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IP Address

What is an IP address

 An IP address is a 32-bit sequence of 1s

and 0s.

 A way to identify machines on a network

 A unique identifier

 A numerical label
How we see IP addresses

You know that an IP address is numbers that represent a

device on a network, as a mailing address represents your
home's location. But in order to actually assign and use IP
addresses, you must understand the format of these
"numerical identifiers" and the rules that pertain to them.

Let's first concentrate on how humans read and write IP

addresses. To us, an IP address appears as four decimal
numbers separated by periods. For example, you might use as an IP for some device in your network. You
probably noticed that the four numbers making up an IP are
always between 0 to 255. Have you ever wondered why?
You may also have heard people referring to the four
numerical values in an IP address as "octets". Octet is, in fact,
the correct term for describing the four individual numbers
that make up an IP address. But doesn't it seem odd that a
word whose root means "eight" describes a number from 0
to 255? What does "eight" have to do with those values? To
understand the answers to these questions, you have to look
at an IP address from your computer's viewpoint.
Computers think in binary

Computers see everything in terms of binary. In binary

systems, everything is described using two values or
states: on or off, true or false, yes or no, 1 or 0. A light
switch could be regarded as a binary system, since it is
always either on or off.

As complex as they may seem, on a conceptual level

computers are nothing more than boxes full of millions
of "light switches." Each of the switches in a computer
is called a bit, short for binary digit. A computer can
turn each bit either on or off. Your computer likes to
describe on as 1 and off as 0.
By itself, a single bit is kind of useless, as it can only
represent one of two things. Imagine if you could only
count using either zero or one. Alone, you could never
count past one. On the other hand, if you got a bunch
of buddies together who could also count using zero or
one and you added all your buddies' ones together,
your group of buddies could count as high as they
wanted, dependent only on how many friends you
had. Computers work in the same way. By arranging
bits in groups, the computer is able to describe more
complex ideas than just on or off. The most common
arrangement of bits in a group is called a byte, which is
a group of eight bits.
The following table represents the value for each bit in a
byte (remember, a byte is 8 bits). In binary math, the
values for the bits ascend from right to left, just as in the
decimal system you're accustomed to:

128 (277) 64 (26)6 32 (25)5 16 (24)4 8 (23)3 4 (22)2 2 (21)1 1 (20)0

128 (2 ) 64 (2 ) 32 (2 ) 16 (2 ) 8 (2 ) 4 (2 ) 2 (2 ) 1 (2 )
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0

In the table above, you can see that the bits with the
values 64, 32, 8, 4 and 2 are all turned on. As mentioned
before, calculating the value of a binary number means
totaling all the values for the "on" bits. So for the binary
value in the table, 01101110, we add together
64+32+8+4+2 to get the number 110. Binary arithmetic is
pretty easy once you know what's going on.
Binary arithmetic
The act of creating large numbers from groups of binary
units or bits is called binary arithmetic. Learning binary
arithmetic helps you understand how your computer
sees IPs (or any numbers greater than one).

In binary arithmetic, each bit within a group represents a

power of two. Specifically, the first bit in a group
represents 20 [Editor's note for non-math majors:
mathematicians stipulate that any number raised to the
power of zero equals 1], the second bit represents 21, the
third bit represents 22, and so on. It's easy to understand
binary because each successive bit in a group is exactly
twice the value of the previous bit.
IP usage
Used to connect to another computer

Allows transfers of files and e-mail

Part of IP Address
 Network Part

 Local or Host Part

IP versions type
 IPv4: 32-bit* number: Written in Dotted Decimal

4 billion different host addresses

 IPv6: 128-bit* number: Written in Hex Decimal



16 billion billion network addresses

IP addresses consist of four sections

Each section is 8 bits long

Each section can range from 0 to 255

Written, for example,

IP Class
5 Classes of IP address A B C D and E

Class A reserved for governments

Class B reserved for medium companies

Class C reserved for small companies

Class D are reserved for multicasting

Class E are reserved for future use

IP addresses are divided into
classes A,B and C to define large,
medium, and small networks.
Class A:

The first byte is a network id (8 bits) &

the last 3 bytes are for host id (24 bits).

