Sie sind auf Seite 1von 36

IP Address

What is an IP address

 An IP address is a 32-bit sequence of 1s


and 0s.

 A way to identify machines on a network

 A unique identifier

 A numerical label
How we see IP addresses

You know that an IP address is numbers that represent a


device on a network, as a mailing address represents your
home's location. But in order to actually assign and use IP
addresses, you must understand the format of these
"numerical identifiers" and the rules that pertain to them.

Let's first concentrate on how humans read and write IP


addresses. To us, an IP address appears as four decimal
numbers separated by periods. For example, you might use
204.132.40.155 as an IP for some device in your network. You
probably noticed that the four numbers making up an IP are
always between 0 to 255. Have you ever wondered why?
You may also have heard people referring to the four
numerical values in an IP address as "octets". Octet is, in fact,
the correct term for describing the four individual numbers
that make up an IP address. But doesn't it seem odd that a
word whose root means "eight" describes a number from 0
to 255? What does "eight" have to do with those values? To
understand the answers to these questions, you have to look
at an IP address from your computer's viewpoint.
Computers think in binary

Computers see everything in terms of binary. In binary


systems, everything is described using two values or
states: on or off, true or false, yes or no, 1 or 0. A light
switch could be regarded as a binary system, since it is
always either on or off.

As complex as they may seem, on a conceptual level


computers are nothing more than boxes full of millions
of "light switches." Each of the switches in a computer
is called a bit, short for binary digit. A computer can
turn each bit either on or off. Your computer likes to
describe on as 1 and off as 0.
By itself, a single bit is kind of useless, as it can only
represent one of two things. Imagine if you could only
count using either zero or one. Alone, you could never
count past one. On the other hand, if you got a bunch
of buddies together who could also count using zero or
one and you added all your buddies' ones together,
your group of buddies could count as high as they
wanted, dependent only on how many friends you
had. Computers work in the same way. By arranging
bits in groups, the computer is able to describe more
complex ideas than just on or off. The most common
arrangement of bits in a group is called a byte, which is
a group of eight bits.
The following table represents the value for each bit in a
byte (remember, a byte is 8 bits). In binary math, the
values for the bits ascend from right to left, just as in the
decimal system you're accustomed to:

128 (277) 64 (26)6 32 (25)5 16 (24)4 8 (23)3 4 (22)2 2 (21)1 1 (20)0


128 (2 ) 64 (2 ) 32 (2 ) 16 (2 ) 8 (2 ) 4 (2 ) 2 (2 ) 1 (2 )
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0

In the table above, you can see that the bits with the
values 64, 32, 8, 4 and 2 are all turned on. As mentioned
before, calculating the value of a binary number means
totaling all the values for the "on" bits. So for the binary
value in the table, 01101110, we add together
64+32+8+4+2 to get the number 110. Binary arithmetic is
pretty easy once you know what's going on.
Binary arithmetic
The act of creating large numbers from groups of binary
units or bits is called binary arithmetic. Learning binary
arithmetic helps you understand how your computer
sees IPs (or any numbers greater than one).

In binary arithmetic, each bit within a group represents a


power of two. Specifically, the first bit in a group
represents 20 [Editor's note for non-math majors:
mathematicians stipulate that any number raised to the
power of zero equals 1], the second bit represents 21, the
third bit represents 22, and so on. It's easy to understand
binary because each successive bit in a group is exactly
twice the value of the previous bit.
IP usage
Used to connect to another computer

Allows transfers of files and e-mail


Part of IP Address
 Network Part

 Local or Host Part


IP versions type
 IPv4: 32-bit* number: Written in Dotted Decimal
Notation

205.150.58.7

4 billion different host addresses

 IPv6: 128-bit* number: Written in Hex Decimal


Notation

2001:0503:0C27:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000

16 billion billion network addresses


IPv4
IP addresses consist of four sections

Each section is 8 bits long

Each section can range from 0 to 255

Written, for example, 128.35.0.72


IP Class
5 Classes of IP address A B C D and E

Class A reserved for governments

Class B reserved for medium companies

Class C reserved for small companies

Class D are reserved for multicasting

Class E are reserved for future use


IP addresses are divided into
classes A,B and C to define large,
medium, and small networks.
Class A:

The first byte is a network id (8 bits) &


the last 3 bytes are for host id (24 bits).

The first bit is ‘0’.

