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Identify how foam works

2. Discuss all of the different classifications of foam

3. Discuss the different types of foam available on the market

4. Talk about the foam we have here with an in-depth look at F-500

5. How do we use foam

6. Use of the new foam system on E-2522

7. Go out and create some foam using 2522 and portable eductor
Burnback Resistance - The ability of a foam blanket Polar Solvent - A liquid whose molecules possess a
to resist direct flame impingement such as would be permanent electric moment. Examples are amines,
evident in a partially extinguished petroleum fire. ethers, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and ketones. In
fire fighting, any flammable liquid which destroys regular
Drainage Rate - The rate at which solution drains from foam is generally referred to as a polar solvent (or
a foam. is water miscible).
Polymeric Membrane - A thin, durable, cohesive skin
Expansion - The ratio of volume of foam formed to the formed on a polar solvent fuel surface, protecting the
volume of solution used to generate the foam; for foam bubbles from destruction by the fuel; a precipitation
example, which occurs when a polar solvent foam comes
an 8 expansion means 800 gallons of foam in contact with hydrophilic fuels such as isopropanol,
from 100 gallons of solution. ethanol and other polar solvents.

Foam Liquid or Concentrate - The foaming agent for Proportioner - The device where foam liquid and water
mixing with the appropriate amounts of water and air are mixed to form foam solution.
to produce finished foam.

Foam Solution - A homogeneous mixture of water and

foam liquid.

Foam Stability - The relative ability of a foam to

Withstand spontaneous collapse or breakdown from
external causes, such as heat or chemical reaction.
Foam helps us put out fires by 4 different

mothering ooling

eperating enetrating
Classifications of Foam
By Type of Material Man Made Or Natural
Class A Protein means natural.
Paper, wood, Foams can be a mixture of
textiles, rubber, etc. man made and natural
Class B
liquids, gasoline, Expansion Ratio
Class C, D, K Either Hi, Medium, Or Lo

C- electrical Lo = Up to 20:1

D- Flammable Med from 20:1 – 200:1

metals High from 200:1 – 1,000:1
K- Restaurant
grease, oils
Different Types of Foams On The Market

Protein Foam Fluoro-protein Foam

May be used in 3% or 6% mixture May be used in 3% or 6% mixture
Protein based Protein and synthetic based; derived from
Low expansion protein foam
Good re-ignition (burn-back) Fuel shedding
resistance Long-term vapor suppression
Excellent water retention Good water retention
High heat resistance and stability Excellent, long-lasting heat resistance
May be used with fresh or salt water Performance not affected by freezing and
Performance can be affected by thawing
freezing and thawing Maintains low viscosity at low temperatures
Concentrate can be freeze protected Can be freeze protected with anti-freeze
with anti-freeze May be used with fresh or salt water
Not as mobile or fluid on fuel surface Non-toxic and biodegradable after dilution
as other low-expansion foams Good mobility and fluidity on fuel surface
Primary use on Class B fires involving Pre-mixable for short periods of time
hydrocarbons Primary used for hydrocarbon vapor
Used to protect flammable and suppression
combustible liquids in storage, Used for subsurface application to
transport, and processing hydrocarbon fuel storage tanks and
extinguishing in-depth crude petroleum or
other hydrocarbon fuel fires
Different Types of Foams On The Market

Aqueous Film Forming Foam Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film

(AFFF) Forming Foam (AR-AFFF)

May be used in 1%, 3% or 6% mixture May be used in 3% or 6% mixture

Synthetic based AFFF concentrate to which polymer added
Good penetrating capabilities Can be used on both polar solvents and
Spreads vapor-sealing film over and hydrocarbon fuels (used on polar
floats on hydrocarbon fuels solvents at 6% solution and on
Can be used through non-aerating hydrocarbon fuels at 3% solution)
nozzles Forms a membrane on polar solvent fuels
Performance may be adversely affected that prevents destruction of the foam
by freezing and storing blanket
Has good low-temperature viscosity Forms same aqueous film on hydrocarbon
Can be freeze protected with anti-freeze fuels as AFFF
Can be used with fresh or salt water Fast flame knockdown
Can be premixed Good burn-back resistance on both fuels
Primary use in controlling and Not easily premixed
extinguishing Class B fires Primary use on fires or spills of both
Used in handling land and sea crash hydrocarbon and polar solvent fuels
rescues involving spills, extinguishing
most transportation-related fires,
wetting penetrating Class A fuels,
and securing un-ignited
hydrocarbon spills
Different Types of Foams On The Market

