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and 0s.

##  A way to identify machines on a network

 A unique identifier

 A numerical label

## You know that an IP address is numbers that represent a

device on a network, as a mailing address represents your
home's location. But in order to actually assign and use IP
addresses, you must understand the format of these
"numerical identifiers" and the rules that pertain to them.

## Let's first concentrate on how humans read and write IP

numbers separated by periods. For example, you might use
204.132.40.155 as an IP for some device in your network. You
probably noticed that the four numbers making up an IP are
always between 0 to 255. Have you ever wondered why?
You may also have heard people referring to the four
numerical values in an IP address as "octets". Octet is, in fact,
the correct term for describing the four individual numbers
that make up an IP address. But doesn't it seem odd that a
word whose root means "eight" describes a number from 0
to 255? What does "eight" have to do with those values? To
understand the answers to these questions, you have to look
Computers think in binary

## Computers see everything in terms of binary. In binary

systems, everything is described using two values or
states: on or off, true or false, yes or no, 1 or 0. A light
switch could be regarded as a binary system, since it is
always either on or off.

## As complex as they may seem, on a conceptual level

computers are nothing more than boxes full of millions
of "light switches." Each of the switches in a computer
is called a bit, short for binary digit. A computer can
turn each bit either on or off. Your computer likes to
describe on as 1 and off as 0.
By itself, a single bit is kind of useless, as it can only
represent one of two things. Imagine if you could only
count using either zero or one. Alone, you could never
count past one. On the other hand, if you got a bunch
of buddies together who could also count using zero or
your group of buddies could count as high as they
wanted, dependent only on how many friends you
had. Computers work in the same way. By arranging
bits in groups, the computer is able to describe more
complex ideas than just on or off. The most common
arrangement of bits in a group is called a byte, which is
a group of eight bits.
The following table represents the value for each bit in a
byte (remember, a byte is 8 bits). In binary math, the
values for the bits ascend from right to left, just as in the
decimal system you're accustomed to:

## 128 (277) 64 (26)6 32 (25)5 16 (24)4 8 (23)3 4 (22)2 2 (21)1 1 (20)0

128 (2 ) 64 (2 ) 32 (2 ) 16 (2 ) 8 (2 ) 4 (2 ) 2 (2 ) 1 (2 )
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0

In the table above, you can see that the bits with the
values 64, 32, 8, 4 and 2 are all turned on. As mentioned
before, calculating the value of a binary number means
totaling all the values for the "on" bits. So for the binary
value in the table, 01101110, we add together
64+32+8+4+2 to get the number 110. Binary arithmetic is
pretty easy once you know what's going on.
Binary arithmetic
The act of creating large numbers from groups of binary
units or bits is called binary arithmetic. Learning binary
arithmetic helps you understand how your computer
sees IPs (or any numbers greater than one).

## In binary arithmetic, each bit within a group represents a

power of two. Specifically, the first bit in a group
represents 20 [Editor's note for non-math majors:
mathematicians stipulate that any number raised to the
power of zero equals 1], the second bit represents 21, the
third bit represents 22, and so on. It's easy to understand
binary because each successive bit in a group is exactly
twice the value of the previous bit.
IP usage
Used to connect to another computer

 Network Part

##  Local or Host Part

IP versions type
 IPv4: 32-bit* number: Written in Dotted Decimal
Notation

205.150.58.7

##  IPv6: 128-bit* number: Written in Hex Decimal

Notation

2001:0503:0C27:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000

## 16 billion billion network addresses

IPv4
IP addresses consist of four sections

## Written, for example, 128.35.0.72

IP Class
5 Classes of IP address A B C D and E

## Class E are reserved for future use

classes A,B and C to define large,
medium, and small networks.
Class A:

## The first byte is a network id (8 bits) &

the last 3 bytes are for host id (24 bits).

126.0.0.0

## Number of possible networks-127(1-126

usable, 127 is reserved).
Class A:

## Number of possible values in the host

portion-16,777,216

Class B:

## The first 2 bytes are a network id (16 bits)

& the last 2 bytes are for host id (16 bits).

191.255.0.0

Class B:

portion- 65536

Class C:

## The first 3 bytes are a network id (24 bits)

& the last 1 byte are for host id (8 bit).

223.255.255.0

Class C:

portion- 256

Class D:

## An IP address which belong to class D has

the first octet has its 4bit set to ‘1110’.

239.255.255.255
Class D:

Class E:

testing purpose.

## Range of network number- 240.0.0.0 to

255.255.255.254
IPv6
IPv6 will make use of 128 bit IP address.
 An IPv6 address is represented as 8
groups of 4 hexadecimal digits, each
group representing 16 bits (2 octets).
The groups are separated by colons(:).

 E.g.:
 2001:0db8.85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:037
0:7334
Difference of IPv4 & IPv6
S.N IPv4 IPv6

## 1. Addresses are 32 bits (4 bytes) Addresses are 128 bits (416

long. bytes) long.

## 2. Both routers & sending host Routers don’t fragment the

fragment the packets. packets but sending host
fragment the packets.

checksum.
S.N IPv4 IPv6

## 4. Classes of addressing are A, B, C, D, Classes of addressing are

E. unicast, anycast, multicast.

## 5. Configure either manually or Doesn’t require manual

through DHCP. configuration.

## 6. Must support a 576 byte packet Must support 1208 byte

size. packet size.
S.N IPv4 IPv6

decimal notation. in a hexadecimal, colon-
separated notation.

## 8. Not suitable for mobile IPv6 is better suited to mobile

networks. networks.

##  duration of ‘lease’ negotiated, then address

released back to server
How to determine an IP address.

##  Microsoft Windows Users

§ Click Start / Run and type: cmd or command to open a
Windows command line.
§ From the prompt, type ipconfig and press enter. This should
give you information similar to what is shown below.
 Windows 7 IP Configuration
 Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:
 Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.101
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.1
How do I determine the IP address of
another computer or website?
 We must either the computer name or domain name
 use the ping command
 Example:
Pinging google.com [209.85.231.104] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 209.85.231.104: bytes=32 time=29ms TTL=54 ....
Ping statistics for 204.228.150.3: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4,
Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 28ms, Maximum = 29ms, Average = 28ms

## in the above example the IP address 209.85.231.104 is the IP address of the

Troubleshoot Basic IP Problems

 Series of commands :

c:\>IPCONFIG /RELEASE
c:\>IPCONFIG /RENEW
c:\>IPCONFIG /ALL

 Communications Failure
QUIZ
1-2. Give the two classes of IP Address
3. There are ___ bit in IPv4.
4. There are ___bit in IPv6.
5. How many octets are there in IPv4?
• True or False
_______ 6. 169.73.2.1 and 169.73.2.1 IP addresses
can meet connection to the network.
_______ 7. 169.73.2.3 IP address can connect to
169.73.2.1 through network.
_______ 8. 169.73.4.1 and 169.73.2.1 IP addresses
can have might have an IP address
conflict.
_______ 9. IPv4 is divided into four sections, each
section is composed of 8 bits.
_______ 10. An IP address is a unique identifier of a
network or different network devices.
ASSIGNMENT