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mAtul Kumar Singh

hÚt  BIDISL?
BIOFUELS or BIODIESEL

Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning


alternative fuel derived from plant or
vegetable oils (vegetable derived esters or
VDE) that can be used as a blend with or as a
total substitute for petroleum diesel. It can
be used in compression-ignition (diesel)
engines even without any engine
modifications.
m Biodiesel is a variety of ester-based oxygenated fuels
made from vegetable oils or animal fats.

m It is indigenous, renewable, biodegradable, and a


nontoxic diesel fuel substitute.

m The first diesel engine was powered using peanut


oil by Rudolf Diesel in 1895.

m He demonstrated the engine in 1900 at the orld


Exposition in Paris where he took the highest prize.
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vRapeseed
vSunflower oil ( Italy and
Southern France)
vSoybean oil (USA & Brazil)
vPalm oil (Malaysia)
vlard, used frying oil (Austria),
Jatropha
(India,Nicaragua & South
Americas)
_losed _ycle Of Vegetable OIL as FUEL
Advantages
1.Alternative fuel for diesel engines

2. Made from vegetable oil or animal


fat

3.Meets health effect testing (_AA)

4.Lower emissions, High flash point


(>300F), Safer

5.Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic.

6._hemically, biodiesel molecules are


mono-alkyl esters produced usually
from triglyceride esters
Ö._an be mixed in any ratio with petroleum diesel
fuel or can be used 100%.

8.Produces less particulates, soot, carbon monoxide,


and hydrocarbon emissions than petroleum diesel
fuel.

9.Known to provide a substantial reduction in cancer


risks.

10.Produces pleasant exhaust odor unlike petroleum


diesel.

11.Has very good lubricity properties. Used as lubricity


additive in severely hydro-treated diesel fuel.

12.Oral toxicity effects are similar to those associated


with laxatives.
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_atalyst for transesterification Reactions

People are working on both homogeneous and


Heterogeneous
_atalysis.

e are going to focus only heterogeneous


catalyst
This talk mainly focused on Lewis acid
based hydrophobic solid acid catalysts
transesterification reactions
> Double-metal cyanide (DM_) complexes possess
zeolite-like cage structures
> Now a days have gained considerable attention for
their interesting magnetic, electrochromic, magneto-
optic, photomagnetic and nanomagnetic properties
> These Prussian blue-analogues are insoluble in
most of the organic solvents and even in aqua regia.

> They are currently used as catalysts for the


copolymerization of epoxides and_O2
_atalyst preparation
K4[Fe(_N)6] Zn_l2 A 15-g sample of tri-block
copolymer
0.01 mol 0.1 mol
100 mL of distilled
40 mL of double-distilled water water 2 mL of distilled water
and 20 mL of M M and 40 mL of M M
MÚ MÚ
Solution 1 Solution 2 solution 3

Solution 2 was added to solution 1 slowly over 1 h at 323 K under vigorous stirring. A white solid
was precipitated. Solution 3 was then added to the above reaction mixture over 5Ȃ10 min, and
stirring was continued for another1 h.

After activating at453 K for 4 h

FeȂZn-1
Synthesis of Fe/Zn DM_ catalysts
Tentative structure of double metal cyanide FeȂZn complex
_atalyst characterization

XRF analyses
Elemental analyses
X-ray Diffraction
Diffuse reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy
Diffuse reflectance UVȂvis spectroscopy
Temperature Programmed Desorption
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