Film Forming Flouroprotein Foam High Expansion Foam


FFFP’s are a combination of Used at expansion ratios of

fluorochemical surfactants greater than 200:1
with protein foam. For use on large enclosed
areas, basements, ships hulls,
They are designed to combine the etc.
fuel tolerance and burnback
resistance of a fluoroprotein foam Can be used on Class A
with an increased knockdown materials

FFFP foams release an aqueous film

on the surface of the hydrocarbon
Proportioning Equipment

Elkhart Brass Model 240 In-Line Eductor

Proportioning Equipment

Akron Brass Model 768 Foam Tube

For Ratios Of Up To 12:1

Other Equipment on the market

Foam Nozzle Tubes

High Exp. Foam Tube

By-Pass Inline Eductor Foam Nozzle

Rates of application for foam
How much foam will you need ????

To determine the amount of foam you need, use the following formulas.
1. Determine area of spill in square feet.
2. Multiply that number by either 0.1 for hydrocarbon spills and 0.2 for
polar solvents. This will give you the required flow in GPM’s.
3. Take that number and multiply it by the percentage of foam you are
using, either 1%, 3%, 6%, etc. This number will tell you how much
concentrate you will need per minute.
4. Finally, take the answer from number 3 and multiply by 15 (the
number of minutes NFPA requires as a minimum application time)
and that will give you the total number of gallons of foam
concentrate required.
Rates of application for foam
How much foam will you need ????
NFPA recommended application rate for Film Forming For Hydrocarbons
Type Foams equals 0.1 gpm (foam solution)
per square foot of fire with a MINIMUM RUN TIME
Examples of application rates for Hydrocarbons:
• .10 gpm/sq.ft. X 2000 sq.ft. = 200 gpm of FOAM
• .03 X 200 gpm = 6 gallons of 3% CONCENTRATE
REQUIRED per minute.
• 6 gal. X 15 minutes = 90 gallons of 3% AFFF
CONCENTRATE REQUIRED to control, extinguish
and initially secure a 2000 sq.ft. hydrocarbon
Rates of application for foam
How much flammable liquid spill can we cover with
our current foam supply ????

• For hydrocarbons:
Area = foam concentrate reserve X aeration factor of your nozzle
divided by 0.045 or
Area = gallons of foam X 8/0.045
• For polar liquids: Area = gallons of foam X 8/0.18

As an example, if you have 20 gallons of foam concentrate and

you have a gasoline spill,
how big of an area can you blanket with foam?
1. Area = 20 gallons X 8/0.045
2. Area = 3,555.56 square feet or 59.6’ X 59.6’
Procedure for application of foam
1. Determine the type of liquid spilled, either a hydrocarbon or polar
2. Choose the foam that would best fit the situation.
3. Estimate the amount of fuel spilled in square feet
4. Use the appropriate formula to estimate the amount of foam
required. If additional foam is required, make the appropriate calls to
get more foam.
5. Set-up the foam operation. Determine if eductor will be on the pump
discharge or somewhere else in line.
6. Determine if an aspirating nozzle is required. For F-500, it is generally
not required.
7. Apply foam using appropriate technique for 15 minutes.
8. Assess the situation after 15 minutes. Use a combustible gas meter to
monitor for explosive atmospheres. Apply more foam if necessary.
Setting up the foam operation
Connecting directly to pump discharge.

