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METHODS OF RESEARCH

Res. 1E

The Problem
Prof. Ana L. Varga
What is a research?

“Research is the systematic


approach to obtaining and
confirming new and reliable
knowledge”

A research starts with


an empty notebook…
Paul Watson

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Qualities of a good
researcher
R - Research oriented
E - Efficient
S - Scientific
E - Effective
A - Active
R - Resourceful
C - Creative
H - Honest
E - Economical
R - Religious
Characteristics of
Research

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A Research is…

 Systematic (research process)


 Controlled (variables)
 Empirical (evidence based)
 Rigorous (relevant answer)
 Valid and verifiable (correct results)
 Testable (assessment)
 Purposive
 Replicable
 Precision and confidence
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Learning Check
Consider the following case, is it an example of a research?
Why?
A general manager of a car producing company was concerned with the
complaints received from the car users that the car they produce have some
problems with rating sound at the dash board and the rear passenger seat
after few thousand kilometers of driving.
He obtained information from the company workers to identify the various
factors influencing the problem.
He then formulated the problem and generated guesses (hypotheses).
He constructed a checklist and obtained requisite information from a
representative sample of cars.
He analyzed the data thus collected, interpreted the results in the light of his
hypotheses and reached conclusions.
Importance of
Research
 Research…
 Adds to our knowledge
 provide solutions to complex problems
 investigate laws of nature
 make new discoveries
 develop new products
 save costs
 improve our life
 Human desires, etc.
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Classification of
Research
 Classified into 2 types:
 Purpose
 method
Classification of
Research
Types of research
(purpose)

Basic (Pure) Applied

• generate knowledge, • enhance the understanding of


understanding of certain problem that commonly
phenomena/problems that occur in occur in organization setting, and
various organization setting seek method of solving them
Classification of
Research
Types of research
(Method)

Historical Descriptive Correlational Exploratory Experiment

Case Survey Content analysis


Types of Research
Types Description
• deals with the question “WHAT IS” of a situation

Descriptive research • concerns with determining the current practices, status


or features of situations

• deals with the determination or establishment of the


Correlational research existence of a relationship/ interdependence between
two or more aspects of a situation.
• manipulation of at least one variables and control over
the other relevant variables so as to measure its effect
Experimental research on one or more dependent variables.
• where participants are assigned to groups based on
some selected criterion often called treatment variable.
Types of Research
Types Description

Case study • actual of detailed information from an individual


• attempts to clarify why and how there is a
Explanatory research relationship between two or more aspects of a
situation or phenomenon
• likely to employ quantitative methods

Historical research • purpose of historical research is to arrive at


conclusions concerning trends, causes or effects of
past occurrences.

undertaken to explore an area where little is known or


to investigate the possibilities of undertaking a
Exploratory research
particular research study (feasibility study / pilot study)
.
The Research
Problem
What is a research
problem?
 A problem that someone would like to
research.
 A focus of a research investigation.

It is the first and most crucial step in the


research process
Areas of concern
 Sanitary engineering field
 Conditions that need improvement.
 Difficulties that need to be eliminated.
 Problems that need to be addressed.
 Questions that need to be answered.
 Facts that need to be verified.
Researchable Questions

Is pili (canarium ovatum) nutshell can be an alternative medium


for water filtration?
Do quality of drinking water affects health of the community?

Do students with good grades in College pass the board


examination for Sanitary Licensure examination?

Why is solid wastes a perennial problem in the community?

Why is the sanitary engineering students performance in


licensure examination continuously decreased?
Non Researchable Questions
Questions Reasons
What is the meaning of life? No possible way to collect data

Is God good? metaphysical

What is the best way to teach There is really no best strategy in


grammar? teaching grammar but there are many
possible ways.
What would be schools be like if there Requires the creation of impossible
is no World War II? conditions.
Should Philosophy be included in the No empirical reference. It is a
high school curriculum? question of value.
What is the power of love? The Power of love is immeasurable. It
is subjective.
Characteristics of a Good
Research Problem
 Feasible.
 The problem can be investigated in a given period of time.

 Clear
 People understand the keywords in the problem.
 Significant
 It is worth investigating because it will contribute important

knowledge about the human condition.


 Ethical
 It will not involve physical and psychological harm to human
beings.
 Investigates relationship between variables
 Association between characteristics.
Aspects of a research
problem
 Subject area
 Study population  Information that you need to collect to
find answers to your research questions)
 provide you with the
 Problems: issues, situations, associations,
information or you needs, profiles
collect information  Program : content, structure, outcomes,
about them attributes, satisfactions, consumers, service
providers, etc.
 e.g. People: individuals,  Phenomenon: cause-and-effect relationships,
organizations, groups, the study of a phenomenon itself
communities

19
Tips in Selecting a
research problem
Interest Magnitude
 one should select topic of  Narrow the topic down to
great interest to sustain the something manageable,
required motivation. specific and clear

Measurement of concepts
Availability of data
• Make sure that you are
• Before finalizing the topic, clear about the indicators
make sure that data are
and measurement of
available..
concepts (if used) in your
study.
Tips in Selecting a
research problem
Level of expertise Ethical issues
 Make sure that you have adequate
level of expertise for the task you are • How ethical issues can affect
proposing since you need to do the the study population and
work yourself. how ethical problems can be
overcome should be
thoroughly examined at the
problem formulating stage.
Relevance
 Ensure that your study adds to the
existing body of knowledge,
bridges current gaps and is useful
in policy formulation.
Tips in Selecting a
research problem
Level of expertise Ethical issues
 Make sure that you have adequate
level of expertise for the task you are
• How ethical issues can affect
proposing since you need to do the the study population and
work yourself. how ethical problems can be
overcome should be
thoroughly examined at the
problem formulating stage.
Relevance
 Ensure that your study adds to the
existing body of knowledge,
bridges current gaps and is useful
in policy formulation.
Assignment
 Formulate your own researchable problem. The
problem must be based on your experience, field
of specialization or expertise using the
characteristics of a good researchable problem.
Objectives
Objectives
 Objectives are the goals you set out to attain in your
study.
 They inform a reader what you want to attain through the
study.
 It is extremely important to word them clearly and
specifically.

