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Problem Solving – New 7QC Tools

2011-08-27
What are the
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Affinity Diagrams

 Relations Diagrams
 Tree Diagrams
 Matrix Diagrams
 Arrow Diagrams
 Process Decision Program Charts

 Matrix Data Analysis


History of the
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 1 0f 2

 Committee of J.U.S.E. - 1972


 Aim was to develop more QC
techniques with design approach
 Work in conjunction with original Basic
Seven Tools
 New set of methods (N7) - 1977
History of the
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 2 0f 2

 Developed to organize verbal data


diagrammatically.
 Basic 7 tools effective for data analysis,
process control, and quality
improvement (numerical data)
 Used together increases TQM
effectiveness
What are the
Basic Seven Q.C. Tools?
Flow Charts

 Run Charts
 Histograms

 Pareto Diagrams
 Cause and Effect Diagrams
 Scatter Diagrams

 Control Charts
Relation Between New Seven
Q.C. Tools and Basic Seven Tools
FACTS

Data

Numerical Data Verbal Data


Define problem after Define problem before
collecting numerical data collecting numerical data

The Basic Seven Tools The Seven New Tools

•Analytical approach •Generate Ideas


Organize •Formulate plans

Information
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
Benefits of Incorporating
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 1 0f 4

Enhanced Capabilities

 Organize verbal data


 Generate ideas
 Improve planning
 Eliminate errors and omissions
 Explain problems intelligibly
 Secure full cooperation
 Persuade powerfully
Benefits of Incorporating
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 2 0f 4

Enhanced Keys to Organizational Reform

 Assess situations from various angles


 Clarify the desired situation
 Prioritize tasks effectively
 Proceed systematically
 Anticipate future events
 Change proactively
 Get things right the first time
Benefits of Incorporating
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 3 0f 4

Five Objectives of Organizational Reform


which will establish a Culture that:

 Identifies problems
 Gives importance to planning
 Stresses the importance of the process
 Prioritizes tasks
 Encourages everyone to think
systematically
Benefits of Incorporating
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 4 0f 4

Unstructured Problem [must be put into solvable form]


The Seven New Tools
Problem is mapped

Problem becomes Thoughts are Plans are Problem becomes


obvious to all easily organized easily laid obvious to all

People understand Problem can be Nothing is Nub of problem


problem clearly articulated omitted is identified

Cooperation is Countermeasures
Things go well
obtained are on target

Problem is in solvable form


Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Affinity Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7

For Pinpointing the Problem in a Chaotic


Situation and Generating Solution Strategies
 Gathers large amounts of intertwined
verbal data (ideas, opinions, issues)
 Organizes the data into groups based
on natural relationship
 Makes it feasible for further analysis
and to find a solution to the problem.
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Affinity Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7

Advantages of Affinity Diagrams


 Facilitates breakthrough thinking and
stimulate fresh ideas
 Permits the problem to be pinned down
accurately
 Ensures everyone clearly recognizes the
problem
 Incorporates opinions of entire group
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Affinity Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7

Advantages of Affinity Diagrams (cont.)


 Fosters team spirit

 Raises everyone’s level of awareness


 Spurs to the group into action
Topic
Affinity Statement Affinity Statement Affinity Statement
Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card
Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card
Data Card Data Card
Affinity Statement
Data Card Data Card
Data Card
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Affinity Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7

Constructing an Affinity Diagram


Group Method Approach

 Select a topic
 Collect verbal data by brainstorming
 Discuss info collected until everyone
understands it thoroughly
 Write each item on separate data card
 Spread out all cards on table
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Affinity Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7

Constructing an Affinity Diagram


Group Method Approach (cont.)
 Move data cards into groups of similar
themes (natural affinity for each other)
 Combine statements on data cards to
new Affinity statement
 Make new card with Affinity statement
 Continue to combine until less than 5
groups
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Affinity Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7

Constructing an Affinity Diagram


Group Method Approach (cont.)
 Lay the groups outs, keeping the affinity
clusters together
Next, complete the diagram
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Affinity Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7

Completing an Affinity Diagram

Topic

Affinity Statement Affinity Statement Affinity Statement


Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card

Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card

Data Card Data Card


Affinity Statement
Data Card Data Card

Data Card

Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Relations Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7