Range of network number-1.0.0.0 to


126.0.0.0

Number of possible networks-127(1-126


usable, 127 is reserved).
Class A:

Number of possible values in the host


portion-16,777,216

It is used for large network.


Class B:

The first 2 bytes are a network id (16 bits)


& the last 2 bytes are for host id (16 bits).

The first 2 bits are ‘10’.

Range of network number- 128.0.0.0 to


191.255.0.0

Number of possible networks- 16,384


Class B:

Number of possible values in the host


portion- 65536

Used for medium size network.


Class C:

The first 3 bytes are a network id (24 bits)


& the last 1 byte are for host id (8 bit).

The first 3 bits are ‘110’.

Range of network number- 192.0.0.0 to


223.255.255.0

Number of possible networks- 2,097,152


Class C:

Number of possible values in the host


portion- 256

Used in local area network(LAN).


Class D:

An IP address which belong to class D has


the first octet has its 4bit set to ‘1110’.

Range of network number- 224.0.0.0 to


239.255.255.255
Class D:

Used for multicasting


Class E:

It reserved for experimental and for future


testing purpose.

Range of network number- 240.0.0.0 to


255.255.255.254
IPv6
IPv6 will make use of 128 bit IP address.
 An IPv6 address is represented as 8
groups of 4 hexadecimal digits, each
group representing 16 bits (2 octets).
The groups are separated by colons(:).

 E.g.:
 2001:0db8.85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:037
0:7334
Difference of IPv4 & IPv6
S.N IPv4 IPv6

1. Addresses are 32 bits (4 bytes) Addresses are 128 bits (416


long. bytes) long.

2. Both routers & sending host Routers don’t fragment the


fragment the packets. packets but sending host
fragment the packets.

3. Header includes a checksum. Header doesn’t includes a


checksum.
S.N IPv4 IPv6

4. Classes of addressing are A, B, C, D, Classes of addressing are


E. unicast, anycast, multicast.

5. Configure either manually or Doesn’t require manual


through DHCP. configuration.

6. Must support a 576 byte packet Must support 1208 byte


size. packet size.
S.N IPv4 IPv6

7. IPv4 address uses the dot- IPv6 address are represented


decimal notation. in a hexadecimal, colon-
separated notation.

8. Not suitable for mobile IPv6 is better suited to mobile


networks. networks.

9. Address space is small (232). Larger address space (2128).


Types of IP address

 Static IP address

 manually input by network administrator

 manageable for small networks

 requires careful checks to avoid duplication


Types of IP address
 Dynamic IP address

 examples - BOOTP, DHCP

 assigned by server when host boots

 derived automatically from a range of


addresses

 duration of ‘lease’ negotiated, then address


released back to server
How to determine an IP address.

 Microsoft Windows Users


§ Click Start / Run and type: cmd or command to open a
Windows command line.
§ From the prompt, type ipconfig and press enter. This should
give you information similar to what is shown below.
 Windows 7 IP Configuration
 Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:
 Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.101
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.1
How do I determine the IP address of
another computer or website?
 We must either the computer name or domain name
 use the ping command
 Example:
c:\>ping google.com
Pinging google.com [209.85.231.104] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 209.85.231.104: bytes=32 time=29ms TTL=54 ....
Ping statistics for 204.228.150.3: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4,
Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 28ms, Maximum = 29ms, Average = 28ms

in the above example the IP address 209.85.231.104 is the IP address of the


google.com domain.
Troubleshoot Basic IP Problems

 Series of commands :

c:\>IPCONFIG /RELEASE
c:\>IPCONFIG /RENEW
c:\>IPCONFIG /ALL

 Communications Failure
QUIZ
1-2. Give the two classes of IP Address
3. There are ___ bit in IPv4.
4. There are ___bit in IPv6.
5. How many octets are there in IPv4?
• True or False
_______ 6. 169.73.2.1 and 169.73.2.1 IP addresses
can meet connection to the network.
_______ 7. 169.73.2.3 IP address can connect to
169.73.2.1 through network.
_______ 8. 169.73.4.1 and 169.73.2.1 IP addresses
can have might have an IP address
conflict.
_______ 9. IPv4 is divided into four sections, each
section is composed of 8 bits.
_______ 10. An IP address is a unique identifier of a
network or different network devices.
ASSIGNMENT
Research about the following IP
Address Classes.

1. Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0


2. 0.0.0.0
3. 127.0.0.1
4. 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254
Thanks For Your Time