Types of objective
 General

 specific
General Objectives
 overall statement of the thrust of your
study

a restatement of a problem stating the
main associations and relationships that you
seek to discover or establish.
Specific Objectives
 Set of questions that lead to the attainment of the
general objective.
 should be numerically listed.
 wording should clearly, completely and specifically
 communicate to your readers your intention.
 each objective should contain only one aspect of the
Study.
 use action oriented words or verbs when writing
objectives
Assignment
 State the general and specific objectives of
your research problem.
.
Variables and
Hypothesis
Meaning of
Variables
 Any characteristic or quality that varies among the
members or a particular group.
 An image, perception or concept that can be
measured – hence capable of taking on different
values-
 Quantities of various kinds such as age, height, volume,
time and temperature.
 Terms or keywords in the research.
Types of Variables
 Independent vs. Dependent variable.
 Quantitative vs. Categorical (qualitative)
Variables
 Outcome variable.
 Extraneous Variables
Dependent/Manipulate
d Variables
 Variables whose conditions or quantities are
changed .
 Also known as the independent variable.
 Examples
 changing the amount or reinforcement in a review
class for SELE.
 Varying the amount of time in giving lectures to
Wastewater engineering class.
 Use of lecture in one group and computer in another
group in teaching solid waste management.
Example
 An experiment might compare the
effectiveness of four types of filtration.
 Variable
 Types of filtration

 Media of filtration
 Dependent variable

 Source of water
 Independent variable
Learning check
Can blueberries slow down aging? A study
indicates that antioxidants found in blueberries may slow
down the process of aging. In this study, 19-month old rats
(equivalent to 60-year old humans) were fed either their
standard diet or a diet supplemented with strawberry or
blueberry powder. After eight weeks. The rats were given
memory and motor skills tests. Although all supplemented
rats showed improvement, those supplemented with
blueberry powder showed the most notable improvement.
Learning check
Questions:
1. What is/are the independent variable(s)?
2. What is/are the dependent variable(s)?
Quantitative Variables
 Express amount and those numerical in
nature
 Height – may be tall or short.
 Lust for life – may be high or low
 Science aptitude –may be high or low
 Weight-maybe light or heavy
 Performance level – high or low
 Socio-economic profile- high or low
Categorical/Qualitative
Variables
 express characteristics or properties
 Gender- male or female

Language- English, Filipino or Mandarin

Religious Affiliation- Catholic, orthodox, protestants

Hobbies – dancing, singing, playing

Educational attainment- elementary , high school or
college.
Example
 In the study on the effect of diet
 Type of supplement
 Qualitative variable

 Memory tests
 Quantitative variable
Learning check
Answer:
1. What is/are the independent variable(s)?
 Diet (blueberries or no blueberries)

2. What is/are the dependent variable(s)?


 Memory tests and motor skills tests
Outcome Variable
 The effect of one variable when the other variable is
manipulated.
 Also known as the dependent variable.
 Examples
 More students pass in the SELE when more reinforcement is
provided.
 Students perform better when taught in two hours than in
one hour in wastewater engineering.
 No difference in the performance of the students in
Mathematics when taught using computer and lecture solid
waste management
Extraneous Variables
 Independent variables that may have
unintended effects on a dependent
variables under study.
 Examples
 Age, gender, socio-economic status may affect
the academic performance of the study.
 Must be controlled in the conduct of the
study.
How to define variables
 Conceptual
 Universal definition of a term
understood by people
 Taken from the book, dictionary or
encyclopedia

 Operational
 Researcher’s own definition of the
terms as used in the study
Example
Variable Conceptual Operational
Professional An individual who Any individual with
practices a a four year college
particular profession education
(Cruz, 2015)
Courtesy Civility, politeness Use of polite words
(Miriam dictionary) and expressions
when greeting
elders and
authorities
Hypothesis
Hypothesis
 Hypothesis
 restatement of a research problem.
 prediction of the possible outcome of the
study.
 possible answer to the study.
 Must be tested, explained and measured
Example of Hypothesis
 There is significant difference in the
performance of students using laboratory
and lecture method.
 Students who are good in Math are good

in English.
 Age, Sex and socio-economic status are
factors affecting the performance of high
school students in Mathematics.
Example of problem &
hypothesis
Problems Hypothesis
Will the students in Calculus Students taught by male
taught by male teacher will teacher will perform better.
perform better than
students taught by a
female teacher.
Do students with higher Students with higher grades
grades perform better in will perform better in SELE
SELE?
Are students good in Students who are good in
English good in Mathematics are good in
Mathematics? English.
Types of Hypothesis
 Null Hypothesis.
 a denial of an attribute, an existence, a difference
or an effect or relationship expressed in negative
statement.
 Example
 There is no difference in the performance of the
students in chemistry using lecture and
demonstration Method.
Types of Hypothesis
 Alternative Hypothesis.
 affirms the existence of a phenomenon,
acceptance of the attribute of relationship, effects
and differences
 Example
 There is a difference in the performance of the
students in chemistry using lecture and
demonstration Method.
Assumption
 Statements presumed to be true that need
no further verification.
 Examples:
 Students spend their leisure time activities in
school, at home and in the community.
 The performance level of the students varies.
 Students have various learning needs
Assignment
 Make a hypothesis of your study.
 After formulating the hypothesis, identify
the variables and give its conceptual and
operational definition