For Finding Solutions Strategies by Clarifying


Relationships with Complex Interrelated Causes
 Resolves tangled issues by unraveling
the logical connection
 Allows for “Multi-directional” thinking
rather than linear
 Also known as Interrelationship
diagrams
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Relations Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7

Advantages of Relations Diagrams


 Useful at planning stage for obtaining
perspective on overall situation
 Facilitates consensus among team
 Assists to develop and change people’s
thinking
 Enables priorities to be identified
accurately
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Relations Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7

Advantages of Relations Diagrams (cont.)


 Makes the problem recognizable by
clarifying the relationships among causes
Tertiary Tertiary
Cause Secondary Cause
Primary Cause Cause
Tertiary
Primary Cause
Secondary Cause
Why doesn’t
Cause Secondary
X happen?
Cause

Primary Cause Primary Cause


Secondary 6th level
Cause
Tertiary Cause
Secondary Tertiary
Cause
Cause
4th level Cause 4th level 5th level
Cause Cause Cause
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Relations Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7

Constructing a Relations Diagram


Group Method Approach
 Express the problem in form of “Why
isn’t something happening?”
 Each member lists 5 causes affecting
problem
 Write each item on a card
 Discuss info collected until everyone
understands it thoroughly
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Relations Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7

Constructing a Relations Diagram


Group Method Approach (cont.)
 Move cards into similar groups
 Asking why, explore the cause-effect
relationships, and divide the cards into
primary, secondary and tertiary causes
 Connect all cards by these relationships
 Further discuss until all possible causes
have been identified
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Relations Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7

Constructing a Relations Diagram


Group Method Approach (cont.)

 Review whole diagram looking for


relationships among causes
 Connect all related groups

Next, complete the diagram


New Seven Q.C. Tools
Relations Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7

Completing a Relations Diagram


Tertiary Tertiary
Cause Secondary Cause
Primary Cause Cause

Primary Cause Tertiary


Secondary Cause
Cause Why doesn’t
X happen? Secondary
Cause

Primary Cause Primary Cause


6th level
Secondary
Cause
Tertiary Cause
Cause Tertiary
Secondary
Cause
Cause 4th level
4th level 5th level
Cause Cause Cause
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Tree Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 5

For Systematically Pursuing the Best Strategies


for Attaining an Objective
 Develops a succession of strategies for
achieving objectives
 Reveals methods to achieve the results.
 Also known as Systematic diagrams or
Dendrograms
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Tree Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 5

Advantages of Tree Diagrams


 Systematic and logical approach is less
likely that items are omitted
 Facilitates agreement among team
 Are extremely convincing with strategies
4th means
Secondary means 3rd means 4th means
3rd means 4th means
Primary means 3rd means 4th means
To 3rd means 4th means
Secondary means 4th means
Accomplish 4th means

Constraints
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Tree Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 5

Constructing a Tree Diagram


Group Method Approach
 Write Relations Diagram topic (Objective
card)
 Identify
constraints on how objective
can be achieved
 Discuss means of achieving objective
(primary means, first level strategy)
 Take each primary mean, write ob-
jective for achieving it (secondary means)
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Tree Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 5

Constructing an Tree Diagram


Group Method Approach (cont.)
 Continue to expand to the fourth level
 Review each system of means in both
directions (from objective to means and means to
objective)
 Add more cards if needed
 Connect all levels
Next, complete the diagram
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Tree Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 5

Completing a Tree Diagram 4th means

3rd means 4th means


Secondary means
3rd means 4th means
Primary means 4th means
3rd means
4th means
3rd means
Secondary means
To 4th means

Accomplish 4th means

3rd means 4th means

Secondary means 3rd means 4th means

4th means
Primary means
3rd means 4th means
Constraints
Secondary means 3rd means 4th means
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Matrix Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7

For Clarifying Problems by “Thinking


Multidimensionally”
 Consists of a two-dimensional array to
determine location and nature of
problem
 Discovers key ideas by relationships
represented by the cells in matrix.
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Matrix Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7

Advantages of Matrix Diagrams


 Enable data on ideas based on extensive
experience
 Clarifies relationships among different
elements
 Makes overall structure of problem
immediately obvious
 Combined from two to four types of
diagrams, location of problem is clearer.
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Matrix Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7

Advantages of Matrix Diagrams (cont.)


