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# CES 341:Transportation Engineering and Planning

Chapter 8
Traffic Analysis Techniques

## Asst. Prof. Dr. Mongkut Piantanakulchai

Email: mongkut@siit.tu.ac.th

1
8.1 Space-Time Relationships
t2

t1

## Figure 8.1 Space-time diagram

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8.1 Space-Time Relationships
t2

t1

## Note: Assume vehicle’s length is negligible

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8.1.1 Direct Graphical Solution
Fig. 8.2 Location and size of double-track sections
Transit system
Single track 15
km long
Train 10 min
interval
dispatched from
each end (W-E)
5 min layovers
Neglect stop
time at stations
Uniform speed
45 km/h both
• Determine number and location of double-track directions
sections, and the minimum length required for such
sections in order for trains running as much as 2 min
behind schedule to pass one another without delay
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8.1.1 Direct Graphical Solution
Fig. 8.3 Train dispatch problem
Rail line 90 km
long
7.5 km long
double-track
section located
between 60-67.5
km from W end
A train leaves W
end at 1:00 p.m.
and travel E at
constant speed of
45 km/h
The second train
leaves from the E
1) Determine earliest time the W-bound train can arrive at the W
end at 1:30 p.m.
end of the line
and may travel at
2) Determine the latest dispatch time (after 1:00 p.m.) that will
any speed up to 90
allow the W-bound train to reach its destination without
km/h
unnecessary delay
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8.1.2 Development of Analytical Solutions

##  Complicated space-time problems

 Space-time diagrams are used to derive
analytical solutions

## CES 341 Transportation Chapter8: Traffic Analysis Techniques 6

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Example: Runway Capacity Analysis

## Fig. 8.4 Time separation at Fig. 8.5 Time separation at

runway threshold, vi ≤ vj runway threshold, vi ≥ vj
     1 1 
tij   tij      
 v j   vj  v j vi 

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Example: Runway Capacity Analysis
Weighted average of interarrival time Capacity is expressed by
1
h min   pijtij (10.2) C (10.1)
i j h min
where pij = probability of arrival pair i-j

## If arrivals are independent

pij  pi p j (10.3)

## Note: Assume arrivals only, no departures

More details in CES 446 Port and Airport Engineering
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8.1.3 Development of Simulation
Models
 More complicated problems
 Space-time diagrams are used to develop simulation
models
 Behavior of system in a step-by-step manner

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Example: Block Signal Control System
for Rail Line
 Objective: To protect  System of blocks and
train collisions and other aspects (combination of
hazards such as broken signal lights)
rails
 System consists of
• Electronically insulated
section of tracks = blocks
• Train detection system:
to determine if a train is
in a particular block (the
block is occupied)
• Signal system (warn or
control)

## CES 341 Transportation Chapter8: Traffic Analysis Techniques 10

Engineering and Planning
Example: Block Signal Control System
for Rail Line

## Fig. 8.6 Block signal control systems

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Example: Block Signal Control System
 0.75 km long blocks
 Three-block, four aspect system
•RR –stop and proceed at 7.5 km/h prepared
to stop
•RY – proceed at 30 km/h, prepare to stop at
next signal
•GY – proceed at 60 km/h
•GG – proceed at full speed
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Example: Block Signal Control System
• A train traveling at 45 km/h, passes a point A, which
is located at a block boundary, at 11:00 a.m.
• Five min and 30 s later, a second train passes this
point traveling at 90 km/h in the same direction
• Both trains are 0.375 km long
Describe the motion of the second train, determine the
time that the rear of second train passes point B,
located 4.875 km beyond point A

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Time-space diagram of the first train
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Signal indication after the first train
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Trajectory of the second train according to block signals
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Trajectory of the second train (front) according to block signals
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Trajectory of the second train (front&rear) according to block signals
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8.14 Non-trajectory Space-Time
Diagrams
 Display information about traffic states
(speed, flow rate, density) as well as
vehicle trajectories
 Contour diagram can be used to display
region with similar traffic state values

