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Prepared By:

Prof. Shastri A.N.

 Evolution of TQM
 Defining TQM
 Preparing for TQM
 Stages in TQM implementation
 The evolution of TQM is traced to understand
 Evolution of TQM as it has emerged in
industries is shown in fig.
 It started with inspection(INS), followed by
Quality Control(QC), Quality Assurance(QA)
and then Total Quality Management(TQM).
1. Inspection:
 Identifying non-conformities.
 Salvaging.
 End of pipe approach.
 End justifies means.
2. Quality Control:
 Process performance data.
 Quality planning.
 Statistical tools.
 Control instrumentation.
3. Quality assurance:
 Quality manuals.
 System certification.
 Quality costs.
 Documentation.
4. Total quality management:
 Customer focus.
 Employer involvement.
 Continuous improvement.
 Performance measurement.
 In olden days, inspection was said to be tool
used for checking quality.
 Every industry had an inspection department.
 Inspection is essentially an end of pipe
 At final stage of process, be it manufacturing or
service, it is inspected to check.
 If inspection reveals positive trend, process is
approved. Else it is rejected.
 The underlying principle in this process of
inspection is that “end justifies means”.
 In this quality era no one will accept this
 At present everyone is convinced about fact
that “end does not justify means”.
 It is also to be noticed that in inspection, there
is tremendous wastage.
 In manufacturing units, it results in wastage of
material and other resources.
 As process of inspection, had many lacunae,
quality control(QC) methodology was used.
 Here, process was given importance.
 In this, performance data were collected and
statistical techniques were used to keep process
under control.
 Instrumentation was also used to maintain
quality of processes.
 This gave confidence to people in organisation
about quality of work they did.
 The underlying principle is: if means is right
then end should also be right.
 This made people inside to assess and know
quality of process and product.
 However, people outside remained in dark.
 Comparison of school going children in 1960’s
and present day school(earlier with slate and
chalk; and now with notebooks).
 This type of assurance is necessary for
stakeholders who are outside premises.
 The stakeholders, customers and general public
should be made aware of quality work that is
going on in an organization.
 This is essential to win their confidence.
 This prompted preparation of quality manuals, in
which every single process carried out in an
industry is registered along with few additional
 Details such as who should do it, how it should be
done, what are probable errors that may occur in,
how it should be handled, if responsibility is not
carried out properly what has to be done, who will
be monitoring and what are all resource
requirements for completion of process are
included in quality manual.
 Quality assurance is next in hierarchy.
 Documentation was given utmost importance.
 The philosophy of “say what you do and do
what you say” was adopted in every industry.
 Certification procedures were formulated and
international bodies such as ISO(International
Standards Organization), came out with
ISO:9000 series certification.
 Accredited bodies inspected day to day affairs
of industries and certified them as ISO
9001:2000 companies.
 Third party audit was made mandatory which
prevented many loopholes.
 Such certifications assured stakeholder of
quality of company.
 Quality cost is another factor, which has been
overlooked for years.
 The conventional costing does not include many
hidden costs such as appraisal costs and
prevention costs.
 There is myth prevailing among people that
quality will cost more i.e. if a company has to go in
for producing quality goods then it has to spend
more, resulting in reduction in profit margin.
 It is necessary that this misconception has to be
removed before any quality initiatives are taken.
 An analysis of three developments in quality
era, thus far explained, will reveal that there
has been concentration on system perfection.
 All three, namely inspection, quality control
and quality assurance focused on improving
system so as to make it error proof.
 Later it was realized that even a perfect system,
if not manned by quality conscious individuals
may result in producing goods of low quality.
 The involvement and importance of human
component in quality system is then realized.
 Total quality management is last in hierarchy
of quality systems which incorporated both
human and system component.
 However, how much weightage to be given to
each of these components is still under debate.
 It mostly depends on type of organization and
nature of people working in that organization.
 TQM focused on customers and considered
customer as king.
 While defining the term “quality” it has been
noticed that everything was focused on
 The key factors here are team work, continuous
improvement and performance measurement.
 TQM has been accepted worldwide as best
methodology for ensuring “quality”.
 TQM has to be defined properly for
implementation to be effective.
 “A total approach to put quality in every aspect
of management”.
 “The foundation on which a successful TQM
effort rests includes customer focus, total
participation and continual improvement”.
 “TQM means satisfying customers first time
every time. It means enabling your employees
to solve problems and eliminate waste”.
 “TQM is defined as- Being driven to satisfy
customers. That means low cost, high quality
and speed drive all processes”.
 Implementation of TQM requires a paradigm shift
in any facets of organization’s functioning.
 The shift has to be brought within system and
human component.
 A few of vital issues are highlighted here:
1. ‘Chaltha hai’ attitude
2. Interdependency
3. Long term focus
4. Life long learning
5. A place for everything and everything in its place
 Many a time, we hear one say ‘its ok’ or ‘good
 This reflects that product or service is not of
top quality.
 Many reasons such as ‘cheap’, ‘has its utility
value’ etc. may be attributed to it.
 But, it should be understood that this ‘Chalta
hai’ attitude will keep one away from winning
prevailing competition in market.
 Interdependency is order of the day.
 People always wish to be independent.
 In adolescent stage itself independency is
 This gives a people a sense of satisfaction and
confidence in themselves.
 It is good to be independent. But it promotes
individualism and self pride.
 These are detrimental to quality management
principles as they do not promote team work.
 Now world has become so complex and fast
that people can not survive being totally
 Everyone will have to depend on others for one
thing or other.
 People should understand and appreciate
 Each of us should develop a mindset to help
others as they are dependent on us and willing
to accept others help as we are dependent on
 Every industry is interested in immediate returns.
 They expect all that is invested to be paid back in
six months time.
 This may be possible in a few sectors.
 But quality initiatives may take a little longer to
pay back.
 Even if it takes a couple of years to payback, it is
worth attempting on it because it is sure to bring in
greater dividends.
 For a quality product, profit margin is high.
 Gone are days when one releases a sigh of
relief saying that I got my degree and my
learning is completed and is over.
 Everything in this world has become so
dynamic that everyday one has to learn to be in
working stream.
 If one keeps quiet for a few months without
any learning, he is sure to become obsolete. He
can never compete with anyone in this world.
 In Indian context, still training is an alien
 In many industries, training department will
always get last priority, next only to research
and development.
 Namesake budget will be provided for training
 Worst of all this, practice followed in a few
industries, to send high problematic workers
for training only with a view of getting rid of
them atleast for a few days.
 Many Indian industrial giants have on records a
training period of about 0.05days per person per
 On the contrary American counter-parts are
working towards providing at least 3 days per
person per year and Japanese are said to be
providing more than 7 days per person per year
 This kind of training provides the Japanese
workers to learn continuously.
 They are known for culture of life long learning.
 This slogan has to be popularized and
 A mindset to keep things in order, is essential
for implementing TQM.
 A neat ambience will definitely have a positive
influence on quality of workmanship.
 Still, there are some industries, which are said
to be clumsy, but yet producing quality goods.
 That may be a strange case.
 As a general rule it can be taken that
maintaining cleanliness is prerequisite for
taking quality initiatives.
 On other extreme, there are certain MNC’s
where are shop floors are neat and clean.