 5 types: L-shaped, T-shaped, Y-shaped,
X-shaped, and C-shaped
O O =1 O =4 Principa l
O =2 O X =5 O Subsidia ry
=3 X =6
Eva lua tion Re sponsibilitie s

QC circle supporter
Site QC circle

Section/Plant

Section/Plant
Practicability

Re ma rks

Manager

Member
Efficacy

Leader
Rank

4th level means


from Tree diagram O O 1 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram O O 1 O Hold 4 times/month
4th level means
from Tree diagram O 3 O At every meeting
4th level means
from Tree diagram O 2 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram O X 5 O At least 3 times/year/person
4th level means
from Tree diagram O O 1 O O
4th level means
from Tree diagram 4 O
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Matrix Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7

Constructing a Matrix Diagram

 Write final-level means from Tree


diagram forming vertical axis
 Write in Evaluation categories (efficacy,
practicability, and rank) on horizontal axis.
 Examine final-level means to identify
whom will implement them
 Write names along horizontal axis
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Matrix Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7

Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.)


 Label group of columns as “Responsibilities”
 Label right-hand end of horizontal axis
as “Remarks”
 Examine each cell and insert the
appropriate symbol:
Efficacy: O=good, =satisfactory, X=none
Practicability: O=good,=satisfactory, X=none
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Matrix Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7

Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.)


 Determine score for each combination
of symbols, record in rank column
 Examine cells under Responsibility
Columns, insert double-circle for
Principal and single-circle for Subsidiary
 Fill out remarks column and record
meanings of symbol
Next, complete the diagram
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Matrix Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7
Completing a Matrix Diagram
O O =1 O =4 Principa l
O =2 O X =5 O Subsidiary
=3 X =6
Evalua tion Responsibilities

QC circle supporter
Site QC circle

Section/Plant

Section/Plant
Practicability
Remarks

Manager

Member
Efficacy

Leader
Rank
4th level means
from Tree diagram O O 1 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram O O 1 O Hold 4 times/month
4th level means
from Tree diagram O 3 O At every meeting
4th level means
from Tree diagram O 2 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram O X 5 O At least 3 times/year/person
4th level means
from Tree diagram O O 1 O O
4th level means
from Tree diagram 4 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram O 2 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram O O 1 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram O O 1 O
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Arrow Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7

For Working Out Optimal Schedules and


Controlling Them Effectively
 Shows relationships among tasks
needed to implement a plan
 Network technique using nodes for
events and arrows for activities
 Used in PERT (Program Evaluation and Review
Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method)
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Arrow Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7

Advantages of Arrow Diagrams


 Allows overall task to viewed and potential
snags to be identified before work starts
 Leads to discovery of possible
improvements
 Makes it easy to monitor progress of work
 Deals promptly with changes to plan
 Improves communication among team
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Arrow Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7

Advantages of Arrow Diagrams (cont.)


 Promotes understanding and agreement
among group
Strategy Constraints

4 12

1 2 3 5 9 10 13
Activity

6 8 11

7
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Arrow Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7

Constructing an Arrow Diagram

 From strategies on Tree diagram, select


one (Objective of Arrow Diagram)
 Identify constraints to Objective
 List all activities necessary to achieving
Objective
 Write all essential activities on
separate cards
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Arrow Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7

Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.)


 Organize cards in sequential order of
activities
 Remove any duplicate activities
 Review order of activities, find
sequence with greatest amount of
activities
 Arrange parallel activities
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Arrow Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7

Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.)


 Examine path, number nodes in
sequence from left to right
 Record names and other necessary
information
Next, complete the diagram
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Arrow Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7
Completing an Arrow Diagram
Strategy Constraints

4 12

1 2 3 5 9 10 13

Activity
6 8 11

7
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 1 0f 7

For Producing the Desired Result from Many


Possible Outcomes
 Used to plan various contingencies
 Used for getting activities back on track
 Steers events in required direction if
unanticipated problems occur
 Finds feasible counter measures to
overcome problems
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 2 0f 7

Advantages of Process Decisions Program


Charts (PDPC’s)
 Facilitates forecasting
 Uses past to anticipate contingencies
 Enables problems to pinpointed
 Illustrates how events will be directed to
successful conclusion
 Enables those involved to understand
decision-makers intentions
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 3 0f 7

Advantages of PDPC’s (cont.)


