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JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHONOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY,KAKINADA

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


VIZIANAGARAM

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION ON FOUR STROKE


SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE BY USING
EUCALYPTUS AND PINE OIL METHYL ESTERS

UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF Sri .V. MANI KUMAR sir M.TECH

BATCH : 05
INTRODUCTION
• The world is entering a period of declining non
renewable energy resources, while energy demand is
increasing.
• As a result of this impending energy crises, both
government and private industry are examining
alternative sources of energy.
• Thus biodiesel is clearly the alternative solution since
it is ecofriendly and renewable.
• Biodiesel can be operated in any diesel engine with
little or no impact to the fuel system.
WHAT IS BIODIESEL
o Biodiesel is an alternative fuel
similar to conventional or
‘fossil’ biodiesel. Biodiesel can
be produced from straight
vegetable oil, animal fat, tallow
and waste cooking oil
o Biodiesel is typically made by
chemical reacting lipids
(example vegetable oil, animal
oil) with an alcohol producing
fatty acid esters.
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
o Burning fossil fuels increases
atmospheric levels of carbon monoxides
.
o Fossil fuels are a finite resources.
o Diesel emissions contribute to the
development of cancer and respiratory
health effects
o Causes pollution of air , water and soil
global climate change.
BIODIESEL MADE UP OF VEGETABLE OILS
AND ANIMAL FATS

CHUFA OR TIGER NUT OIL


CAMELINA OIL
LINSEED OIL
RADISH OIL
ALMOND OIL
PEANUT OIL
 TALLOW
CORN OIL
PINE OIL
EUCALYPTUS OIL
EUCALYPTUS OIL
• Eucalyptus tree is non edible
species capable of growing in all
• Climatic conditions. It grows upto
nearly 200m.
• Eucalyptus oil is extracted from
eucalyptus leaves, abundantly
available through out the year.
• It is good alternative fuel and has
great advantages
PINE OIL
• pine oil has low human
toxicity level and low
corrosion level
• The estimated physical and
thermal properties of pine oil
are suited for its use in diesel
engine with notable
advantages of lower viscosity
TRANSESTERIFICAION PROCESS OF
BIODIESEL
• The main reaction for converting vegetable oil or
animal fat to biodiesel is called transesterification.
• The transesterification process reacts an alcohol (like
methanol) with the triglyceride oils contained in
vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases,
forming fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) and
glycerin.
• The reaction requires heat and a strong base catalyst,
such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
And the process is as follows:
• Add 97 ml of oil into the flask and heat it.
• Then mix 1 gram of NAOH with 42 ml of methanol.
• Mix it well until the NAOH dissovles in it .
• Then add the methanol mixture into the oil and heat it until the
mixture reaches 45 degrees centigrade for one hour.
• The stirring process is charecterised by the mixture colour conversion
from clear yellow to reddish yellow.
• Then the mixture is made to sit idly for 24 to 36 hours .
• After 24 hours the glycerol will be settled at bottom of the flask.
• Then separate the biofuel from glycerin by filtration process.
DIFFERENT PERCENTAGE OF
BLENDS

B5 - 5% BIODIESEL AND 95% DIESEL


B10 - 10% BIODIESEL AND 90% DIESEL
B15 - 15% BIODIESEL AND 85% DIESEL
B20 - 20% BIODIESEL AND 80% DIESEL
NAOH & methanol Beakers and measuring Heating of oil
jars

Heating the mixture Glycerol formed at Glycerin separated from


Of eucalyptus oil and methanol the bottom biodiesel using fiter
paper
PROBLEMS BOUGHT BY
BIODIESEL

• Biodiesel is more expensive than diesel.


• Deforestation for plantation
• Biodiesel cleans the dirt from the engine this dirt can
get collected in the fuel filters and clogging occurs so
filters should be changed regularly.
BENEFITS OF BIODIESEL
• Biodiesel is environment friendly.
• It is renewable energy source unlike other
petroleum products that will vanish in years to
come.
• Less green house gases emission.
• It offers similar power to diesel fuel.
• It is safer than conventional diesel.
• it can be made at home easily.
• It has more health benefits.
• Positive economic impact
EXPERIMENTAL SET UP
4 STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DISEL ENGINE

BHP : 5HP
RPM : 1500 RPM
FUEL : DIESEL
BORE : 80mm
STROKE :
110mm
ORIFICE
DIAMETER:
20mm
PERFORMANCE CHARECTERISTICS OF
EUCALYPTUS OIL
BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIEMCY Vs LOAD
18

16

14
BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY

12

DIESEL
10
B5
(%)

8 B10

B15
6 B20

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
LOAD (Kg)

Brake thermal efficiency is an indication of the performance of the engine.


Brake thermal efficiency of the engine is maximum for B10 blend when
compared to diesel
Mechanical efficiency indicates how good an engine is converting the indicated power
into useful work. B10 blend gives the highest mechanical efficiency compared to diesel
SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION Vs LOAD
3.5

3
CONSUMPTION (Kg/KW-hr)

2.5
SPECIFIC FUEL

2 DIESEL
B5
1.5 B10
B15
1 B20

0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
LOAD (Kg)

Specific fuel consumption is major of the fuel efficiency of any prime mover that burns
the fuel and produces power. B10 offers the least specific fuel consumption of all the
mixtures
INDICATED MEAN EFFECTIVE
PRESSURE Vs LOAD
5

4.5

4
INDICATED MEAN EFFECTIVE

3.5
PRESSURE (bar)

3
DIESEL
2.5 B5
B10
2
B15
1.5 B20

0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
LOAD (Kg)

Indicated mean effective pressure is defined as the average pressure produced in the
combustion chamber during the operating cycle . B5 blend offers the maximum mean
effective pressure
VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY Vs LOAD
82.4

82.2
VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY

82

DIESEL
(%)

81.8 B5
B10

81.6 B15
B20

81.4

81.2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
LOAD (Kg)

The above graph shows the comparison of volumetric efficiency with load. The
volumetric efficiency of an engine is more with all the blends than diesel.
PERFORMANCE CHARECTRISTICS
OF PINE OIL
Mechanical efficiency indicates how good an engine is inverting the indicated power
to useful work.B15 blend offers the best mechanical efficiency of all the mixtures and
diesel gives the least mechanical efficiency.
Brake thermal efficiency is an indication of performance of an engine. B5 offers the
maximum brake thermal efficiency and diesel offers the least brake thermal efficiency.
Specific fuel consumption is major of the fuel efficiency of any prime mover that
burns fuel and produces power. B5 blend offers least specific fuel consumption of all
the mixtures
The above graph shows the comparison of volumetric efficiency with the load. The
volumetric efficiency of an engine is more with all the blends than diesel
Indicated mean effective pressure is defined as the average pressure produced in the
combustion chambers during the operative cycle. B10 blend offers maximum mean
effective pressure
CONCLUSION
From the detailed experiments conducted with the eucalyptus oil and pine oil, the
following conclusions can be made.

•The blend B10 is the best fuel with 1.751%(eucalyptus oil) and 3.97%(pine oil)
higher brake thermal efficiency compared with diesel.

• All the blends had a better volumetric efficiency than diesel

•Comparing the mechanical efficiencies at different loads for all blends it can be
noted that B10 offers the highest mechanical efficiency for eucalyptus oil and B15
offers the highest mechanical efficiency for pine oil.

• The blend B5 is the best fuel with minimum specific fuel consumption
THANK YOU

THANK YOU