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8.14 Non-trajectory Space-Time
Diagrams

## Figure 8.11 Speed contours

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8.2 Queuing Analysis

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8.2.1 Queuing Theory Fundamentals

## Figure 8.13 Arrival function Figure 8.14 Arrival and

for airport runway departure functions for
airport runway

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8.2.1 Queuing Theory Fundamentals

## Figure 8.14 Queuing Figure 8.14 Queuing

diagram features diagram, smooth curve
approximation

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8.2.2 Queue Discipline
 First-in, first-out (FIFO)
 Last-in, first-out (LIFO)
 Random service
 Priority service

## CES 341 Transportation Chapter8: Traffic Analysis Techniques 24

Engineering and Planning
Relationship of Delay (w(t)) and Queue
Length (Q(t)) of Individual at Time t

Qt 
wt  

W(t) = Waiting time (Delay)
of an individual at
time t
Q(t) = Queue length at time t

  service rate

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8.2.3 Stochastic Queuing Models
 Deterministic queuing models – arrival and
service rate are deterministic (known as some function)
 Stochastic queuing models
• constant long term arrival and service rates
• short-term random fluctuations around the average rates
• arrival rate may exceed service rate for short time intervals
and queues will form

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Stochastic Queuing Models
 M/D/1

One Channel
Arrivals Service
Exponentially Deterministic
Distributed (No random variation)

## Inter-arrival times follow

Negative Exponential Distribution

 M/M/1

## CES 341 Transportation Chapter8: Traffic Analysis Techniques 27

Engineering and Planning
M/D/1
 2   arrival rate
Q   service rate
1 

   traffic intensity
 
w
2  1    Q  average queue length
w  average waiting time
2
t t  average time
2  1    spent in the system
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M/M/1
 2   arrival rate
Q   service rate
1 

   traffic intensity
 
w
     Q  average queue length
w  average waiting time
1
t t  average time
  spent in the system
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General relationships

Q  t
1
t  w

## CES 341 Transportation Chapter8: Traffic Analysis Techniques 30

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8.2.4 Transportation Applications of
Queuing Theory

## Server opens after arrivals begin Arrival rate temporary exceeds

constant service rate

## Service rate varies Server temporarily shut down

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8.2.5 Queue Density, Storage, and
Spillback
 Density (vehicles per unit distance)
 Occupancy – fraction of time vehicles are
over the detector
 Objectives of studying queue density
•Locating queues and bottlenecks in traffic
•Determine the length of the queue and space
needed for queue storage, control the queue
spillback to upstream section

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Example Problem 8.1
 Morning peak traffic upstream of a toll
booth is given in the table
 The toll plaza consists of three booths,
each of which can handle an average of
one vehicle every 6 s.
 Using queuing diagram, determine the
maximum queue, the longest delay to an
individual vehicle, and the total delay

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Example Problem 8.1
Time period 10 min volume Cumulative volume

## 7:20-7:30 500 1100

7:30-7:40 250 1350
7:40-7:50 200 1550
7:50-8:00 150 1700

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Cumulative volume, A(t)

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8.3 Network Analysis
 Network
•Nodes : Usually points of facilities intersect
•Origins or destinations of trips (source or sink
nodes)
•Decision points
•Link costs: Distance, travel time, generalized
costs (weighted sum of several costs)

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Network Elements
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Example network
Minimum path algorithm, step 1
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Minimum path algorithm, step 2

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Minimum path algorithm, step 3

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Minimum path algorithm, step 4

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Minimum path algorithm, step 5

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Minimum path algorithm, step 6

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Node
Node 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 -1 8 -1 2 -1 -1
2 8 -1 4 -1 2 -1
3 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 3
4 2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
5 -1 2 -1 3 -1 10
6 -1 -1 3 -1 10 -1

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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

## 8-32 CES 341 Transportation Chapter8: Traffic Analysis Techniques 46

Engineering and Planning
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Engineering and Planning
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Engineering and Planning