 Fosters cooperation and communication in
group
 Easily modified and easily understood
Start

NO
NO NO
NO
YES YES NO NO
YES
NO

GOAL
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 4 0f 7

Constructing a PDPC

 Select a highly effective, but difficult


strategy from the Tree diagram
 Decide on a goal (most desirable outcome)
 Identify existing situation (Starting point)

 Identify constraints of objective


 List activities to reach goal and potential
problems with each activity
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 5 0f 7

Constructing an PDPC (cont.)


 Review list. Add extra activities or
problems not thought of previously
 Prepare contingency plan for each step
and review what action is needed if step
is not achieved
 Examine carefully to check for
inconsistencies and all important factors
are included
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 6 0f 7

Constructing an PDPC (cont.)


 Examine to make sure all contingency
plans are adequate
Next, complete the diagram
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
Slide 7 0f 7
Completing a PDPC Start

NO
NO NO
NO
YES YES NO NO

YES

NO

GOAL
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Matrix Data Analysis
Slide 1 0f 6

Principal Component Analysis


 Technique quantifies and arranges data
presented in Matrix
 Based solely on numerical data
 Finds indicators that differentiate and
attempt to clarify large amount of
information
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Matrix Data Analysis
Slide 2 0f 6

Advantages of Principal Component Analysis


 Can be used in various fields (market surveys,
new product planning, process analysis)

 Can be when used when Matrix diagram


does not give sufficient information
 Useful as Prioritization Grid
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Matrix Data Analysis
Slide 3 0f 6

Constructing a Prioritization Grid


Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)

 Determine your goal, your alternatives,


and criteria for decision
 Place selection in order of importance
 Apply percentage weight to each option
(all weights should add up to 1)
 Sum individual ratings to establish
overall ranking (Divide by number of options for
average ranking)
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Matrix Data Analysis
Slide 4 0f 6

Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.)


 Rank order each option with respect to
criterion (Average the rankings and apply a
completed ranking)
 Multiply weight by associated rank in
Matrix (in example, 4 is best, 1 is worst)
 Result is Importance Score
 Add up Importance Scores for each
option
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Matrix Data Analysis
Slide 5 0f 6

Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.)


 Rankorder the alternatives according to
importance

See completed the diagram


New Seven Q.C. Tools
Matrix Data Analysis
Slide 6 0f 6
Completing a Prioritization Grid
Criteria Customer Acceptance Strength Importance Option
(most important) Cost Reliability (least important) Sum Score Ranking
Options
Design A
Percentage weight .40 .30 .20 .10
Rank 4 3 3 1
Importance score 1.6 .90 .60 .10 3.2 1 (tie)
Design B
Percentage weight .30 .40 .10 .20
Rank 3 4 1 2
Importance score .90 1.6 .10 .40 3.0 2
Design C
Percentage weight .25 .25 .25 .25
Rank 1 2 4 3
Importance score .25 .50 1 .75 2.5 3
Design D
Percentage weight 0.3 .10 .20 .40
Rank 3 1 3 4
Importance score .90 .10 .60 1.6 3.2 1 (tie)
Sum of weights 1.25 1.05 .75 .95
Average weight .31 .26 .19 .24
Criterion Ranking 1 2 4 3
Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)
Review
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Affinity Diagrams

 Relations Diagrams
 Tree Diagrams
 Matrix Diagrams
 Arrow Diagrams
 Process Decision Program Charts

 Matrix Data Analysis


Keys to Successfully Using the
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 1 0f 5

Mental Attitudes
- Keen awareness to the actual problem
- Eagerness to solve problem
- Be highly motivated for the challenge

Four Specific Keys


 Understand the problem
 Select the right tool for the job
 Obtain appropriate verbal data
 Interpret analytical results
Keys to Successfully Using the
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 2 0f 5