The first bit is ‘0’.

Range of network number- to

Number of possible networks-127(1-126

usable, 127 is reserved).
Class A:

Number of possible values in the host


It is used for large network.

Class B:

The first 2 bytes are a network id (16 bits)

& the last 2 bytes are for host id (16 bits).

The first 2 bits are ‘10’.

Range of network number- to

Number of possible networks- 16,384

Class B:

Number of possible values in the host

portion- 65536

Used for medium size network.

Class C:

The first 3 bytes are a network id (24 bits)

& the last 1 byte are for host id (8 bit).

The first 3 bits are ‘110’.

Range of network number- to

Number of possible networks- 2,097,152

Class C:

Number of possible values in the host

portion- 256

Used in local area network(LAN).

Class D:

An IP address which belong to class D has

the first octet has its 4bit set to ‘1110’.

Range of network number- to
Class D:

Used for multicasting

Class E:

It reserved for experimental and for future

testing purpose.

Range of network number- to
IPv6 will make use of 128 bit IP address.
 An IPv6 address is represented as 8
groups of 4 hexadecimal digits, each
group representing 16 bits (2 octets).
The groups are separated by colons(:).

 E.g.:
 2001:0db8.85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:037
Difference of IPv4 & IPv6
S.N IPv4 IPv6

1. Addresses are 32 bits (4 bytes) Addresses are 128 bits (416

long. bytes) long.

2. Both routers & sending host Routers don’t fragment the

fragment the packets. packets but sending host
fragment the packets.

3. Header includes a checksum. Header doesn’t includes a

S.N IPv4 IPv6

4. Classes of addressing are A, B, C, D, Classes of addressing are

E. unicast, anycast, multicast.

5. Configure either manually or Doesn’t require manual

through DHCP. configuration.

6. Must support a 576 byte packet Must support 1208 byte

size. packet size.
S.N IPv4 IPv6

7. IPv4 address uses the dot- IPv6 address are represented

decimal notation. in a hexadecimal, colon-
separated notation.

8. Not suitable for mobile IPv6 is better suited to mobile

networks. networks.

9. Address space is small (232). Larger address space (2128).

Types of IP address

 Static IP address

 manually input by network administrator

 manageable for small networks

 requires careful checks to avoid duplication

Types of IP address
 Dynamic IP address

 examples - BOOTP, DHCP

 assigned by server when host boots

 derived automatically from a range of


 duration of ‘lease’ negotiated, then address

released back to server
How to determine an IP address.

 Microsoft Windows Users

§ Click Start / Run and type: cmd or command to open a
Windows command line.
§ From the prompt, type ipconfig and press enter. This should
give you information similar to what is shown below.
 Windows 7 IP Configuration
 Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:
 Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . :
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . :
Default Gateway . . . . . . . :
How do I determine the IP address of
another computer or website?
 We must either the computer name or domain name
 use the ping command
 Example:
Pinging [] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from bytes=32 time=29ms TTL=54 ....
Ping statistics for Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4,
Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 28ms, Maximum = 29ms, Average = 28ms

in the above example the IP address is the IP address of the domain.
Troubleshoot Basic IP Problems

 Series of commands :


 Communications Failure
1-2. Give the two classes of IP Address
3. There are ___ bit in IPv4.
4. There are ___bit in IPv6.
5. How many octets are there in IPv4?
• True or False
_______ 6. and IP addresses
can meet connection to the network.
_______ 7. IP address can connect to through network.
_______ 8. and IP addresses
can have might have an IP address
_______ 9. IPv4 is divided into four sections, each
section is composed of 8 bits.
_______ 10. An IP address is a unique identifier of a
network or different network devices.
Research about the following IP
Address Classes.

1. Subnet mask:

4. to
Thanks For Your Time