1. Connect eductor to discharge outlet of apparatus then connect hose to discharge of

2. The eductor must be used with a nozzle having the same rated flow (i.e. 95 gpm
nozzle with a 95 gpm eductor)
3. Adjust the metering device to the correct setting for the required percentage of
4. Check by-pass valve. If eductor is the by-pass type, be sure that the valve is in the
FOAM position (closed). If the valve is in the WATER position, eductor will not pick up
foam concentrate.
5. Open discharge and set proper flowing pressure. Eductor inlet pressure of 200 psi is
required for accurate proportioning of concentrate into the water stream and
efficient nozzle performance. Be sure that the nozzle is fully open.
6. Insert pick-up tube into foam supply. There will be a dely of 12 – 15 seconds before the
foam solution will be discharged at the nozzle in a typical system.
7. The hose lay between the eductor and the nozzle must not exceed the
recommended length for the combination of flow rate and hose size being used.
Setting up the foam operation
Setting up the foam operation
Setting up the foam operation
Setting up the foam operation
Application techniques
Application techniques
Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film Forming Foam

3 Actions
First, an aqueous film is formed in the
case of a conventional
hydrocarbon fuel, or a polymeric
membrane in the case of a polar
solvent fuel
Second, regardless of the fuel type, a
foam blanket is formed which excludes
oxygen and from which drains the
liquids that form the film or the
polymeric membrane.
Third, the water content of the
foam produces a cooling effect.
Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film Forming Foam

Just like AFFF but a polymer is added

Pseudoplastic and thixotropic,

product will be gel-like until a
shear force is applied and then
the product will flow, similar to
Can be used on class A fires

Can be used with or without air

aspirating nozzle.

The minimum and maximum usable

temperature for ANSULITE ARC
3% or 6% AR-AFFF Concentrate in this
equipment is 35 °F (2 °C) to
120 °F (49 °C) respectively.
Does not fall into any
previous foam
What can we use F-500 on?
• Class A Fires ?
0.5 % – 1.0 %

• Class B Fires ?
Yes! Class D Fires ?
1 % for spills up to and including 50
gallons Yes!
3 % for spills over 50 gallons
6 % for polar solvents
How does F-500 work?
• Most foams create a blanket over the • Can be used without an expansion
liquid surface, but F-500 does not work nozzle and with a smooth bore nozzle.
that way.
• F-500 “encapsulates” the liquid in what
is called a “micelle encapsulator”. This
renders the flammable liquid un-
flammable for the duration of the
incident, and makes transfer of the
material safer.
• F-500 still cools the flammable liquid to
the point it does not give off flammable
• It also reduces the surface tension of
water for easier penetration of class A
• It is said to absorb heat as well
F-500 Proportions
One 5 gallon container
in a 500 gallon tank = 1%
For use on
hydrocarbon fires less
than 50 gallons
Pre-mix in tank and run 500 Gallon
off tank only until tank is Tank
empty, then re-mix for
additional foam if Three 5-Gallon containers
500 Gallon needed. in a 500 gallon tank = 3%
For use on hydrocarbon
and polar solvent fires
greater than 50 gallons
Pre-mix in tank and run
off tank until tank is empty,
then re-mix for additional
foam if needed.

1) Make sure nozzle is always FULLY opened during operation.

2) Assure that nozzle and eductor GPM settings are equal.
3) Check for kinks in hose lines.
4) Check for adequate pump pressure.
5) Check for air-tight seal around pick-up tube/hose
6) Check for kinks or blockage in pick-up tube and hose lines
7) Check metering valve to make sure it is open
8) Check for clogged nozzle.
9) Is nozzle elevated too high above eductor
10) Check the check ball (listen for rattle, look for flow into
concentrate bucket).


MTBE-METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER -> made from isobutylene, a refinery

waste product which is normally recycled or burned, and methanol which
is produced from natural gas. It now has the
largest share of the oxygenate market.


As long as the mixture is not
ETHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (ETBE) greater than 10 %, use standard
hydrocarbon percentages of
DI-ISOPROPYL ETHER (DIPE). foam concentrate