4 Specific Keys
 Understand the problem
Stage 1 - problem is unclear and not obvious
what exact issue should be addressed
Stage 2 - problem is obvious, but causes unknown
explore causes and single out valid ones
Stage 3 - problem and causes are known
required action is unknown
strategies and plan must be developed
Keys to Successfully Using the
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 3 0f 5

4 Specific Keys (cont.)

 Selecting Right tool for the Job


Stage 1 - Collect verbal information on events
(Affinity Diagram)
Stage 2 - Choose tool to identify causes
(Relations Diagram / Matrix Diagram)
Stage 3 - List strategies and activities
(Tree Diagram / Relations Diagram)
Plan actual activities
(Arrow Diagram / PDPC Chart)
Keys to Successfully Using the
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 4 0f 5

4 Specific Keys (cont.)

 Obtaining appropriate verbal data


Three types of verbal data:
- Facts; factual observations expressed in words
- Opinions; factual information colored by opinion
- Ideas; New concepts created by analyzing facts

.Group Discussions:
- Ensures common understanding
- All data should be without bias or distortion
- Data should fit objective of the analysis
Keys to Successfully Using the
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 5 0f 5

4 Specific Keys (cont.)

 Interpreting Analytical Results


Information must be obtained for accomplishing
objectives from:
- Completed diagrams; or
- Process of completing diagrams

Analyze actual information obtained:


- Prepare summarized report with findings,
conclusions, and processes used
- Check if necessary data has been obtained, if
not
- Discover the cause and take appropriate action
Practical Application of
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 1 0f 5

Example; Relations Diagram


”Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools”
Complete the following Relations Diagram
- Review notes for clarity
- Get in groups of 4-5 per table (work as a team!)
- Topic - “Using the New Seven QC Tools skillfully”
- “Cause cards”- will be provided (not categorized)
- Arrange cards to complete diagram
(some hints have been provided)
Practical Application of
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 2 0f 5
”Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools”

Primary
Cause

Primary Use N7 Primary


Cause Skillfully Cause

Primary
Cause

Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)
Practical Application of
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 3 0f 5
”Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools”
Cause Statements (hints are in yellow)
A Interpret data clearly N Understand seriousness of problem
B Select appropriate tool O Think flexibly from various standpoints
C Think systematically P Obtain appropriate verbal data
D Give opinions Q Expose core of problem
E Know what the problem is R Communicate well
F Extract necessary information S Accurately understand real problem
G Collect reliable verbal data T Have excellent intuition
H Think multidimensionally U See to heart of problem
I Obtain facts V Select appropriate type of verbal data
J Interpret analytical results W Think in terms of word-based diagram
K Generate ideas X Express genuine thoughts
L Know that distorted data is useless Y Hear and respect other's opinions
M Grasp overall pictured Z Generate highly accurate verbal data
Practical Application of
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 4 0f 5
”Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools”

Primary
T Cause

Use N7
Primary
Cause Skillfully B

Primary
R Cause L

Y I

Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)
Practical Application of
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 5 0f 5
Solution for ”Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools”

F S U

M T E N

Use N7
C W J Skillfully B G

H R P X L

Y A Z V I Q
O K
Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)
D
Summary
New Seven Q.C. Tools

Benefits of New Seven Q.C. Tools


1- Provide Training in Thinking
2- Raise People’s Problem Solving Confidence
3- Increase People’s Ability to Predict Future Events

Roles of New Seven Q.C. Tools

1- Express verbal data diagrammatically


2- Make information visible
3- Organize information intelligibly
4- Clarify overall picture and fine details
5- Get more people involved
Bibliography
Foster, Thomas. Managing Quality. An Integrative Approach.
Upper Saddle River : Prentice Hall, 2001.

Nayatani, Yoshingobu, Eiga, Toru, Futami, Ryoji, Miyagawa,


Hiroyuki, and Loftus, John. The Seven New QC Tools: Practical
Applications for Managers. Tokyo : 3A Corporation, 1994.

“TQM: The 9 TQM Tools.” Internet


http://www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm.
Thank You !!!