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VAAGDEVI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

(AUTONOMOUS)
Affiliated to JNTUH, Accredited by NBA

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

An Advanced Technical Seminar Presentation


On
“QUANTUM DOT LASERS”

Presented by
ARUN KUMAR PERALA (15641A0427)
OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION
 What is a quantum dot?
 Quantum dot properties
 QDL- introduction
 Basic characteristics
 Application requirements
 Advantages over other quantum systems
 Future development of q-dot lasers
 Conclusion
Low Dimensional Semiconductor Systems
• Low Dimensional – Reducing the dimensions of the active region of a
system
• 3-D to ~ 0-D
BULK Q- WELL Q- LINE Q- DOT
WHAT IS A QUANTUM DOT?
• Semiconductor nanostructures
• Size: ~2-10 nm or ~10-50 atoms
• in diameter
• Quantum Dots are able to confine electrons to lengths of the order of
their wavelength
Quantum dots (QDs) are tiny semiconductor particles a
few nanometres in size, having optical and electronic properties that
differ from larger LED particles. They are a central theme
in nanotechnology.
QUANTUM DOT PROPERTIES
• Composed of different types of semiconductors
• e.g. InGaAs
• 1nm-100nm across (nanostructures)
• Size, composition and shape are its most important properties for
electron confinement.
• Properties changed by method of fabrication:
 Chemical
 Lithograhic techniques
 Molecular Beam Epitaxy
QDL - INTRODUCTION
A quantum dot laser is a semiconductor laser that
uses quantum dots as the active laser medium in its light emitting region. Due
to the tight confinement of charge carriers in quantum dots, they exhibit an
electronic structure similar to atoms.
Even greater benefits have been predicted for lasers with
quantum dot active layers. Arakawa and Sakaki (1982) predicted in the early
1980s that quantum dot lasers should exhibit performance that is less
temperaturedependent than existing semiconductor lasers, and that will in
particular not degrade at elevated temperatures. Other benefits of quantum dot
active layers include further reduction in threshold currents and an increase in
differential gain-that is, more efficient laser operation (Asada et al. 1986).
QDL- BASIC CHARACTERISTICS
Components of a laser:

• An energy pump source


• electric power supply
• An active medium to create population inversion by pumping mechanism:
• photons at some site stimulate emission at other sites while traveling
• Two reflectors:
• to reflect the light in phase
• multipass amplification
BASIC CHARACTERISTICS

• An ideal QDL consists of a 3D-array of dots with equal size and shape
• Surrounded by a higher band-gap material
• confines the injected carriers.
• Embedded in an optical waveguide
• Consists lower and upper cladding layers (n-doped and p-doped shields)
QDL- APPLIATION REQUIREMENTS
• Same energy level
• Size, shape and alloy composition of QDs close to identical
• Inhomogeneous broadening eliminated  real concentration of energy states obtained
• High density of interacting QDs
• Macroscopic physical parameter  light output
• Reduction of non-radiative centers
• Nanostructures made by high-energy beam patterning cannot be used since damage is
incurred
• Electrical control
• Electric field applied can change physical properties of QDs
• Carriers can be injected to create light emission
ADVANTAGES OVER OTHER QUANTUM
SYSTEMS
• Quantum Well lasers
• Change the output wavelength by changing the dimensions of the well.
• Larger population inversion needed to lase.
• Q-dot lasers
• Broad range of light emission by changing dot size.
• Small active volume means smaller population inversion necessary for lasing. Leads
to:
• Less temperature dependence of threshold current density.
• Increase in gain (2-3 times larger than Q-well).
• High frequency operation.
• More efficient laser.
Existing Quantum Dot Lasers
• 1300 nm lasers on InP substrate.
• Used in fiber optics.
• 1300 Q-dot laser on GaAs substrate
• Better eye safety.
• Large transmission distance.
• Smaller attenuation.
• High power QD lasers
• Recently explored.
• Its high T stability and low threshold lead to
• Low temperature sensitivity of laser
• Slightly larger wall plug efficiency than some Q-well lasers
Future Development of Q-dot Lasers

• Single Q-dot laser


• Fabrication of Q-dot VCSEL with one dot.
• Threshold Current of about ~ 22 pA calculated.
• Distributed Feedback Q-dot laser
Contain array of periodic Q-dots along cavity
• Promise single mode emission
• Low threshold and high power operation
CONCLUSION
During the previous decade, there was an intensive interest
on the development of quantum dot lasers. The unique properties of
quantum dots allow QD lasers obtain several excellent properties and
performances compared to traditional lasers and even QW lasers.
Though QD lasers show immense potential for superior
device performances, there are still some significant problems
associated with the control of emission wavelengths reproducibilty of
the dots,high temperature reliability and long term stablity of the dots.
THANK YOU!

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