene -oxidation with ozone
-Colourimetrically -oxidation with H2O2
Phosphates
-Convert to ammonium molybdatephosphates -ppt with chalk or lime
-extracted with benzene/ isobutyl alcohol -coagulation with alum
mixture
-organic phase treated with tin chloride (blue)
Colourimetrically
53
THE RESULTS OF TESTING ARE REPORTED
AS FOLLOWS:

Mercury
-treated with nitric acid and potassium -Coagulation
dichromate soln- treated with tin chloride
-chelation with
Vapour determined by spectrophotometry trimercaptotriazine

Phenolic compounds Removal by polymeric


adsorbents
Steam distillation-acidify (pH<4)- add CuSO4
soln-
Add aminoantipyrine soln- extracted with
chloroform
calorimetrically

54
BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND

• It is the amounts of oxygen required by micro organisms to


bio chemically oxidize carbonaceous organic matter at 20
0C in 5 days.

• 10 mg/litre or less
• Excess makes water toxic

MEASUREMENT

• Special designed bottle with flared cap


• Incubated at 20 0C for 5 day measuring DO
• Microorganism added if required

55
Dissol oxy in ppm (mg/ltr) = N(V) (8) (1000)
V1
V = Volume of sodium thio sulphate required.
N = Normality
V 1= Volume of sample taken.

CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND


• Oxygen equivalent of organic matter present in waste water
that is susceptible to oxidation
• Waste water sample is refluxed with a known excess of pot.
dichromate in a 50% sulphuric acid solution in presence of
silver sulphate and mercuric sulphate
56
CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND

• The organic matter of the sample is oxidised to water, carbon


dioxide and ammonia
• The excess of dichromate remaining untreated in the solution
is titrated against standard ferrous ammonium sulphate

(V1-V2) x N x 8 x100
• COD(mg/l) =
Where, X
V1 = Volume of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution
consumed in blank
V2 = Volume of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution
consumed for test solution
X= Volume of sample taken
N= Normality of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution 57
Limit for Discharge into Systems

Sr. No. Parameters Tolerance limits


1 pH 5.5 – 9.0
2 Oil and grease 10
3 Total suspended solid, mg/l 100
4 BOD, mg/l 30
5 COD, mg/l 50
6 Mercury 0.01
7 Arsenic, mg/l 0.20
8 Cyanide, mg/l 0.10
9 Sulphides, mg/l 2.00
10 Phosphates, mg/l 5.00
24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 58
Waste Water Treatment
 Waste Water Pretreatment
• Attempt to render the effluent suitable for further
treatment
• Equalization
Concentrated waste is diluted if necessary
-by mechanical mixing
-by aeration mixing
• Neutralization
• Removal of Grease and Oils

59
Primary Treatment of Waste Water
• Removal of large floating or suspended particle by
physical and chemical treatment
 Screening
• Large particles are removed
• Coarse screen of metal bars or heavy wires spaced 25-50
mm apart
• Finer materials are separated by screening through 0.8-6
mm meshes
 Grit Chambers
• Removal of particles by centrifugal action and friction
against tank walls
• Diffused air used for mixing pattern
60
Primary Treatment of Waste Water

• It is used
To prevent any damage to equipment
To avoid settling in pipe bends
61
Primary Treatment of Waste Water
 Chemical Reaction
• Involves agglomeration of tiny particles into large
particles
 Flocculation
-by mechanical stirring and by chemical flocculants
 Precipitation
-Large amount of suspended solid formed
 Coagulation
-Formation of large and quick settling flocs by
a) Reduction of charges and repulsive force
b) Adsorption on long chain molecular structure
62
Secondary Treatment of Waste Water
• It is a biological process
• C, H, and O sources are available
• Nitrogen should be 5% of the BOD
• Phosphorus should be 20% of mass of nitrogen
• Environmental conditions are provided
Advantages
• Continuous waste treatment is favored
• Low cost system
Disadvantages
• Prior prediction of biological degradability is not possible
• Solubility limits biodegradability
63
Secondary Treatment of Waste Water
Activated Sludge Process
• Microbial Floc is suspended in tank
• Air is continuously supplied
• Biological degradation of waste into CO2 and H2O
• Bacterial flora grows and remains suspended in the form
of floc called as “activated sludge”
• 20% of sludge is recycled
• 6 to 24 hours aeration is required

64
Secondary Treatment of Waste Water
• Advantages
-Removal of soluble organic substance, colloidal
matter, particulate matter, inorganic substance
-Produce high quality effluent

• Disadvantage
-Maintenance cost is high
-Growth of anaerobic bacteria fungi etc

65
Activated Sludge Process

66
Trickling filtration process
• Microorganisms are attached to fixed bed
• It acts as a filter
• Bed is maintained at height of 2.5 meter
• Gelatinous film is formed
• Effluent is sprayed over the surface
• Slots at the bottom for air inlet
• Aerobic metabolism occur on the surface
• Anaerobic metabolism occur at the bottom

24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 67


Trickling Filtration Process

68
Trickling Filtration Process
Advantages
• Produce effluent of consistent quality
• Aerobic and anaerobic digestion are achieved
• More economical
• Sludge can be removed quickly

Disadvantage
• Cost for ventilation duct for air supply is high
• Efficiency decreases in the winter

69
Secondary Treatment of Waste Water
Oxidation Ponds
• Depth should be 1 to 2 meters.
• Bottom and sides are lined with polyethylene, cement.
• Oxygen released by algae, carbon dioxide generate from
biodegradative
• Aerobic oxidation producing carbon dioxide and water.
Advantage:
• Operation is simple and economical.
Disadvantages:
• Required disinfections
• Use for wastes having low BOD.
70
Tertiary Treatment Of Waste Water
• Meant for polishing the effluents.
• Bacteria are removed by keeping in maturation
ponds.
• Chlorinated, if still contain bacteria.
• Methods are more expensive than biological
treatment.
 Coagulation :
• Reaction take place upon addition of the
coagulants.
-Metal salts
-Organic Polymers
• In water, form insoluble product with impurities.
71
Tertiary Treatment Of Waste Water
 Coprecipitation :
• Ions in solution phase precipitate with the carrier
molecule by
-Adsorption Process
-Inclusion Process
 Filtration
• Most common type in addition to disinfection.
• Practiced prior to the chlorination.
• Should be done after coagulation.
• May be made up of sand, activated charcoal.
72
Tertiary Treatment Of Waste Water
 Adsorption
• Involves treatment with activated carbon.
• Useful for removal of pesticides
REFRENCES
• Pharmaceutical Production and Management By C. V. S. Subrahmanyam

• www.geocities.com

• www.britannica.com

• http://nptel:iipm.ac.in

• www.waste_management_world.com

• Sewage and Industrial Effluent Treatment, 2 nd edition By John Arundel

• The Theory & Practical of Industrial Pharmacy By Leon Lachman, Herbert


A. Lieberman, Joseph Kiang, 3RD Edition Varghese Publishing House.

• www.osha.gov

74